Namibia

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Afrikaans
[afr] 89,900 in Namibia (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Former official status. Not known in the north, in Owambo tribes, and Kavango and Caprivi regions.

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Diriku
[diu] Okavango. 10,200 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 36,200. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Dciriku, Diriko, Gciriku, Manyo, Mbogedo, Mbogedu, Rugciriku, Rumanyo, Shimbogedu Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Simaa [sie] and Kwangali [kwn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.332)

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English
[eng] 10,200 in Namibia (2006). L2 users: 300,000 in Namibia (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Fwe
[fwe] Western East Caprivi. 10,200 in Namibia (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kuhane [sbs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.402) Comments: Different from We dialect of Tonga [toi].

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German, Standard
[deu] 22,500 in Namibia (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Hai||om
[hgm] Mangetti Dune, Omataku, Grootfontein, Baghani, Tsintsabis. Possibly also in Angola, where they reportedly originated. 18,400 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 48,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Saan” (pej.), “San” (pej.) Dialects: Chwagga, Hain||um (Hei||om, Heikom, Heikom Bushman, Heikum), Kedi (Kedde, Keddi). Somewhat intelligible with Kung-Tsumkwe [ktz] (Ju|’hoan). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Hainum Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Herero
[her] Damaraland and northwest Ovamboland Territory, Kaokoveld. 206,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 237,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ochiherero, Otjiherero Dialects: Central Herero, Mbandieru (East Herero, Mbanderu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.30) Comments: Glossonym: Damara, erroneous. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ju|’hoan
[ktz] Northeast. 28,600 in Namibia (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Xo, Dobe Kung, Dzu’oasi, Ju’oasi, Kung, Kung-Tsumkwe, Tshumkwe, Xaixai, Xû, Xun, Zhu’oasi Dialects: Dzu’oasi (Ssu Ghassi, Zhu’oase), Nogau (Agau). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ju|’hoan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khwe
[xuu] West Caprivi is core land of Kxoe people by Kxoe and Namibian government; also in East Caprivi. 2,900 in Namibia (2010 LBT). Population total all countries: 6,790. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Barakwena” (pej.), “Barakwengo” (pej.), Khoe, Kxoe, Kxoedam, “Mbarakwena” (pej.), “Water Bushmen” (pej.), Xun Dialects: ||Anikhwe, ||Xo-Kxoe, ||Xom-Kxoe, Buga-Kxoe, Buma-Kxoe. Minor dialect differences within Khwe. Related to ||Ani [hnh], Naro [nhr], and Nama [naq] but is quite distinct from each of these and not mutually intelligible. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuhane
[sbs] East Caprivi. 26,600 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 30,950. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuahane, Chikwahane, Ciikuhane, Echisubia, Ikuhane, Mbalangwe, Subia, Subiya, Supia Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Luyana [lyn], 60% with Tonga [toi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.42) Comments: Glossonym: Subiya by Tswana [tsn]. Tonga [toi] is a separate language. Mbalangwe applies to speakers living in Mafwe area (Maho 1998:51). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kung-Ekoka
[knw] Okavango and Ovamboland Territory. 1,760 in Namibia (2000). Population total all countries: 6,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Hu, !Khung, !Ku, !Kung, !Xu, !Xun, !Xung, Ekoka !Xung, Ekoka-!Xû, Kung, Qxü Dialects: Akhoe. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Possibly the same as Vasekela [vaj]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwambi
[kwm] Ovamboland north. Possibly in Angola. 32,700 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.23)

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Kwangali
[kwn] Okavango. 73,100 in Namibia (2000). 2,000 Sambyu. Population total all countries: 84,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Kwangare, Kwangari, Rukwangali, Rukwangari, Sikwangali Dialects: Sambyu (Sambio, Sambiu, Shisambyu). May be intelligible of Diriku [diu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.33)

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Kwanyama
[kua] Northern Owamboland. 247,000 in Namibia (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Humba, Kuanyama, Kwancama, Kwanjama, Ochikwanyama, Otjiwambo, Ovambo, Owambo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.21) Comments: Glossonym: Otjiwambo, Owambo together with Ndonga [ndo].

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‡Kx’au||’ein
[aue] Ovamboland Territory, Ekoka. 4,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 7,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ||Au||ei, ||X’au||’e, ‡Kx’au||’ei, Auen, Kaukau, Koko, Kung-Gobabis Dialects: Nogau. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lozi
[loz] East Caprivi Strip. 28,600 in Namibia (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Spoken as lingua franca by all residents of East Caprivi Strip. Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Lozi (K.21)

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Mangetti Dune !Xung
[gfx] Mangetti Dune and Omtaku. 500 in Namibia (2010 A. Miller). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Ku, !Kung Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ekoka !Xung [knw]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Older speakers originally resided in Angola, but fled Angola due to the civil war. Some speakers left Namibia at Namibian Independence to continue their employment with the South African defence force in South Africa.

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Mashi
[mho] East Caprivi. 200 in Namibia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Masi Dialects: Mashi, North Kwandu, South Kwandu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.34) Comments: Nomadic. Distinct from Mashi [shr] (Shi) which relates to Havu [hav] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion.

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Mbalanhu
[lnb] North. 200 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mbaanhu, Mbalantu, Mbaluntu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.214)

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Northwest Ovambo and northeast Okavango Area, Andara. 6,100 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 35,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Gova, Kusso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimbukushu Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kwangali [kwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.333) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nama
[naq] South central to Orange River, Great Namaland. 200,000 in Namibia (2006). Population total all countries: 251,100. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Berdama, Bergdamara, “Hottentot” (pej.), Kakuya Bushman, Khoekhoe, Khoekhoegowab, Khoekhoegowap, Maqua, Namakwa, Naman, Namaqua, Nasie, Rooi Nasie, Tama, Tamakwa, Tamma Dialects: ‡Akhoe, Bondelswarts, Central Damara (Central Dama), Central Nama, Ghaub Damara, Gobabis, Namidama, Sesfontein Damara, Topnaar. Lexical similarity: Sesfontein Damara over 80% with central dialects, 80% with Haiom [hgm]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Nama

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Namibian Sign Language
[nbs] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Naro
[nhr] East. 4,000 in Namibia (Maho 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nharo Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Southwest

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Ndonga
[ndo] Ovamboland. 807,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ambo, Ochindonga, Oshindonga, Osindonga, Otjiwambo, Owambo Dialects: Eunda Kolonkadhi, Kwaludhi, Ngandyera. Ngandyera may be a separate language. Partially intelligible of Kwanyama [kua]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.22) Comments: Glossonym: Otjiwambo and Owambo, together with the Kwanyama [kua] and Kwambi [kwm]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Totela
[ttl] East Caprivi. 100 in Namibia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Echitotela Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.41) Comments: Apparently no linguistic description written.

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Tswana
[tsn] East central; east Caprivi. 12,300 in Namibia (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Tawana, Tlhaping, Tlharo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31)

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Vasekela Bushman
[vaj] West Caprivi area. 61,300 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !’O-!Khung Dialects: None known. May be the same as Kung-Ekoka [knw]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Large numbers migrated to Namibia and South Africa due to the Angola war.

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!Xóõ
[nmn] East central Botswana border, Aranos and Leonardville area. 200 in Namibia (Traill 1985). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: !Kwi, Auni (|Auni, |Auo), Kakia (Masarwa), Ki|hazi, Ng|u|en (||U||en, |Nu||en, |U||en, Ng|u|ei, Nu||en), Nusan (Ng|usan, Noosan, Nu-San), Xatia (|Eikusi, |Kusi, Katia, Kattea, Khatia, Vaalpens). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, Hua

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Yeyi
[yey] East Caprivi strip. 35,000 in Namibia (2001 LBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciyei, “Koba” (pej.), “Kuba” (pej.), “Sekoba” (pej.), Seyeyi, Shiyeyi, Yeei, Yei Dialects: Shirwanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Yeyi (R.41) Comments: Christian.

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Zemba
[dhm] Northwest, Kaokoland. 12,000 in Namibia (2009 J. Strasen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhimba, Himba, Luzimba, Oluthimba, Otjidhimba, Simba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.311)

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