New Caledonia

Print
Ajië
[aji] East coast, Houailou and Monéo to Kouaoua and inland valleys. 5,360 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: A’jie, Anjie, Houailou, Wai, Wailu Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic Comments: Regional and church language. Christian.

More Information

Arhâ
[aqr] West coast, Poya, upper valleys. 170 (2009 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ara Dialects: Arhâ and Arhö [aok] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic Comments: Christian.

More Information

Arhö
[aok] West coast, Poya, Cradji, and Nékliai. 10 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 350. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aro Dialects: Arhö and Arhâ [aqr] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic Comments: Different from Arhâ [aqr]. Christian.

More Information

Bislama
[bis] Mainly Nouméa. Ethnic population: 2,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bichelamar Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: All from Vanuatu. Christian.

More Information

Bwatoo
[bwa] West coast, Voh Koné area, Baco and Gatope, Oundjo; Poya and Népou. 150 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lexical similarity: most closely with Haveke [hvk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke Comments: Christian.

More Information

Caac
[msq] East coast, Pouébo. 1,170 (2009 census), increasing. 33% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caaac, Caawac, Moenebeng, Mwelebeng Dialects: La Conception (St. Louis), Pouébo (Pwebo). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Cemuhî
[cam] East coast, Touho, from Congouma to Wagap and inland valleys. 2,600 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camuhi, Camuki, Tie, Tyamuhi, Wagap Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central Comments: Christian.

More Information

Drehu
[dhv] Loyalty Islands, Lifou and Tiga. 13,000 (2009), increasing. 60% live in greater Nouméa. The 2009 census figure of 15,586 includes many second language speakers. Population figure adapted from 2009 census. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dehu, De’u, Lifou, Lifu, Qene Drehu Dialects: Minimal dialect difference between the 3 districts of Wetr, Gaica and Mu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands Comments: Christian.

More Information

Drubea
[duf] West coast, Païta; East coast, Unia. 2009 (1996 census), decreasing. Over a third live outside the traditional area, mostly in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diubea, Dubea, Dumbea, Naa Drubea, Naa Dubea, Ndumbea, Nraa Drubea Dialects: Slight differences between west and east coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Fagauvea
[uve] Loyalty Islands, Ouvea Atoll, north and south. 2,220 (2009 census), increasing. 51% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Faga Uvea, Faga-Uvea, West Uvean Dialects: Related to Wallisian [wls], but 3 centuries of contact with Iaai [iai] have resulted in significant phonological and lexical differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Comments: Different from East Uvean [wls] on Uvea Island in Wallis Islands. Christian.

More Information

French
[fra] Mainly Nouméa. 68,300 in New Caledonia (2009 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, French Constitution, Article 2). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More Information

Futuna, East
[fud] Mainly Nouméa. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census). Ethnic population: 2,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Futunian Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Comments: Different from Futuna-Aniwa [fut] (West Futuna) in Vanuatu. Christian.

More Information

Fwâi
[fwa] East coast, Hienghène; Panié to Pindache and lower valleys. 1,860 (2009 census), increasing. 30% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Poai, Yehen, Yengen Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi Comments: Christian.

More Information

Haeke
[aek] West coast, Voh-Koné and Baco. 300 (2009). Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aeke, ’Aeke, Baco, Haeake Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Haekic Comments: Christian.

More Information

Haveke
[hvk] West coast, Voh-Koné: Gatope, Oundjo, and Tiéta. 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all Voh-Koné dialects: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aveke, ’Aveke Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Bwatoo [bwa] is most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Hmwaveke
[mrk] West coast, Voh and Tiéta. 200 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ceta, Faa Ceta, ’Moaveke Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke Comments: Christian.

More Information

Iaai
[iai] Loyalty Islands, Ouvéa. 4,080 (2009 census). 57% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hwen Iaai, Iai, Yai Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands Comments: Christian.

More Information

Javanese, New Caledonian
[jas] Nouméa. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Comments: Migrant workers who came primarily between 1900 and 1938. Since World War II migration continued in both directions by individuals and families. The language is influenced by French, in contrast to Javanese [jav] of Indonesia, which is influenced by Indonesian [ind]. Muslim (Sunni).

More Information

Jawe
[jaz] East coast, Hienghène, from Tchamboenne to Tao; some inland villages on both sides of central divide. 990 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diahoue, Njawe, Oubatch, Ubach Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi Comments: Christian.

More Information

Neku
[nek] West coast, Bourail and Moindou, lower valley. 130 (2009 census), decreasing. 34% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic Comments: Christian.

More Information

Nêlêmwa-Nixumwak
[nee] West coast, Koumac (Nixumwak) and Poum (Nelemwa). 1,090 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fwa-Goumak, Koumac, Kumak Dialects: Nelemwa (Nelema, Nenema), Nixumwak (Fwa Kumak, Koumac, Kumak). Dialect differences mostly phonological and lexical. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Nemi
[nem] East coast, Hienghène, coast north of town and upper inland valleys; west coast, Voh, Ouélisse and Témala. 910 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: East Coast Nemi, West Coast Nemi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi Comments: Christian.

More Information

Nengone
[nen] Loyalty Islands, Mare and Tiga. 8,720 (2009 census), increasing. 53% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Iwatenu, Mare, Pene Nengone Dialects: Iwateno (Iwatenu) is a register of respect; Egesho is a joking or insulting register. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands Comments: Christian.

More Information

Numèè
[kdk] Isle Ouen (Ouen); Isle of Pines (Kwenyii). Numee dialect: Yate, Touaouru, and Goro on south end of main island. 2,180 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dialectes de l’Extreme Sud, Duauru, Kapone, Kunie, Kwenyii, Naa Numee, Naa-Wee, Ouen, Touaouru, Truaru, Tuauru, Uen, Wen, Xere Dialects: Kwenyii (Kunie), Numee (Touaouru), Ouen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern Comments: Distinct from Nume [tgs] of Vanuatu. Some regard Kwenyii (Isle of Pines) a distinct language, probably more on sociolinguistic than purely linguistic grounds. Christian.

More Information

Nyelâyu
[yly] Belep island; Northeast mainland, Arama, Tiari, and Balade. 1,960 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nielaiou, Nielaiu, Nyâlayu, Puma, Yalasu Dialects: Arama, Belep, Tiari-Balade. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Orowe
[bpk] West coast, Bourail upper valleys, Ny, Pothé, Bouirou and Azareu. 490 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abwebwe, Boewe, Boewi, ’Oroe Dialects: Similar to Ajië [aji]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic Comments: Christian.

More Information

Paicî
[pri] East coast, Poindimié and Ponérihouen; west coast, Koné, Poya, and inland valleys. 7,250 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ci, Paaci, Pati, Ponerihouen Dialects: Minor lexical and phonetic variation between East and West Coast, and on the East between Poindimié and Ponérihouen regions. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central Comments: Christian.

More Information

Pije
[piz] East coast, Hienghène, Tipindjé, Tiendanite, and Oué-hawa; Touho: Tiouandé and Ouanache. 180 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pindje, Pinje Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi Comments: Christian.

More Information

Pwaamei
[pme] West coast, Voh, Ouélisse, Témala and Boyen. 290 (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Poamei, Pwamei Dialects: Hnaaka, Yaak (Zaak). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North Comments: Christian.

More Information

Pwapwâ
[pop] West coast, Voh, Boyen and Témala. 40 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Poapoa, Pwapwa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North Comments: Christian.

More Information

Sîshëë
[sih] West coast, Bourail and coastal plain. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 19 (2009 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nerë, Siche, Sirhe, Yirhe, Yirhee, Ziche, Zira, Zire Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri Comments: Last known speaker died in the 1990s.

More Information

Tayo
[cks] South of greater Nouméa, Saint Louis; Ploum and Mont-Dore. 900 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Patois, Patois de St-Louis Dialects: Not intelligible of French [fra]. Classification: Creole, French based Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tiri
[cir] West coast, Couli (Sarraméa), La Foa lower valleys (Tîrî); east coast, Kouaoua, upper valleys (Méa). 600 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ciiri, Ciri, Grand Couli, Ha-Tiri, Tinrin, Tîrî-Méa Dialects: Méa (Ha Mea, Hameha, Xaa Mea), Tîrî. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri Comments: Christian.

More Information

Vamale
[mkt] Vamale dialect: east coast, Téganpaïk, Tiouandé, and Ouanache; Hmwaeke dialect: west coast, Voh and Tiéta. 100 (2009 census). Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hmwaeke, ’Moaeke, Pamale Dialects: Hmwaeke, Vamale. Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern

More Information

Waamwang
[wmn] West coast, Voh. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wamoang Dialects: Now generally regarded as extinct dialect of Voh-Koné group of languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke

More Information

Wallisian
[wls] Mainly Nouméa. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census). Ethnic population: 18,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: East Uvean, Uvean, Wallisien Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo’ou Comments: Originally from Uvea Island in Wallis and Futuna. Borrowed heavily from Tongan [ton]. Tongan increasingly influenced by English [eng] and Wallisian by French [fra]. Christian.

More Information

Xârâcùù
[ane] East coast, Canala and Thio; west coast, La Foa and Boulouparis. 5,730 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anesu, Canala, Haraneu, Kanala, Naa Xârâcùù, Xaracii Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure Comments: Christian.

More Information

Xârâgurè
[axx] East coast, Thio; west coast, Ouinané. 760 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aragure, ’Aragure, Borendy, Borindi, Haragure, Naa Xaragure, Thio, Xaragure Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure Comments: Christian.

More Information

Yuanga
[nua] West coast and central north, inland valleys between Gomen (Thuanga) and Ouégoa (Juanga). 2,400 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bondé, Gomen, Juanga, Nua, Nyua, Nyuaanga, Thuanga, Yuaanga, Yuaga, Zwanga Dialects: Juanga (Bondé, Paimboas), Thuanga (Gomen). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information