[bxm] Northeast, especially Russian (Republic of Buryatia) border. 45,100 (2010 census), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Burraad, Buryat, Mongolian Buriat, Northern Mongolian Dialects: Aga, Khori. Buriat in Mongolia is a variety of Khori and differs considerably from Buriat [bxu] of China and the Russian Federation. Influenced by and mutually intelligible with standard (Halh) Mongolian [khk]. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat Comments: Some books in Buriat. Not a literary language in Mongolia. Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).
[cmn] Northwest, Uvs Aimag. 35,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993). 11,300 Ethnic Khoton speak a form of Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Hoton, Hui, Hui-Zu, Hytad, Khoton, Mandarin, Northern Chinese, Qotong, Xui Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Traditional religion, Confucianist, Muslim.
[kaz] Northwest, Bayan-Olgiy Aimag, mining communities east of the capital; far east Choibalsan area. 182,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaq, Qazaqi Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.
Mongolian Sign Language
[khk] Widespread. Also in Taiwan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, United States. 2,350,000 in Mongolia (1995). 32,300 Dariganga, 20,400 Darkhat. Population total all countries: 2,373,260. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 8(1)). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol Dialects: Dariganga, Darkhat (Darhad, Darkhad), Halh (Khalkha), Khotogoit, Sartul, Tsongol. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.
[xal] Mainly in Kobdo and Ubsu leagues. 150,000 in Mongolia (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalmyk-Oirat, Western Mongol Dialects: Bayit, Jakhachin, Khoshut (Khoshuud), Khoton (Hoton), Mingat, Olot (Eleuth, Elyut, Ööld), Uriankhai. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat Comments: Khoton (Hoton) originally of Turkic origin (Kara 1990), and were Muslim. Different from Chinese-speaking Qotong (Hoton) [cmn].
[tyv] North and west, Hövsgöl and Hovd Aimags. 27,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tuba, Tuvan, Tuva-Uriankhai, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tuwa-Uriankhai, Uriankhai, Uryankhai-Monchak Dialects: Khöwsögöl Uigur, Kokchulutan. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Buddhist.