Namibia

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Afrikaans
[afr] 89,900 in Namibia (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Former official status. Not known in the north, in Owambo tribes, and Kavango and Caprivi regions.

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Diriku
[diu] Okavango. Also in Angola, Botswana (Gciriku). 10,200 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 36,200. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Diriko, Gciriku, Mbogedo, Mbogedu, Rugciriku, Shimbogedu Dialects: May be similar to Simaa [sie] and Kwangali [kwn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Diriku (K.332)

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English
[eng] 10,200 in Namibia (2006). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Fwe
[fwe] Western East Caprivi. 10,200 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Similar to Kuhane [sbs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subia (K.402) Comments: Different from We dialect of Tonga [toi].

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German, Standard
[deu] 22,500 in Namibia (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Hai||om
[hgm] Mangetti Dune, Omataku, Grootfontein, Baghani, Tsintsabis. Possibly also in Angola, where they reportedly originated. Also in Botswana, South Africa. 18,400 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 48,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Saan” (pej.), “San” (pej.) Dialects: Chwagga, Hain||um (Hei||om, Heikom, Heikom Bushman, Heikum), Kedi (Kedde, Keddi). Somewhat intelligible with Kung-Tsumkwe [ktz] (Ju|’hoan). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Hainum Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Herero
[her] Damaraland and northwest Ovamboland Territory, Kaokoveld. Also in Botswana. 206,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 237,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ochiherero, Otjiherero Dialects: Mbandieru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.31) Comments: Glossonym: Damara, erroneous. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ju|’hoan
[ktz] Northeast. 28,600 in Namibia (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: !Xo, Dobe Kung, Dzu’oasi, Ju’oasi, Kung, Kung-Tsumkwe, Tshumkwe, Xaixai, Xû, Xun, Zhu’oasi Dialects: Dzu’oasi (Ssu Ghassi, Zhu’oase), Nogau (Agau). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ju|’hoan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khwe
[xuu] West Caprivi is core land of Kxoe people by Kxoe and Namibian government; also in East Caprivi. Also in Angola, Botswana, South Africa, Zambia. 2,900 in Namibia (2010 LBT). 3,600 in West Caprivi and 400 in East Caprivi. Population total all countries: 6,790. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Barakwena” (pej.), “Barakwengo” (pej.), Khoe, Kxoe, Kxoedam, “Mbarakwena” (pej.), “Water Bushmen” (pej.), Xun Dialects: ||Anikhwe, ||Xo-Kxoe, ||Xom-Kxoe, Buga-Kxoe, Buma-Kxoe. Minor dialect differences within Khwe. Related to ||Ani [hnh], Naro [nhr], and Nama [naq] but is quite distinct from each of these and not mutually intelligible. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuhane
[sbs] East Caprivi. Also in Botswana, Zambia. 26,600 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 35,090. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuahane, Chikwahane, Ciikuhane, Echisubia, Mbalangwe, Subia, Subiya, Supia Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Luyana [lyn], 60% with Tonga [toi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subia (K.401) Comments: Glossonym: Subiya by Tswana [tsn]. Tonga [toi] is a separate language. Mbalangwe applies to speakers living in Mafwe area (Maho 1998:51). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kung-Ekoka
[knw] Okavango and Ovamboland Territory. Also in Angola, South Africa. 1,760 in Namibia (2000). Population total all countries: 6,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Hu, !Khung, !Ku, !Kung, !Xu, !Xun, !Xung, Ekoka !Xung, Ekoka-!Xû, Kung, Qxü Dialects: Akhoe. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Possibly the same as Vasekela [vaj]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwambi
[kwm] Ovamboland north. Possibly in Angola. 32,700 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Ndonga (R.23)

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Kwangali
[kwn] Okavango. Also in Angola. 73,100 in Namibia (2000). 2,000 Sambyu. Population total all countries: 84,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Kwangare, Kwangari, Rukwangali, Sikwangali Dialects: Sambyu (Sambio, Sambiu, Shisambyu). May be intelligible with Diriku [diu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.33)

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Kwanyama
[kua] Northern Owamboland. 247,000 in Namibia (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Humba, Kuanyama, Kwancama, Kwanjama, Ochikwanyama, Otjiwambo, Ovambo, Owambo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Ndonga (R.21) Comments: Glossonym: Otjiwambo, Owambo together with Ndonga [ndo].

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‡Kx’au||’ein
[aue] Ovamboland Territory, Ekoka. Also in Botswana. 4,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 7,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ||Au||ei, ||X’au||’e, ‡Kx’au||’ei, Auen, Kaukau, Koko, Kung-Gobabis Dialects: Nogau. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lozi
[loz] East Caprivi Strip. 28,600 in Namibia (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30)

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Mangetti Dune !Xung
[gfx] Mangetti Dune and Omtaku. Also in South Africa. 500 in Namibia (2010 A. Miller). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Ku, !Kung Dialects: Similar to Ekoka !Xung [knw]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: The older speakers originally resided in Angola, but fled Angola due to the civil war. Some of the speakers left Namibia at Namibian Independence to continue their employment with the South African defence force in South Africa.

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Mashi
[mho] East Caprivi. 200 in Namibia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Masi Dialects: Mashi, North Kwandu, South Kwandu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.34) Comments: Nomadic. Distinct from Mashi [shr] (Shi) which relates to Havu [hav] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion.

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Mbalanhu
[lnb] North. 200 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mbaanhu, Mbalantu, Mbaluntu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Ndonga (R.214)

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Northwest Ovambo and northeast Okavango Area, Andara. Also in Angola, Botswana, Zambia. 6,100 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 35,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Gova, Kusso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimbukushu Dialects: Similar to Kwangali [kwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.333) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nama
[naq] South central to Orange River, Great Namaland. Also in Botswana, South Africa. 200,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 251,100. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Berdama, Bergdamara, “Hottentot” (pej.), Kakuya Bushman, “Khoekhoegowab” (pej.), “Khoekhoegowap” (pej.), Maqua, Namakwa, Naman, Namaqua, Nasie, Rooi Nasie, Tama, Tamakwa, Tamma Dialects: Central Damara, Damara, Nama, Namidama, Sesfontein Damara. Sesfontein Damara reportedly unintelligible of other dialect speakers. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Nama

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Namibian Sign Language
[nbs] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Naro
[nhr] East. 4,000 in Namibia (Maho 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nharo Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Southwest

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Ndonga
[ndo] Ovamboland. 807,000 (2006). 714,000 in Namibia, including Kwanyama and Kwambi (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ambo, Ochindonga, Oshindonga, Osindonga, Otjiwambo, Owambo Dialects: Eunda Kolonkadhi, Kwaludhi, Ngandyera. Ngandyera may be a separate language. Partially intelligible of Kwanyama [kua]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Ndonga (R.22) Comments: Glossonym: Otjiwambo and Owambo, together with the Kwanyama [kua] and Kwambi [kwm]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Totela
[ttl] East Caprivi. 100 in Namibia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Echitotela Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subia (K.41) Comments: Apparently no linguistic description written.

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Tswana
[tsn] East central; east Caprivi. 12,300 in Namibia (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Tawana, Tlhaping, Tlharo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31)

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Vasekela Bushman
[vaj] West Caprivi area. 61,300 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !’O-!Khung Dialects: May be the same as Kung-Ekoka [knw]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Large numbers migrated to Namibia and South Africa due to the Angola war.

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!Xóõ
[nmn] East central Botswana border, Aranos and Leonardville area. 200 in Namibia (Traill 1985). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: !Kwi, Auni (|Auni, |Auo), Kakia (Masarwa), Ki|hazi, Ng|u|en (||U||en, |Nu||en, |U||en, Ng|u|ei, Nu||en), Nusan (Ng|usan, Noosan, Nu-San), Xatia (|Eikusi, |Kusi, Katia, Kattea, Khatia, Vaalpens). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, Hua

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Yeyi
[yey] East Caprivi strip. 35,000 in Namibia (2001 LBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciyei, “Koba” (pej.), “Kuba” (pej.), “Sekoba” (pej.), Seyeyi, Shiyeyi, Yeei, Yei Dialects: Shirwanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Yeye (R.41) Comments: Christian.

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Zemba
[dhm] Northwest, Kaokoland. 12,000 in Namibia (2009 J. Strasen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhimba, Himba, Luzimba, Oluthimba, Otjidhimba, Simba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.30)

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