Nigeria

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Abanyom
[abm] Cross River state: Ikom LGA, Abangkang, main village. 12,500 (1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abanyum, Befun, Bofon, Mbofon. Dialects: None known. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 71% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 72% with Nnam [nbp], 66%–68% with Ekajuk [eka], 65%–67% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 56% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor.

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Abon
[abo] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Abong town, southeast of Baissa. 1,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abõ, Abong, Ba’ban. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid.

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Abua
[abn] Rivers state: Degema and Ahoada LGAs. 25,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abuan. Dialects: Central Abuan, Emughan, Otapha (Otabha), Okpeden. Central dialect understood by all others. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odual [odu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual.

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Abureni
[mgj] Bayelsa state: Brass LGA, Agrisaba (Obo-Emeke), 4 towns; Ogbia LGA, Idema; Nembe LGA, Okoroba; Ogbia LGA, Opume; Rivers state: 2 areas. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mini. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta.

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Acipa, Eastern
[acp] Niger state: Kontagora LGA; Kaduna state: Birnin Gwari LGA, Randeggi, Bobi, and Igwama towns. 5,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Achipa, Acipanci, Sagamuk, Zubazuba. Dialects: Boroma (Taboroma), Randeggi, Bobi. Lexical similarity: 83% with Randeggi and Bobi, 52% with Shama-Sambuga [sqa], 47%–63% with Kamuku [cdr], 42%–44% with Cahungwarya [nat], 15%–20% with Cicipu [awc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Adara
[kad] Kaduna state: Kajura and Kachia LGAs; Niger state: Paikoro and Muya LGAs. 300,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadara. Dialects: Eneje (Aji), Ada (E’da, Misiyen), Adara (Kadara, Misiyo). Adara 75% of Eneje, 66% of Ada; Ada: 75% of Adara, 80% of Eneje; Eneje: 100% of Adara, 96% of Ada; among the 3 dialects, speakers use the vernacular with each other. Lexical Similarity: 28% with Ekhwa [ikv], 32% with Ajiya (Idon) [idc]; Dialects: Adara 64% with Eneje, 57% with Ada; Eneje 70% with Ada. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Aduge
[adu] Kogi state: Oyi LGA. 1,900 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern.

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Afade
[aal] Borno state: Ngala LGA. 12 villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afada, Afadeh, Affade, Kotoko, Mogari. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: Kotoko speakers in Nigeria may speak Afade.

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Agatu
[agc] Benue state: Otukpo LGA, Agatu, Ochekwu, and Adoka districts; Nassarawa state: Awe and Nasarawa LGAs; Kogi state: northeast. 70,000 (1987 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Idoma, Ochekwu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma.

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Agoi
[ibm] Cross River state: Obubra LGA, Agoi-Ekpo, Ekom-Agoi, Agoi-Ibami, and Itu-Agoi towns. 12,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibami, Ro Bambami, Wa Bambani, Wagoi. Dialects: Iko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong.

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Agwagwune
[yay] Cross River state: Akamkpa LGA. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agwaguna, “Akunakuna” (pej.), Akurakura, Gwune, Okurikan. Dialects: Abayongo (Bayino, Bayono), Abini (Abiri, Obini), Adim (Dim, Odim), Orum, Erei (“Enna” (pej.), Ezei), Agwagwune, Etono (Etuno). A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono. Comments: “Enna” is a pejorative word from Ibu.

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Àhàn
[ahn] Kogi state: Yagba East LGA; Ekiti state: Ikole LGA, Ajowa, Igashi, and Omuo towns. 300 (2000 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahaan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Ayere-Ahan.

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Ahwai
[nfd] Kaduna state: Sanga LGA, southwest of Fadan Karshe. 25 villages surrounding Ahwai mountain. 15,000 (2006 M. Rueck, K. Hannelová, and Z. Yoder). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nyeng (Hanyeng, Ningon), Shakara (Isakara, Tari), Ndun (Indun, Nandu). Nyeng 94% intelligible of Ndun, Shakara 88% of Nyeng and Ndun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ajawa
[ajw] Bauchi state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aja, Ajanci. Dialects: None known. Related to Miya [mkf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2.

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Ajiya
[idc] Kaduna state: Kajuru LGA. 5,000 (Blench 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajuli, Idon, Idong, Misiwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern. Comments: Identify with the Adara [kad]. Christian, Muslim.

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Ake
[aik] Nassarawa state: Lafia LGA. 3 villages. 3,000 (Blench 1999b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aike, Akye. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Eggon [ego]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B.

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Akpa
[akf] Benue state: Otukpo LGA. 26,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akweya. Dialects: Dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 84% with Yace [ekr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa.

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Akpes
[ibe] Ekiti state: Ekiti East LGA; Kogi, Ijumu LGAs. 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibaram-Efifa. Dialects: Akunnu (Akpes), Ase, Daja, Efifa, Esuku (Echuku), Gedegede, Ikorom, Ibaram, Iyani. A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Akpes.

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Akuku
[ayk] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA; Kogi state: Okene. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Oloma [olm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern.

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Akum
[aku] Taraba state: near Cameroon border, Manga, Ekban, and Konkom villages. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Anyar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb.

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Alago
[ala] Nassarawa state: Awe and Lafia LGAs. 35,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arago, Aragu, Argo, Idoma Nokwu. Dialects: Doma, Agwatashi, Keana, Assaikio. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Alege
[alf] Cross River state: Obudu LGA. 16,300 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alegi, Ugbe, Uge. Dialects: None known. Related to Gayi [bzy] (Bisu of Obanliku subgroup) of Nigeria and Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi.

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Alumu-Tesu
[aab] Nassarawa state: Akwanga LGA, near Wamba. Alumu dialect in 7 villages; Tesu in 1. 7,000 (Blench 1999b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alumu, Arum-Cesu, Arum-Chessu, Arum-Tesu. Dialects: Alumu (Arum), Tesu. Related to Toro [tdv]. The 2 dialects have only intonation differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Alumic.

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Ambo
[amb] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA. 1 village east of Baissa. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Timap. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid.

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Amo
[amo] Plateau state: Bassa LGA; Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 12,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amap, Amon, Among, Ba, Timap. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Amo.

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Anaang
[anw] Akwa Ibom state: Ikot Ekpene, Essien Udim, Abak, Ukanafun, and Oruk-Anam LGAs; Abia state: Obi Ngwa and Ugwunagbo LGAs; Rivers state: Oyigbo and Khana LGAs. 1,400,000 (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anang, Annang. Dialects: Ikot Ekpene, Abak, Ukanafun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik. Comments: Referred to locally as Ekpene, Abak, and Ukanafun.

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Áncá
[acb] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nca village. Ethnic population: 300 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bunta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified. Comments: May be the same as Manta [myg].

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Arabic, Shuwa
[shu] Borno state: Dikwa, Konduga, Ngala, and Bama LGAs; widespread in Borno and Yobe states following livestock movement. 100,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chadian Arabic, Shua Arabic, Shuwa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: The term, Shua, considered perjorative by some. Muslim.

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Arigidi
[aqg] Ekiti state: Aiyede; Kogi state: Kogi LGA, small border area. 48,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). 45,000 Igashi; 3,000 Uro. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Akoko. Dialects: Oyin, Uro, Arigidí, Erúsú (Erushu), Ojo, Udo (Ido, Oke-Agbe, Òwòn Ùdò), Afa (Affa, Òwòn Àfá), Òge (Òwòn Ògè), Aje, Ese (Òwòn Èsé), Igashi (Ìgàshí, Ìgásí, Òwòn Ìgásí). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Akokoid.

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Ashe
[ahs] Nassarawa state: Karu, Kokona, and Akwanga LGAs; Kaduna state: Jema’a and Sanga LGAs; Abuja Capital Territory, Bwari LGA. 40,000 (2012 J. Barnhoorn), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ala, Ishe, Koro Makama, Koron Ache, Koron Ala. Dialects: Unorr, Uchek. Most similar to Koro Wachi [bqv], then to Duya [ldb], and Nyankpa [yes]. These 4 languages are often referred to as the Koro Cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro. Comments: Ishe is the name of the language (2014 J. Barnhoorn). Koro is a cover term used for 2 distinct languages, Waci [bqv] and Ashe [ahs]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Asu
[aum] Niger state: Mariga LGA, villages south of Kontagora. 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abewa, Ebe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe. Comments: Vocabulary heavily influenced by Nupe (1991 R. Blench).

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Atsam
[cch] Kaduna state: Kachia LGA. 30,000 (Barrett 1982). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cawai, Cawe, Cawi, Chawai, Chawe, Chawi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Piti [pcn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awak
[awo] Gombe state: Kaltungo LGA. 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awok, Yebu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak. Comments: Muslim.

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Ayere
[aye] Ekiti state: Ekiti East LGA; Kogi state: Ijumu LGA. 3,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Uwu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Ayere-Ahan.

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Ayu
[ayu] Kaduna state: Sanga LGA, Kongon, Gwade, Tayu, Arau, Diger, Ikwa, Agamati, Anka Ambel, and Amantu villages. 800 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ayu. Comments: Muslim.

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Baan
[bvj] Rivers state: Gokana, Tai, and Eleme LGAs, Ban-Ogoi plus villages. 5,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baan-Ogoi, Goi, Ogoi. Dialects: Ka-Ban, Kesari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West.

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Baangi
[bqx] Niger state. 15,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cibaangi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari.

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Baatonum
[bba] Kwara state: Borgu LGA; Niger state. 100,000 in Nigeria (1995 R. Jones). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Baatonun, Baatonun-Kwara, Barba, Bargu, Bariba, Batonnum, Batonu, Berba, Bogung, Borgawa, Borgu, Burgu, Zana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bacama
[bcy] Adamawa state: Lamurde, Numan, Demsa, and Mayobelwa LGAs; Kaduna state: northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi state: confluence of Benue and Niger rivers. 150,000 (1992 CAPRO). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abacama, Bachama, Bashama, Bashamma, Besema, Bwaatye, Bwareba, Bwatiye, Gboare. Dialects: Mulyen (Mulwyin, Mwulyin), Opalo (Opolo), Wa-Duku, Central Bwatiye (Demsa, Demsa Bata). In Bata dialect subgroup. Bacama and Central Bwatiye [bcy] 54%–68% of non-riverine Bata [bta] dialects (Furo and Song); Upriver dialects have contact with downriver dialects due to fishing practices. Lexical similarity: Bacama [bcy] 89% with Central Bwatiye [bcy], 81% with Njoboliyo [bta], 86% with Furo [bta], 84% with Song Bata [bta]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Bacama fishermen migrate long distances down the Benue River with camps as far as the confluence. Bacama are joined with the Bata [bta] in the Bwaatye Association. Christian.

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Bade
[bde] Yobe state: Bade, Jakusko, Bursari, and Karasuwa LGAs; Jigawa state: Guri LGA; Bauchi state: Zaki LGA. 250,000 (2007 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedde, Bede, Gidgid. Dialects: Gashua Bade (Mazgarwa), Southern Bade (Bade-Kado), Western Bade (Amshi, Maagwaram, Magwaram), Shirawa. Amshi 91% and Southern 87% of all Bade dialects. Ngizim [ngi] and Duwai [dbp] not intelligible of Bade. Lexical similarity: 63% with Ngizim [ngi], 61% with Duwai [dbp]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bakpinka
[bbs] Cross River state: Akamkpa LGA. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Begbungba, Iyongiyong, Iyoniyong, Uwet. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong.

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Bali
[bcn] Adamawa state: Numan LGA, at Bali on Jalingo road. 2,000 (1991 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abaali, Bibaali, Ekpali, Ibaali, Maya. Dialects: None known. Adequate intelligibility of Kpasham [pbn]; low intelligibility of Yotti [yot]; no intelligibility of Yendang [ynq]. Lexical similarity: 54% with Kpasham [pbn]; 35% with Yotti [yot]; 8% with Yendang [ynq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bangwinji
[bsj] Gombe state: Balanga, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs. 6,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangjinge, Bangunji. Dialects: Kaalo, Naaban. Noun class system reportedly similar to Waja [wja] and Tula [tul]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bankal
[jjr] Bauchi state: Dass LGA, Dott, Bajar, Lir; Bauchi LGA, Nyamrat, Luda, Din, and Zungur; Tafawa-Balewa LGA, Bagel; Toro LGA, Kufai and Luchi. 75,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bankala, Bankalanci, Baranci, Jaranchi, Jaranci, Jarancin Kasa, Jarawa, Jarawan Kasa, Zhar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gwak [jgk], Duguri [dbm], and Bada [bau]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: The Bankalawa people identify as Bankalawa and also as Jarawa or Jar people.

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Barikanchi
[bxo] Kano state; found in military barracks. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Hausa based.

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Basa
[bzw] Kogi state: Bassa and Ankpa LGAs, confluence of Niger and Benue rivers; Nassarawa state: Nasarawa LGA; enclave on Nassarawa-Benue border; Benue state: Makurdi LGA. 100,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abacha, Abatsa, Basa-Benue, “Bassa-Komo” (pej.), “Bassa-Kwomu” (pej.), Rubasa, Rubassa. Dialects: North-south dialect division along Benue River. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Basa-Gumna
[bsl] Niger state: Chanchaga LGA; Plateau state: Nasarawa LGA. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Basa Kuta, Basa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kaduna, Gwadara Basa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa.

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Basa-Gurmana
[buj] Niger state: Rafi border and Chanchaga LGAs, Kafin Gurmana. 2,000 (Blench 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koromba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa.

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Bassa-Kontagora
[bsr] Niger state: Mariga LGA, northeast of Kontagora. 10 (1987). Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa.

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Bata
[bta] Adamawa state: Demsa, Maiha, Yola North, Song, Girei, and Fufore LGAs. 150,000 in Nigeria (1992). 3,500,000 Bwaatye (Bata and Bacama [bcy]) (2006 census). Total users in all countries: 152,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batta, Bete, Birsa, Bwaatye, Bwatiye, Demsa Bata, Dunu, Eastern Bwatiye, Gboati, Gbwata, Gbwate. Dialects: Zumu (Jimo, Zomo), Wadi (Wa’i), Malabu, Kobotachi, Ribaw (Ribow), Njoboliyo, Garoua (Garua), Jirai, Furo, Song Bata. Bacama [bcy] and Central Bwatiye [bcy] 54%–68% of non-riverine dialects (Furo and Song); Njoboliyo [bta] 87% of Furo [bta], Song [bta], and Central Bwatiye [bcy]; Njoboliyo [bta] 73% of Bacama. Upriver dialects have contact with downriver dialects due to fishing practices. Dialect chain: Bacama [bcy] 89% with Central Bwatiye [bcy], 81% with Njoboliyo [bta], 86% with Furo [bta], 84% with Song Bata [bta]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Bacama [bcy] are joined with the Bata in the Bwaatye Association. Christian, Muslim.

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Batu
[btu] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, east of Baissa, below Mambila escarpment. 25000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Amanda-Afi, Angwe, Kamino. A language subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid.

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Bauchi
[bsf] Niger state: Rafi and Shiroro LGAs. 20,000 (Blench 1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bauci, Baushi, Kushi. Dialects: Wayam-Rubu, Madaka (Adeka), Supana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana.

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Beele
[bxq] Bauchi state: near Bole [bol] language area. A few villages. 120 (Temple and Temple 1922). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Àbéélé, Bele, Bellawa. Dialects: None known. A separate language from Bole [bol]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Muslim.

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Bekwarra
[bkv] Cross River state: Bekwara LGA; Benue state: Vandeika LGA. 100,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bekworra, Ebekwara, Yakoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi.

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Bena
[yun] Adamawa state: Guyuk, Gombi, and Song LGAs, Song to Yola road settlements. 95,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binna, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Gbinna, “Lala” (pej.), Purra, Yangeru, Yongor, Yungur. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba. Comments: “Lala” is offensive. Purra is a cover term for the northern clans. 17 clans. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Berom
[bom] Plateau state: Barakin Ladi, Jos South, Riyom LGAs; Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA; Bauchi state. 1,000,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afango, Berum, Birom, Gbang, Kibbo, Kibbun, Kibo, Kibyen, Lêm Berom, “Shosho” (pej.). Dialects: Ropp, Fan, Heikpang, Foron, Du, Gyel, Zawan, Kuru, Vwang, Riyom, Rim, Bachi, Gashish. Three dialect groups: Eastern (Ropp, Fan, Heikpang, Foron, Du), Central (Gyel, Zawan, Kuru, Vwang), Western (Riyom, Rim, Bachi, Gashish). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic.

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Bete
[byf] Taraba state: Takum LGA, Bete town, foot of Bete mountain, south of Wukari. 50 (1992). Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid. Comments: 6 subgroups: Aphan (Afan), Ruke, Osu, Agu, Botsu, and Humiyan. Former land disputes with the Tiv. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bete-Bendi
[btt] Cross River state: Obudu and Obanliku LGAs. 100,000 (2006 L. Otronyi), increasing. Some elderly monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bette-Bendi, Dama. Dialects: Bete (Bette, Mbete), Bendi. Bete intelligible of Bendi. Lexical similarity: 82% with Bendi; 64%–72% with Obanliku [bzy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Comments: Different from Bete [byf] in Taraba State and Bété [bet] of Côte d’Ivoire. Bete and Bendi have positive attitudes toward each other. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bille
[bil] Adamawa state: Demsa LGA, along Bille river. 38,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Elderly are monolingual. Ethnic population: 42,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bile, Bili, Billanchi, Kunbille. Dialects: None known. Bile [bil], Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], and Kulung [bbu] mutually unintelligible (less than 25%). Lexical similarity: 48% with Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], 33% with Kulung [bbu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bina
[byj] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 7,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binawa, Bogana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Biseni
[ije] Rivers state: Niger river east bank, Forcados river exit; Bayelsa state: Biseni-Okordia LGA, small area. 4,800 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amegi, Buseni, Northeast Central Ijo. Dialects: None known. Not fully intelligible with other languages in Ijo language subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo.

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Bitare
[brt] Taraba state Sardauna LGA, near Baissa. 46,300 in Nigeria (Blench 2003). Total users in all countries: 52,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Njwande, Yukutare. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Abon [abo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid.

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Bo-Rukul
[mae] Plateau state: Bokkos LGA, Barkul, Mabo, Richa, and Mwa villages. 2,000 (Blench 1999b). 1,000 in each dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kaleri” (pej.), Mabo-Barkul, Mabo-Barukul. Dialects: Bo, Rukul. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern. Comments: ‘ma-’ (sg.), ‘ba-’ (pl.); prefixes referring to speakers. Culturally Kulere, but the language is different. Christian.

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Boga
[bvw] Adamawa state: Gombi LGA. 10,000 (Blench and Zeitlyn 1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern.

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Boghom
[bux] Plateau state: Kanam, Wase, and Shendam LGAs. 50,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bogghom, Boghorom, Bohom, Bokiyim, Borrom, Burma, Burom, Burrum, Burum. Dialects: None known. Related to Mangas [zns]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom.

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Boko
[bqc] Niger state: Borgu LGA; Kebbi state: Bagudo LGA, Senji north to Kenugbe, Kaoje, and Demmo, 35 villages; possibly some in Kwara state. 50,000 in Nigeria (2012 R. Jones). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bokonya, Bo’o. Dialects: Illo Busa (Busa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bokobaru
[bus] Kwara state: primarily Kaiama LGA, some in Baruten LGA. 35 villages. 62,000 (2012 R. Jones). 10,800 in Kaiama, 51,200 in surrounding villages. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bariba, Busa-Bokobaru, Bussanchi, Bussawa, Zogben. Dialects: Kaiama, village Bokobaru. Kaiama dialect speakers and those in other villages have good mutual inherent intelligibility. Distinct from Boko [bqc] of Benin or Busa [bqp]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Boko [bqc], 91% with Busa [bqp], 62% with Kyanga [tye], 54% with Shanga [sho], 50% with Bisa [bib] of Burkina Faso and Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa. Comments: Ethnic autonyms, often used interchangeably: Bokobaru, especially for Kaiama town people, and Zogben, peasant, for village people. The Hausa call several groups of people (Boko, Bokobaru, Busa, Bariba) Bussawa, while the Yoruba call them all Bariba. Glossonym: Bussanchi by the Hausa. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bokyi
[bky] Cross River state: Ikom, Obudu, and Ogoja LGAs. 140,000 in Nigeria (1989 SIL). Total users in all countries: 143,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boki, Nfua, Nki, Okii, Osikom, Osukam, Uki, Vaaneroki. Dialects: Basua (Bashua), Irruan (Eerwee, Erwan), Boje (Bojie), Kwakwagom, Nsadop, Osokom, Wula (Baswo, Kecwan, Okundi), Oku, Boorim, Oyokom, Abo (Abu), Eastern Bokyi (East Boki). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Comments: Ethnic groups: Ndir, Ukwese, Utang, and Yon.

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Bole
[bol] Bauchi state: Dukku, Alkaleri, and Darazo LGAs; Gombe state: Dukku LGA; Yobe state: Fika LGA; Plateau state: Wase LGA. 100,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ampika, Bolanchi, Bolawa, Bolewa, Borpika. Dialects: Bara, Fika (Anpika, Fikankayen). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Distinct from Beele [bxq]. The Ngara (2,000 in 1993) claim to be part of Bole, but the Bolewa disagree. Muslim.

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Bu
[jid] Nassarawa state: Akwanga LGA. 4 villages. 6,000 (1999 R. Blench). 4,000 Bu and 2,000 Ninkada. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibut, Jida, Jida-Abu, Jidda-Abu, Nakare. Dialects: Bu (Abu), Ninkada (Jida). 2 ethnically and geographically distinct groups, but reportedly linguistically similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A.

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Bukwen
[buz] Taraba state: near Takum. 1 village. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid.

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Bumaji
[byp] Cross River state: Obudu LGA, Bumaji town. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi.

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Bura-Pabir
[bwr] Borno state: Biu and Askira-Uba LGAs; Yobe state: south; Adamawa state: Gombi LGA. 250,000 (1987 UBS). 200,000 Pabir (1993). 32,000 in Adamawa state (1992). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Babir, Babur, Barburr, Bourrah, Bura, Burra, Huve, Huviya, Kwojeffa, Mya Bura, Pabir. Dialects: Pela (Bura Pela, Hill Bura), Hyil Hawul (Bura Hyilhawul, Plain Bura). Kofa [kso] may be a related language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1. Comments: Ngohi is a small subgroup. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Burak
[bys] Gombe state: Billiri and Kaltungo LGAs, Burak town. 4,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buurak. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bure
[bvh] Bauchi state: Kirfi LGA, Bure village. 20 (Batic 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bubure. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Muslim.

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Buru
[bqw] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Batu area. 1 village. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified.

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Busa
[bqp] Niger state: Borgu LGA; Kebbi state: Bagudo LGA, 35 villages; Kwara state: south of Kanji reservoir. 15,000 (2015 R. Jones). 20,000 ethnic Laaru, Lupa and Kambari. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bariba, Bisã, Bisayã, Busa-Bisã, Busano, Bussanchi, Bussawa. Dialects: New Busa, Wawa. New Busa and Wawa dialects inherently intelligible. New Busa is prestigious, but Wawa dialect is viewed as purer and used for literature. New Busa has Hausa [hau]-influenced phonology. Illo Busa dialect has Boko [bqc] influence. Lexical similarity: 91% with Bokobaru [bus], 85% with Boko [bqc], 57% with Kyanga [tye], 56% with Shanga [sho], 50% with Bisa [bib] in Burkina Faso and Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa. Comments: Different from Bisa [bib] of Burkina Faso and Ghana. The Hausa call several groups of people (Boko, Bokobaru, Busa, Bariba) Bussawa, while the Yoruba call them Bariba. Glossonym: Bussanchi by the Hausa. Muslim.

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Cahungwarya
[nat] Niger state: Rafi LGA, Kagara and Maikujeri town areas. 20,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hungworo, Ingwe, Ingwo, Ngwe, Ngwoi, Nkwoi, Ungwe. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Kamuku [cdr] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku.

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Cakfem-Mushere
[cky] Plateau state: Mangu LGA. 5,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chakfem, Chokfem. Dialects: Jajura, Kadim, Kaban, Mushere. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Comments: Christian.

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Cara
[cfd] Plateau state: Bassa LGA, Teriya village. 3,000 (1999 R. Blench). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chara, Fachara, Fakara, Nfachara, Pakara, Tariya, Tera, Teriya, Terri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, North-Central. Comments: Complex morphology.

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Cen
[cen] Plateau state: southeast of Jos. Zaron village is center. Ethnic population: 50,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chen, Icen, Icen FiForon, Icen Ibaas, Ichen. Dialects: Icen, Ichen, Icen Ibaas. Lexical similarity: with Izere [izr] but has added Berom [bom] prefixes to its own prefix system and employs Berom style consonant alternation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central.

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Centúúm
[cet] Gombe state: Balanga LGA, Cham town, among Dijim [cfa] language group. 200 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cen Tuum. Classification: Language isolate.

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Cicipu
[awc] Kebbi state: Sakaba LGA, Sakaba; Niger state: Mariga LGA, Kumbashi and Kakihum. 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Achipa, Acipanci, Western Acipa. Dialects: Tirisino (Karishen), Tidipo (Kadonho), Tizoriyo (Mazarko), Tidodimo (Kadedan), Tikula (Maburya), Ticuhun (Kakihum), Tikumbasi (Kumbashi). Mutually unintelligible with linguistically most similar Tsuvadi [tvd]. Lexical similarity: about 95% among dialects; 50% with Tsuvadi [tvd], 15%–20% with Eastern Acipa [acp]; 18% with Cahungwarya [nat]; 16%–17% with Shama [sqa]; 15%–17% with Kamuku [cdr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Comments: Kumbasi perceived as most divergent from prestigious Tirisino, the hub of traditions. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Cineni
[cie] Borno state: Gwoza LGA, Cineni village. 3,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda.

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Cishingini
[asg] Niger state: Borgu and Agwara LGAs, west of Niger river and north of Kainji Lake National Park; Kebbi state: east of Niger river from Yelwa area south to Ngaski and Nasko. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agwara Kambari, Aschingini, Ashaganna, Ashingini, Chisingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, “Maunchi” (pej.), “Mawanchi” (pej.), Yauri. Dialects: Rofia. Kambari subgroup member, which includes Tsishingini [tsw] and Tsikimba [kdl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ciwogai
[tgd] Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Tsagu village area, near Diri [dwa] language area. 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sago, Tsagu. Dialects: None known. Related to Diri [dwa]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Traditional religion.

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C’Lela
[dri] Kebbi state: Zuru, Sakaba, and Donko-Wasagu LGAs; Niger state: Rijau LGA; west Zamfara state: Gummi LGA border area. 90,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cala-Cala, Chilala, Chilela, Dakakari, Dakarkari, Dakkarkari, Kolela, Lalawa, Lela. Dialects: Lila (Senchi, Southern Lela, Zuru), Dabai (Central Lela), Ribah, Adoma (Aroma, Northern Lela, Roma, Roma-Na, Yelmo). Lexical similarity: 93%–98% with dialects at Rade, Ribah, Dabai, and Senchi, 55% with Hun-Saare [dud], 54% with the Fakai sub-group, 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga], 20% with Acipa [acp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Como Karim
[cfg] Taraba state: Jalingo and Karim Lamido LGAs, near Lau; Plateau state: Wase LGA. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asom, Bakula, Chomo, Kinzimba, Kirim, Kiyu, Nuadhu, Shomo Karim, Shomoh, Shomong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Cori
[cry] Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA. 1 village area. 1,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chori. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic.

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Daba
[dbq] Adamawa state: Mubi LGA, between Mubi and Bahuli. 1 village. 1,000 in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabba. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7.

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Dadiya
[dbd] Gombe state: Balanga LGA; Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa state: Lamurde LGA, between Dadiya and Bambam. 70,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daadiya, Dadia, Loodiya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Dadiya. Comments: Daddiyab is the ethnic autonym. The 25 Daddiyab clans speak slightly differently but are easily understood by each other (2014 SIL). Christian, traditional religion.

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Damakawa
[dam] Kebbi state: Sakaba LGA, 3 or 4 villages. Kilo village is central. No known L1 speakers (2012 S. McGill). Ethnic population: 750. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to C’lela [dri], Tsuvadi [tvd], and Cicipu [awc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dass
[dot] Bauchi state: Akleri, Toro, and Dass LGAs; Plateau state: Shendam LGA. 8,830. 1,130 Lukshi, 4,700 Durr-Baraza, 700 Wandi and Zumbul, 2,300 Dot (1971 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barawa. Dialects: Lukshi (Dekshi), Durr-Baraza (Bandas), Zumbul (Boodla), Wandi (Wangday), Dot (Dott, Dwat, Zodi). A dialect subgroup. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3.

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Defaka
[afn] Rivers state: Opobo-Nkoro LGA, Niger delta, Nkoro town. 200 (2001 R. Blench). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Afakani, Defaka-Nkooro. Dialects: None known. Related to the Ijo group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Defaka.

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Degema
[deg] Rivers state: Degema LGA, Usokun-Degema (Usokun) and Degema (Atala) towns. 10,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Dekema” (pej.). Dialects: Atala, Usokun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta. Comments: Obonoma (Ekomburu) in Akuku-Toru LGA shifted from Degema to Kalabari [ijn].

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Dendi
[ddn] Kebbi state: Argungu and Bagudo LGAs, on upper Niger river. 2,050 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dandawa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Different from Dendi [deq] in Central African Republic.

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Deno
[dbb] Bauchi state: Darazo LGA, 45 km northeast of Bauchi town; Gombe state: Dukku LGA. 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Be, Denawa, Denwa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Dera
[kna] Borno state: Biu LGA; Adamawa state: Guyuk LGA; Gombe state: Balanga LGA. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanakuru. Dialects: Shani, Shellen, Gasi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Dera. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dghwede
[dgh] Borno state: Gwoza LGA. 30,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Azaghvana, Dehoxde, Hude, Johode, Tghuade, Toghwede, Traude, Wa’a, Zaghvana. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda.

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Dibo
[dio] Niger state: Lapai, Agaie, and Katcha LGAs; Abuja Capital Territory, Abaji LGA, areas along Gurare river. 100,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganagana, Ganagawa, Shitako, Zhitako, Zitako. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Dikaka
[cfa] Gombe state: Balanga and Kaltungo LGAs; Adamawa state: Lamurde LGA. 25,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Dijim (Cam, Cham), Bwilim (Fitilai, Mona, Mwana, Mwano, Mwomo, Mwona). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona. Comments: Whistle speech reported. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Diri
[dwa] Bauchi state: Ningi and Darazo LGAs. 7,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diriya, Dirya, Diryawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Distinct from Ciwogai [tgd].

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Dirim
[dir] Taraba state: Bali LGA. 9,000 (1992). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daka, Dakka, Dirin, Dirrim. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Samba Daka [ccg] and may be a dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Comments: High incidence of blindness caused by filaria. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Doka
[dbi] Kaduna state: Kachia LGA. 1 village. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern. Comments: Distinct from Duka [dud] (dialect of Hun-Saare).

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Doko-Uyanga
[uya] Cross River state: Akamkpa LGA, a few villages. 200 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basanga, Dosanga, Iko, Uyanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong.

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Dong
[doh] Taraba state: Zing LGA; Adamawa state: Mayo Belwa LGA. 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Donga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Comments: Distinct from Dongo [doo] (Donga) of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is in Amadi group of Ubangi (Adamawa-Ubangi).

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Duguri
[dbm] Bauchi state: Alkaleri and Bauchi LGAs; Plateau state: Kanam LGA; Taraba state: Ibi LGA, an enclave. 65,000 (2008 M. Rueck), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Doori, Dugarwa, Duguranchi, Dugurawa, Dukuri. Dialects: Gar Duguri, Badara Duguri, Northeast Duguri, Southwest Duguri. Intelligibility: 85%–91% of Mbat [bau], 75%–83% of Gwak [jgk], 67%–81% of Kantana [mma], 70%–75% of Bankal [jjr]; 71%–86% of Mbat [bau], 54%–68% of Gwak, 64%–66% of Bankal [jjr], 24% of Labir [jku]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% between Duguri dialects; dialectal differences barely acknowledged by users; 75% with Mbat [bau], 67% with Gwak [jgk], 65% with Bankal [jjr], 41% with Labir [jku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Duhwa
[kbz] Plateau state: Barkin Ladi LGA; Nassarawa state: Akwanga LGA, Kerifa village. 800 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karfa, Kerifa, Nzuhwi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Duhwa.

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Dulbu
[dbo] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Dulbu village southeast of Bauchi town. 100 (1993). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian.

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Dungu
[dbv] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA, Dungi town. 1,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dingi, Dungi, Dunjawa, Dwingi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Duwai
[dbp] Yobe state: Bade LGA; Kano state: Hadejia LGA. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bade, Evji. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Duwai. Comments: In Bade language subgroup.

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Duya
[ldb] Kaduna state: Jema’a, Kagarko, and Jaba LGAs; Nassarawa state: Karu LGA. 78,000 (2012 W. Bai). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adong, Idun, Jaba Duya, Jaba Lunga, Lungu, Ungu. Dialects: None known. Lexically similarity: with Ashe [ahs], Koro Wachi [bqv], and Nyankpa [yes]. These four languages are often referred to as the Koro Cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro. Comments: Different from Ajiya [idc]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dza
[jen] Taraba state: Karim Lamido, Lau, Jalingo, Gassol, Ibi, and Ardokola LGAs; Adamawa state: Numan and Lamurde LGAs; Gombe state: Balanga LGA. Main town is Dza (Jen) by Benue river. 100,000 (2014 NBTT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: E Idza, Janjo, Jen, Jenjo, Ngwa Idza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: There are four main groups within the language that settled in different locations but have no differences in their speech, they are: Ye (Saredou, Kaigama), Dzaka (Kachala), Ngwabang (Saretunde), and E ’ Zhi (Jaule). Christian, Muslim.

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Dzodinka
[add] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA. 1 village on Cameroon border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adere, Adiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: Distinct from Adele [ade] of Ghana and Togo.

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Ebira
[igb] Kwara state: Okene, Okehi, and Kogi LGAs; Nassarawa state: Nasarawa LGA; Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. 1,000,000 (1989 J. Adive). 900,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egbira, Egbura, Ibara, Igbarra, Igbira, Igbirra, Katawa, Kotokori, Kwotto. Dialects: Okene (Hima, Ihima), Igara (Etuno), Koto (Bira, Biri, Egu, Igu, Ika, Panda). A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ebughu
[ebg] Akwa Ibom state: Mbo and Oron LGAs. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oron. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ebughu.

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Edo
[bin] Edo state: Benin City, Ovia South West, Ovia North East, southern Uhunmwonde, Orhionmwon, and north Oredo LGAs; Delta state: Ike North East and Ike South LGAs; Ondo state: Irele and Ose LGAs. 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Addo, Benin, Bini, Oviedo, Ovioba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora.

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Efai
[efa] Akwa Ibom state: Mbo LGA. 6,320 in Nigeria (2000). Total users in all countries: 7,210. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Effiat. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efai.

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Efik
[efi] Cross River state: Calabar municipality, Odukpani and Akamkpa LGAs; Akwa Ibom state: Itu town. 400,000 in Nigeria (1998). L2 users: 2,000,000 in Nigeria. Total users in all countries: 2,405,260 (as L1: 405,260; as L2: 2,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC throughout the Cross River State in the church; also, in market, business, and media domains. The Efik Bible, published in 1868, was the very first translation into any Nigerian language and is used widely throughout the region. Alternate Names: Calabar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik. Comments: Christian.

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Efutop
[ofu] Cross River state: Ikom LGA. 10,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agbaragba, Ofutop. Dialects: None known. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 66%–68% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor.

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Eggon
[ego] Nassarawa state: Nasarawa Egon, Akwanga, Wamba, Lafia, Awe, Doma, Obi, Keana, Keffi, Kokona, and Karu LGAs; Nassarawa and Toto LGAs. 140,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Egon, Hill Mada, Mada Dutse, Mada Eggon, Mo Egon. Dialects: 25 dialects locally recognized, but their status is unclear. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ehueun
[ehu] Ekiti state: Aiyekire LGA. 14,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpenmen, Ekpimi, Epimi. Dialects: None known. Related to Ukue [uku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse.

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Ejagham
[etu] Cross River state: Akampka, Idom, Odukpani, and Calabar LGAs. 67,300 in Nigeria (2000). Total users in all countries: 116,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekoi. Dialects: Southern Ejagham (Abakpa, Aqua, Ekin, Kwa, Qua), Western Ejagham, Eastern Ejagham. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid. Comments: Western Ejagham includes Bendeghe Etung (Bindege, Dindiga, Mbuma), Northern Etung, Southern Etung, Ekwe, Akamkpa-Ejagham. Eastern Ejagham includes Keaka (Keaqa, Kejaka, Edjagam), Obang (Eeafeng).

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Ekajuk
[eka] Cross River state: Ogoja LGA, Bansara, Nwang, Ntara, Mfom, and Ebanibim towns. 63,000 (Yoder et al 2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akajo, Akajuk. Dialects: Esham, Ebanimbim, Mfom, Ekagongho. Nnam [nbp] intelligible to Ekajuk. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 93%–97% with dialects, 87%–90% with Nnam [nbp], 63%–67% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 66%–68% with Abanyom [abm], 57%–59% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 52%–53% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor.

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Eki
[eki] Cross River state: northeast of Efik, south of Idere. 5,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo.

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Ekit
[eke] Akwa Ibom state: Eket and Esit Eket LGAs. 200,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eket. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit.

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Ekpeye
[ekp] Rivers state: Ahoada East and Ahoada West LGAs; Bayelsa state: Yenegoa LGA. 30,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekkpahia, Ekpabya, Ekpaffia. Dialects: Ako, Upata, Ubye, Igbuduya. Related to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Ekpeye.

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Eleme
[elm] Rivers state: Eleme LGA. 58,000 (1990 UBS). 2,900 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Nchia, Odido. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West. Comments: Eleme land is in an industrial area with people from many language groups living among them. Christian, traditional religion.

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Eloyi
[afo] Nassarawa state: Nasarawa LGAs; Benue state: Agatu LGA, Benue river areas. 25,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afao, Afo, Afu, Aho, Epe, Keffi. Dialects: Mbeci, Mbeji, Mbamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Emai-Iuleha-Ora
[ema] Ondo state: Ose, Akoko South West, and Akoko North East LGAs; Edo state: Owan East LGA; Ekiti state: Ondo border areas southeast. 100,000 (Schaefer 1987). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ivbiosakon, Kunibum. Dialects: Ivhimion, Emai, Iuleha, Ora. Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Engenni
[enn] Rivers state: Ahoada West LGA; Bayelsa state: Yenagoa LGA. 20,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Egene, Ngene. Dialects: Ediro, Inedua, Ogua, Zarama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta.

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English
[eng] L2 users: 60,000,000 in Nigeria (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Enwan
[env] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. Ethnic population: 14,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Enwan
[enw] Akwa Ibom state: Mbo LGA. 15,000 (1998 B. Connell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oron. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda. Comments: Incorrect glossonym: Oron.

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Epie
[epi] Bayelsa state: Yenagoa LGA. 12,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Epie-Atissa. Dialects: Atisa (Atissa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta.

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Eruwa
[erh] Delta state: Isoko LGA. 64,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arokwa, Erakwa, Erohwa. Dialects: Related to Urhobo [urh]. Not intelligible with any Isoko [iso] dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern.

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Esan
[ish] Edo state: Esan Central, Esan North-East, Esan South-East, Esan West LGAs; Delta state: Aniocha North LGA. 300,000 (Okojie 1994). 7,000 Ekpon in 7 villages (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anwain, Esa, Isa, Ishan. Dialects: Igueben, Ekpoma (Ekpon, Ekunma), Uromi (Uronmun), Ubiaja (Ubiaza), Irrua (Uruwa), Ugboha (Owoha), Egoro (Egholo), Ewohimi (Ebhoikimi), Opoji (Ukpozi), Ewu (Eilu), Ewatto (Ebhoato), Ogwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Esimbi
[ags] Taraba state: south-southeast of Wukari. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aage, Age, Bogue, Eshimbi, Essimbi, Isimbi, Mburugam, Simpi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Etebi
[etb] Akwa Ibom state: Esit Eket LGA. 15,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit.

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Etkywan
[ich] Taraba state: Takum, Sardauna, Bali, and part of Wukari LGAs. 50,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Etekwe, Icen, Ichen, Itchen, Kentu, Kyanton, Kyato, Nyidu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Etulo
[utr] Benue state: Gboko LGA; Taraba state: Wukari LGA. 10,000 (1988 R. Shain). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eturo, Turumawa, Utur. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Etulo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Evant
[bzz] Cross River state: Obanliku LGA. 10,000 in Nigeria (1996 SIL). Total users in all countries: 11,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avand, Avande, Balegete, Belegete, Evand, Ovand, Ovande, Ovando. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Iceve-Maci [bec], Tiv [tiv], and Otank [uta]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ezaa
[eza] Ebonyi state: Ezaa North, Ezaa South, Ishielu, Ohaukwu, Onicha, and Ivo LGAs; Enugu state: Nkanu East LGA; Benue state: Ado LGA. 590,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eza, Ezza. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo.

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Fali
[fli] Adamawa state: Mubi North, Mubi South LGAs. 25,000 (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). 5,500 in the language area; 5,000 outside, many of whom return each summer. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella, Vimtim, Yimtim. Dialects: Vin (Uroovin, Uvin, Vimtim), Huli (Bahuli, Urahuli), Madzarin (Madzara, Muchella, Ura Madzarin), Bwin (Bagira, Bween, Urambween). Bwin about 92% intelligible of other dialects and 71% of Zizilvakan [ziz], Huli at least 85% of other dialects and 59% of Zizilivakan, Madzara 61% of Huli, Vin 71% of Madzara. Lexical similarity: 61%–82% between the dialects, 47%–59% with Zizilivakan [ziz], 15%–23% with Kirya-Konzal [fkk], 14%–18% with Hya [hya]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fali of Baissa
[fah] Taraba state. Few left (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified.

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Fam
[fam] Taraba state: Bali LGA, 17 km east of Kungana. 1,000 (1984). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Fam.

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Firan
[fir] Plateau state: Riyom LGA, Kwakwi Station south of Jos; Kaduna state: scattered. 2,500 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Faran, Foron, Kwakwi, Yes Firan. Dialects: None known. Related to Izere [izr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Taraba and Adamawa states: Yola area. 7,610,000 all Fulfulde in Nigeria (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). De facto language of provincial identity in Adamwa and Taraba states. Alternate Names: Eastern Fulfulde, Fillanci, Fula, Fulani, Fulatanchi, Fulbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Fulfulde, Benin-Togo
[fue] Niger state: west of Kainji reservoir. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Nigerian
[fuv] Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos plateau and southeast to Bauchi; Borno state: Bororro, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto state: Sokoto. Market language. 11,500,000 in Nigeria (2000), increasing. 340,000 in Sokoto. Total users in all countries: 11,585,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC in the market in Bauchi, Gombe, and Borno states. Alternate Names: Kano-Katsina Fulfulde. Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Bororo (Aku, Fulfulde Caka Nigeria, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde, Woylaare), Sokoto. Intelligibility 40%–50% of Fulfulde [fub] Cameroon. Lexical similarity: highest with Fulfulde central-eastern Niger [fuq], then Adamawa Fulfulde [fub], then Fulfulde, Benin-Togo [fue], then western Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Guinea, and Senegal. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: Sokoto is a major Fulbe geopolitical unit. Caka (Fulfulde Caka Nigeria dialect) means central. Muslim.

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Fum
[fum] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Antere, on Cameroon border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields. Comments: May be the same as Mfumte [nfu] in Cameroon.

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Fungwa
[ula] Niger state: Rafi LGA. 1,000 (1992 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afungwa, Tufungwa, Ula, Ura. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku.

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Fyam
[pym] Plateau state: Jos, Barkin Ladi, and Mangu LGAs. 3000 Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fem, Fyem, Genawa, Gyem, Gyema, Paiem, Pem, Pyem. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Horom [hoe]. Chadic influence. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Fyer
[fie] Plateau state: Pankshin LGA, Fyer district. 26,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fier. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer.

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Gaa
[ttb] Adamawa state: Ganye LGA; Tiba plateau, between Garba Sbege and Jada. 10,000 (1997 R. Boyd). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tiba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid.

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Ga’anda
[gqa] Adamawa state: Gombi LGA; Song, Guyuk, and Mubi LGAs; Borno state: Biu LGA. 43,000 (1992). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ga’ana, Ga’andu, Ganda, Makwar, Mokar. Dialects: Ga’anda, Gabin. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gade
[ged] Nassarawa state: Nasarawa and Toto LGAs; Abuja Capital Territory, Abuja Municipal Area Council and Kuje LGA. 72,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gede. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade. Comments: Considered conservative by neighbors. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Galambu
[glo] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galambe, Galambi, Galembi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Muslim.

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Gamo-Ningi
[bte] Bauchi state: Ningi LGA. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Gamo (Ba-Buche, Ba-Mbutu, Buta, Mbotu, Mbuta), Ningi. Formerly a dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Ganang
[gne] Plateau state: Gashish Kuk village area, Nye and Iny settlements, southeast of Jos. 3,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gashish. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Izere [izr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central.

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Gbagyi
[gbr] Kaduna state: Kagarko, northwest Kachia, Kanuru, Igabi, Soba, Giwa, Birnin-Gwari, and Chikun LGAs, Kaduna City; Niger state: Rafi, Chanchaga, Shiroro, Suleija LGAs; Nassarawa state: Keffi, Nasarawa LGAs; Abuja Capital Territory, Bwari, Kwali, Kuje, Abuja Municipal Area Council LGAs; Kogi state: Kogi LGA. 700,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Gwari, Gbagye, Gwari, Gwari Matai, Ibagyi. Dialects: Tawari, Kuta, Diko, Karu, Kaduna, Louome, Vwezhi, Ngenge (Genge, Gyange, Gyengyen). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbari
[gby] Niger state: Zungeru to Kaduna river north, southeast through Minna, Chanchaga, Paiko, Suleija, Agaie, Rafi, and Lapai LGAs; Abuja Capital Territory, Gwagwalada past Kwali; Kogi state: Kogi LGA. 350,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbari Yamma, Gwari Yamma, Nkwa, West Gwari. Dialects: Kwali, Izem, Gayegi, Gbagyi Nkwa, Paiko, Botai, Jezhu, Kong, Kwange (Agbawi, Kangye, Wake, Wi), Wahe. Lexical similarity: 89%–98% with major dialects, 66%–78% with Gbagyi dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari. Comments: Do not want to be considered Gbagyi [gbr]. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Gbaya, Northwest
[gya] Taraba state: Bali LGA. Very few in Nigeria. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baya. Dialects: Gbeya (Gbea). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gbiri-Niragu
[grh] Kaduna state: Lere LGA, Gure and Kahugu villages. 25,000 (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gure-Kahugu, Tugbiri. Dialects: Gbiri (Agari, Agbiri, Gura, Gure, Igbiri, Tugbiri), Niragu (Anirago, Kafugu, Kagu, Kahugu, Kapugu). Some Gbiri and Niragu people speak their own languages with each other. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru. Comments: Gure and Kahugu towns have separate identities but a common market in Gure. Christian.

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Geji
[gji] Bauchi state: Toro LGA. 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gejawa, Gezawa, Kayauri. Dialects: Bolu (Magang, Pelu), Geji (Gaejawa, Gezawa, Gyaazi), Zaranda (Buu). Geji dialect subgroup, in Barawa [dot] language subgroup. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Comments: Muslim.

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Gengle
[geg] Adamawa state: Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. 4000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Momu, Wegele, Yagele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Comments: Not the same as Gongla [mzm]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gera
[gew] Bauchi state: Bauchi and Ganjuwa LGAs, Bauchi town. 200,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gerawa, Rawam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Geruma
[gea] Bauchi state: Toro, Ganjuwa, Bauchi, and South Ningi LGAs. 9,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gerema, Germa. Dialects: Sum, Duurum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ghotuo
[aaa] Edo state: Owan East LGA, Ogbodo. 9,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Gibanawa
[gib] Kebbi state: Jega LGA, near Dukawa [dud] language area. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Gembanawa, Gimbanawa, Jega. Classification: Pidgin, Hausa based.

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Giiwo
[kks] Bauchi state: Alkaleri, Bauchi, and Darazo LGAs. 14,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bu Giiwo, Kirfi, Kirifawa, Kirifi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Muslim.

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Glavda
[glw] Borno state: Gwoza LGA, mainly Nggoshe village (different from Ngoshi); Agapalawa, Amuda, Vale, Ashigashiya, Kerawa, and Pelekwa villages. 28,500 in Nigeria (2000). Total users in all countries: 31,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelebda, Glanda, Guelebda. Dialects: Bokwa, Ngoshie (Ngweshe), Glavda. Reportedly similar to Guduf-Gava [gdf]. Wolff (1971) separates Glavda [glw] from Guduf-Gava and Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Goemai
[ank] Plateau state: Shendam; Nassarawa state: Lafia and Awe LGAs. 200,000 (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ankwai, Ankwe, Ankwei, Gamai, Kemai. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gokana
[gkn] Rivers state: Ogoni and Gokana LGAs. 100,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bodo, Bomu, Dere, Kibangha. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gude
[gde] Adamawa state: Mubi LGA; Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA. 68,000 in Nigeria (1987). Total users in all countries: 88,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mapuda, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade. Dialects: Different dialects are spoken in Cameroon and Nigeria. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Gudu
[gdu] Adamawa state: Song LGA. 5,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gudo, Gutu. Dialects: Kumbi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Formerly culture and religion were similar to the Ngwaba [ngw]. Muslim.

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Guduf-Gava
[gdf] Borno state: Gwoza LGA, mainly Gava, Cikide, and Guduf. 55,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afkabiye, Gudupe. Dialects: Cikide (Chikide), Guduf, Gava (Yaghwatadaxa, Yawotataxa). Reportedly similar to Glavda [glw]. Hdi [xed] 35% intelligibility of Guduf-Gava. Wolff (1971) separates Guduf-Gava from Gvoko [ngs] and Glavda [glw]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Hdi [xed], 50% with Lamang [hia] and Mabas [vem]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda.

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Gun
[guw] Ogun state: Badagry, Ado-Odo-Ota, and Idiroko LGAs; Lagos state. 259,000 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egun, Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Seto-Gbe. Dialects: Alada (Alada-Gbe), Asento, Gbekon, Gun (Egun, Goun, Gu), Phela, Savi, Weme, Seto. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja.

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Gupa-Abawa
[gpa] Niger state: Lapai LGA, Gupa and Edzu areas; Kogi state: Kogi LGA; Abuja Capital Territory: Abaji LGA. 15,000 (1989). 10,000 or more Gupa, 5,000 Abawa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Gupa, Abawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe.

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Gurmana
[gvm] Niger state: Shiroro LGA, Gurmana town area. 3,000 (1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana.

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Guruntum-Mbaaru
[grd] Bauchi state: Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. 15,000 (1993). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gurdung, Guruntum. Dialects: Dooka, Gar, Gayar, Karakara, Kuuku, Mbaaru. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. Comments: Muslim.

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Gvoko
[ngs] Borno state: Gwoza LGA; Adamawa state: Michika LGA. 20,000 in Nigeria (1990). Total users in all countries: 21,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Nggweshe, Ngoshe Sama, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi, Ngweshe-Ndaghan. Dialects: None known. Related to Glavda [glw] and Guduf [gdf]. High level of intelligibility with Hdi [xed] as a result of contact. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda.

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Gwa
[gwb] Bauchi state: Toro LGA. 980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Lame [bma]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian.

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Gwak
[jgk] Bauchi state: Dass LGA, Tafawa-Balewa LGA, Gital, Garam, Kardam, Dulem, Buyital, Michiyan Kuka, Bar, and Kumgas. 70,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bankalawa, Gingwak, Jar, Jaracin Kasa, Jaranchi, Jaranci, Jarancin Kasa, Jarawa, Jarawan Bununu, Jarawan Kasa, Lasjar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bankal [jjr], Duguri [dbm], and Bada [bau]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: The Bagyak people identify both as Bagyak and also as Jarawa or Jar people. Muslim.

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Gwamhi-Wuri
[bga] Zamfara state: Gummi LGA; Kebbi state: Wasugu-Danko LGA; migrants in Niger state. 16,000 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Banganci, Bangawa, Lyase, Lyase-Ne. Dialects: Gwamhi (Abaangi, Banga, Banganci, Bangawa, Gwamfanci, Gwamfi Gwamfawa), Wuri (Wuranci, Wurawa), Mba (Kokanawa). Dialects have slight lexical and tonal differences. Lexical similarity: 57% with ut-Ma’in [gel], 47% with Hun-Saare [dud], 43% with C’lela [dri]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka.

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Gwandara
[gwn] Nassarawa state: Keffi, Lafia, Nasarawa, and Akwanga LGAs; Abuja Capital Territory: Bwali and Kwai LGAs ; Niger state: Suleija and Gurara LGAs; Kaduna state: Kaura LGA; Plateau state: Riyom LGA. 27,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwandara. Dialects: Gwandara Karashi, Gwandara Koro, Gwandara Southern (Kyan Kyar), Gwandara Eastern (Toni), Gwandara Gitata, Nimbia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Gyem
[gye] Bauchi state: Toro LGA. 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gema, Gemawa, Gyam, Gyemawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Comments: Different from Fyam (Gyem) [pym]. Traditional religion.

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Hasha
[ybj] Nassarawa state: Wamba and Akwanga LGAs, Hashasu, Kusu, and Bwora villages; Plateau state: Bokkos LGA; Kaduna state: Sanga LGA. 3,000 (Blench 1999a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yashi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B.

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Hausa
[hau] Widespread. 18,500,000 in Nigeria (1991 SIL). L2 users: 15,000,000 in Nigeria. Total users in all countries: 41,929,000 (as L1: 26,929,000; as L2: 15,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in northern region. Spoken as L2 in the north. Alternate Names: Abakwariga, Habe, Haoussa, Hausawa, Kado, Mgbakpa. Dialects: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya, Sokoto, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa, Katsina, Arewa. Barikanchi [bxo] is a Hausa pidgin used in military barracks. There is also a pidgin or market Hausa [gib]. Subdialects of Eastern Hausa: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya; of Western Hausa: Sokoto, Katsina, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa; of North Hausa: Arewa, Arawa. Abakwariga is a subgroup. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Hausa Sign Language
[hsl] Scattered in northern Nigeria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Harshen bebaye na kasar Hausa, Maganar Hannu. Classification: Sign language.

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Hide
[xed] Borno state: Gwoza LGA; Adamawa state: Michika LGA; on Cameroon border. 1 village area. 4,000 in Nigeria (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ftour, Hdi, Hedi, Tourou, Tur, Turu, Turu-Hide, Xedi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Comments: In Nigeria, Hide, is preferred; in Cameroon, Hdi. Little education. 1 primary school. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Holma
[hod] Adamawa state: north of Sorau on Cameroon border. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bali Holma, Da Holmaci. Dialects: None known. Related to Nzanyi [nja]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8.

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Hõne
[juh] Gombe state: Akko, Billiri, and Shomgom LGAs. Pindiga dialect: Pindiga, Tumu, Kashere, Futuk, and Kaltanga; Gwana dialect: Gwana, Kasan Dare, Gobirawa, Katagum, Kwaya, Dizi, Digare, Jukon, Konan Kuka, and Andamin villages; Taraba state: Karim-Lamido LGA. 7,000 (Storch 1999). Ethnic population: Much more than 7,000 (Storch 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Pindiga, Gwana. Gwana and Pindiga dialects mutually intelligible with difficulty. Reportedly similar to Wãpha [juw], Jiba [juo], Wapan [juk], Jukun Takum [jbu], and Jibu [jib], but not intelligible of them. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun. Comments: Muslim.

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Horom
[hoe] Plateau state: Bokkos LGA. 1,500 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kaleri” (pej.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern. Comments: Horom is a village in Kulere-speaking area, and they have been erroneously referred to as “Kaleri”, a derogatory name.

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Hun-Saare
[dud] Kebbi state: Wasagu and Yauri LGAs; Niger state: Rijau LGA; migrants south. Dialect centers: Rijau-Senjir, Dukku-Iri, Zente-Dogo, and Darengi. 73,000 (1985 P. Ahmed). 10,000 outside the traditional area. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Duka, Dukanchi, Dukanci, Dukawa, Dukwa. Dialects: Eastern Duka (Et-Hun, Hun, Hune), Western Duka (Es-Saare). Lexical similarity: 85% between the Rijau and Dukku dialects; 63% Duka with ut-Ma’in [gel], 50% with C’lela [dri], 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Hwana
[hwo] Adamawa state: Girei, Shelleng, and Song LGAs, some in Gombi LGA; Borno state: Hawul LGA. 32,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiterya, Hona, Hwona, Tuftera. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern. Comments: 4 divisions: Hwana Guyaku, Hwana Tawa, Ngithambara, and Hwana Barni. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hya
[hya] Adamawa state: Michika and Mubi North LGAs; Boppa, Tukwri (Tlukwi), Vi, Shike, Ligwe, Gameta, and Mukta villages. 2,000 in Nigeria (2008 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ghye, Hwate, Manta, Mukta, Munta, Za. Dialects: Manta. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3.

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Hyam
[jab] Kaduna state: Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. 300,000 (2014 NBTT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ham, Hyamhum, Jabba, Jeba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic. Comments: Christian.

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Ibani
[iby] Rivers state: Bonny. 60,000 (1989 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bonny, Ubani. Dialects: None known. Koin subgroup within the Ijo subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern.

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Ibibio
[ibb] Akwa Ibom state: Itu, Uyo, Etinan, Ikot Abasi, Ikono, Nsit Ikpe, Uruan, Onna, Nsit-Ubium, and Mkpat Enin LGAs; Abia state: Ukwa East and Arochukwa LGAs; Rivers state: Opobo-Nkoro and Oyigbo LGAs; possibly in Cross River state. 1,500,000 (1998 B. Connell). L2 users: 4,500,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Ibibio is the LWC of Akwa Ibom state. Dialects: Enyong, Central Ibibio, Itak, Nsit. Several dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik. Comments: Christian.

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Ibino
[ibn] Akwa Ibom state: Ibeno LGA. 10,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibeno, Ibuno. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibino.

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Ibuoro
[ibr] Abia state: Arochukwa LGA; Akwa Ibom state: Ibiono Ibom LGA. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro.

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Iceve-Maci
[bec] Cross River state: Obanliku LGA, 5 villages on Cameroon border including Amana. 5,000 in Nigeria (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Icheve, Oceve, Ochebe, Ocheve, Utse, Utser, Utseu. Dialects: Maci (Kwaya, Matchi, Motom, Motomo, Olit, Olithi, Oliti, Oliti-Akwaya), Bacheve (Baceve, Bechere, Becheve, Beheve). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Christian.

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Idere
[ide] Cross River state: Odukpani LGA; Akwa Ibom state: Itu LGA. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo.

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Idesa
[ids] Edo state: Owan East LGA, Otuo. 5,690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Oloma [olm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern.

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Idoma
[idu] Kogi state: Olamabolo and Ankpa LGAs; Benue state: Ogbadibo and Okpokwu LGAs; Enugu state: Igbo-Eze North, Udenu, and Isi-Uze LGAs. 600,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Idoma Central (Akpoto, Oturkpo), Idoma West, Idoma South (Igumale, Igwaale, Ijigbam), Okpogu. Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma.

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Igala
[igl] Kogi state: Ibaji, Idah, Igalamela-Odolu, Bassa, Dekina, and Ofu LGAs; Enugu state: Uzo-Uwani LGA; Anambra state: Anambra West LGA; Edo state: Esan Southeast LGA. 800,000 (1989 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Igara. Dialects: Ebu, Idah, Ankpa, Ogugu, Ibaji, Ife, Anyugba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Igbo
[ibo] Widespread in southeast. 18,000,000 in Nigeria (Wiesenfeld 1999). Total users in all countries: 18,007,950. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in southeastern region. Main LWC of Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo states. Alternate Names: Ibo. Dialects: Afikpo (Ehugbo), Nsukka (Nsuka), Ohuhu (Umuahia), Bende (Ohafia), Central Igbo (Union Igbo). 30 dialects vary in inherent intelligibility. The standard literary form developing based on Owerri and Umuahia dialects, omitting the nasality and aspiration found in those dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Igede
[ige] Benue state: Oju, Otukpo, and Okpokwu LGAs; Cross River state: Ogoja LGA; Ebonyi state: Izzi LGA. 250,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Egede, Igedde. Dialects: Ito, Oju (Central Igede), Worku, Gabu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma.

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Iguta
[nar] Plateau state: Jos-North LGA; Jos-South, Jos-East, and Bassa LGAs; Bauchi state: Toro LGA. 6,120 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anaguta, Naraguta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Comments: ‘Unaguta’ refers to a speaker.

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Igwe
[igw] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. 47,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Ihievbe
[ihi] Edo state: Owan East LGA, northeast of Afuze, Ihievbe Ogbe, Ebetse, and Iyakhora villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central.

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Ija-Zuba
[vki] Abuja Capital Territory: south of Abuja city, north of Minna Suleja road. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Afiki, Koro Ija, Koro Zuba. Dialects: None known. Different from Lijili [mgi], Koro Wachi [bqv], and Tanjijili [uji]. Koro is a cover term for several languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified.

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Ijo, Southeast
[ijs] Bayelsa state: Nun river, Brass, Nembe, South Ijaw, and Ogbia LGAs; Rivers state: Akuku Toru LGA. 71,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 66,600 Nembe, 4,900 Akassa. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brass Ijo, Brass-Nembe, Ijaw, Nembe-Akassa. Dialects: Ijo, Nembe (Nimbe), Akassa (Akaha). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ika
[ikk] Edo state: Orhionmwon LGA. 22,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Agbor (administrative and commercial center) area dialect may become the standard form. Further east and south varieties become more similar to Igbo (Report of the Committee on Languages of Midwestern state: 12). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo.

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Iko
[iki] Akwa Ibom state: Obolo LGA, Iko, Atabrikang, and Ikonta villages. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Culturally consider themselves Obolo [ann], but cannot use Obolo literature. Iko is more similar to other Lower Cross languages than to Obolo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Iko.

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Ikpeshi
[ikp] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. 5,320 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpeshe, Ikpeshe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Iku-Gora-Ankwa
[ikv] Kaduna state: Kachia LGA. Ethnic population: 13,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekhwa, Iku. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: 11%–30% of Adara [kad]. Lexical similarity: less than 30% with Adara [kad], 27% with Ajiya [idc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern.

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Ikulu
[ikl] Kaduna state: Zangon Kataf, Kachia, and Kauru LGAs. 50,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ankulu, Ikolu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern.

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Ikwere
[ikw] Rivers state: Ikwerre, Port Harcourt, Emuoha and Obio-Akpor LGAs; Imo state: Ohaji-Egbema LGA. 200,000 (1973 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikwerre, Ikwerri. Dialects: Apani, Akpo-Mgbu-Tolu, Ogbakiri, Emowhua, Ndele, Elele, Omerelu, Egbedna, Aluu, Igwuruta, Ibaa, Isiokpo, Omagwna, Ubima, Ipo, Omudioga, Obio-Akpo, Rumuji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ikwo
[iqw] Ebonyi state: Ikwo LGA; Cross River state: Obubura and Abi LGAs. 260,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo.

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Ilue
[ilv] Akwa Ibom state: Oron LGA; possibly Cross River state. 5,000 (1988). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Idua. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ilue.

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Irigwe
[iri] Plateau state: Bassa and Barakin Ladi LGAs; Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 40,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aregwe, Idafan, Iregwe, Kwal, Kwan, Kwoll, Miango, Miyango, Nkarigwe, Nnerigwe, Nyango, Rigwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central.

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Isekiri
[its] Delta state: Warri North, Warri South, and Ethiope West LGAs; Edo state: Ikpoba-Okha, Oredo, and Ovia Southwest LGAs. 510,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chekiri, Irhobo, Iselema-Otu, Ishekiri, Itsekiri, Iwere, Jekri, Selemo, Shekiri, Warri. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yoruba [yor]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri.

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Isoko
[iso] Delta state: Ukwuani, Ethiope East, Ndokwa West, Ughelli North, Ughelli South, Isoko North, and Isoko South LGAs; Bayelsa state: Sagbama LGA; Edo state: Orhionmwon LGA. 423,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Biotu” (pej.), “Igabo” (pej.), “Sobo” (pej.). Dialects: Ozoro, Ofagbe, Emede, Owe (Owhe), Elu, Aviara, Iyede, Imiv, Enhwe, Ume, Iwire (Igbide), Olomoro, Iyede-Ami, Unogboko, Itebiege, Uti, Iyowo, Ibiede, Oyede, Uzere, Irri (Iri), Ole (Oleh). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern. Comments: “Sobo” and “Igabo” are offensive names. “Biotu”, interior people, is the Izon name for the Isoko and is not meant offensively by the Izon; however, the Isoko do not like it.

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Iten
[etx] Plateau state: Riyom LGA; Kaduna state: Kaura LGA. 40,000 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aten, Eten, Etien, Ganawuri, “Jal” (pej.), Niten, Ten. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic.

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Ito
[itw] Akwa Ibom state: Uruon LGA; Cross River state. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro.

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Itu Mbon Uzo
[itm] Abia state: Ini LGA; Akwa Ibom state: Arochukwa LGA. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itu Mbon Uso, Itu Mbuzo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro.

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Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe
[atg] Edo state: Etsako and Akoko-Edo LGAs, Ate, Okpekpe, and Okpella villages. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ivbie North (Ibie North), Okpela (Okpella, Ukpella, Upella), Arhe (Ate, Atte). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Iyayu
[iya] Ekiti state: Aiyekire LGA; shares area with Iyive [uiv] language. 24,700 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Idoani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse.

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Iyive
[uiv] Ekiti state: Aiyekire LGA; shares area with Iyayu [iya] language. 1,000 in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Asumbo, Ndir, Uive, Yiive. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ndir.

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Izere
[izr] Bauchi state: Toro LGA; Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA. South Izere dialect: Plateau state: Barikin Ladi LGA; North, Northeast Izere: Plateau state: Jos LGA. 50,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afizare, Afizarek, Afizere, Afudelek, Afusare, Feserek, Fezere, Fizere, Hill Jarawa, Izarek, Izer, Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse, Jari, Jos-Zarazon. Dialects: Northwest Izere, Northeast Izere, South Izere. Fobor dialect is prestigious. Northwest Izere subdialects: Fobor (Fobur), Shere; Northeast: Fedare (Zandi, Zendi), Jarawan Kogi (Maigemu), and Fursom (Fursum); South: Forom (Ichen). Firan [fir] is a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central.

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Izii
[izz] Ebonyi state: Izzi, Abakaliki, and Ebonyi LGAs; Benue state: Ado LGA; Cross River state: Yala LGA. 540,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Izi, Izzi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo.

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Izon
[ijc] Bayelsa state: Yenagoa, South Ijaw, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekeremor, and Sagbama LGAs; Delta state: Burutu, Warri North, and Warri South West LGAs; Ondo state: Ilaje, Ese-Odo LGA; Edo state: Ovia South West and Ovia North East LGAs. 1,000,000 (Williamson 1989). 100,000 Kolokuma (1991 UBS). 1,770,000 all Ijo languages. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Central-Western Ijo, Ijaw, Ijo, Izo, Uzo. Dialects: Arogbo, Furupagha, Egbema, West Olodiama, Oporoza (Gbaranmatu), Ogulagha, Iduwini, Ikibiri, Ogboin, West Tarakiri, Kabo (Kabowei), Kumbo (Kumbowei), Mein, Operemo, Tuomo, Ogbe Ijo, Gbarain, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekpetiama, Apoi, Koluama, Basan (Bassan), East Olodiama, East Tarakiri, Oyiakiri, Oporomo (Oporoma), Bumo (Boma). The Ijo (Ijaw) subgroup includes 7 languages. Izon has about 30 inherently intelligible dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West Ijo.

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Izora
[cbo] Plateau state: Bassa LGA. 1,500 (Blench 2003). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cokobanci, Cokobawa, Ndazora. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Janji
[jni] Kaduna state: Lere LGA; Plateau state: Bassa LGA. 1,150 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajanji, Anafejanzi, Jenji, Tijanji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Jara
[jaf] Borno state: Biu and Kwaya-Kusar LGAs; Gombe state: Akko and Yamaltu-Deba LGAs. 46,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jera. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western. Comments: Different from Jere [jer], which is Benue-Congo.

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Jere
[jer] Plateau state: Bassa LGA; Bauchi state: Toro LGA; Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 23,000 (1972 SIL). 7,000 Boze, 2,350 Gusu, 2,000 Bunu, 3,500 Panawa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeere, Jera. Dialects: Boze (Anabeze, Buji, Eboze), Gusu (Anibau, Anosangobari, Asanga, Gesawa, Gusawa, Gussum, Guzawa, Isanga), Ezelle (Azelle, Jengre, Jere, Jeriyawa), Bunu (Anegorom, Anorubuna, Gurrum, Ibunu, Narabunu, Rebina, Ribina), Panawa (Ipanawa, Unupanawa). In Ezelle dialect, Ozelle or Bajere (sg.), Azelle or Jarawa (pl.). In Eboze, Unabeze (sg.), Anabeze (pl.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Comments: Different from Jara [jaf], which is Chadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jiba
[juo] Adamawa state: Lamurde LGA; Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA; villages northwest of Kalingo. 2,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jibe, Jibi, Jukun Kona, Kona. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa. Comments: ‘Bajibaro’ is the ethnic group. Traditional religion.

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Jibu
[jib] Taraba state: Gashaka and Bali LGA; Adamawa state: Toungo LGA. 30,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jibanci, Jibawa. Dialects: Gayam, Garbabi, Galamjina. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jilbe
[jie] Borno state: Jilbe town, Cameroon border area. 1 village. 100 (1999 H. Tourneux). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Zoulbou. Dialects: None known. Kotoko speakers in Cameroon and Chad consistently report low intelligibility with Jilbe. Distinct from Zizilivakan [ziz]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1. Comments: Muslim.

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Jimi
[jmi] Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Jimi village. 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bi-Gimu. Dialects: Zumo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Eastern. Comments: Different from Jimi [jim] in Cameroon in the Biu-Mandara group. Muslim.

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Jiru
[jrr] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atak, Bakula, Kir, Wiyap, Zhiru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Jju
[kaj] Kaduna state: Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. 300,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kache, Kaje, Kajji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central.

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Jorto
[jrt] Plateau state: Shendam LGA, Dokan Kasuwa. 17,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1.

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Ju
[juu] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Ju village. 900 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jukun Takum
[jbu] Taraba state: Takum and Bali LGAs; Benue state: Katsina-Ala LGA. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diyi, Jukun, Njikum. Dialects: Takum, Donga (Akpanzhi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun. Comments: ‘Njikum’ is preferred in Cameroon. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kaan
[ldl] Adamawa state: Shellen, Song, and Numan LGAs. 10,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kan, Libbo, Libo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Libo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kagoma
[kdm] Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA. 25,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agoma, Gwong, Gyong, Kwong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic.

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Kaivi
[kce] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 2,320 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaibi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Kakanda
[kka] Niger state: Agaie and Lapai LGAs; Kwara state: Kogi LGA; Niger river centered on Budã. 20,000 (1989 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adyaktye, Akanda, Hyabe. Dialects: Budon Kakanda, Gbanmi-Sokun Kakanda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe.

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Kalabari
[ijn] Rivers state: Degema, Akulga, Asaritoru, and Port Harcourt LGAs. 258,000 (Jenewari 1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible with Kirike [okr] and Ibani [iby]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern.

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Kam
[kdx] Taraba state: Bali LGA, between Mayo Kam and Garba Chede. 2 villages. 5,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyingwom, Nyiwom, Yimwom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kam. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kamantan
[kci] Kaduna state: Kachia LGA. 10,000 (Barrett 1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angan, Kamanton. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kami
[kmi] Niger state: Lapai LGA, Ebo town, and 11 villages; Abuja Capital Territory: Kwali LGA. 5,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe.

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Kamo
[kcq] Gombe state: Billiri, Kaltungo and Akko LGAs. 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamu, Ma, Nubama, Nyima. Dialects: None known. Reportedly typologically similar to Awak [awo] (no singular-plural noun suffixes). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak. Comments: 5 primary schools, 1 junior secondary school. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kamuku
[cdr] Niger state: Chanchaga, Rafi, and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna state: Birnin Gwari LGA. 45,000 (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cinda-Regi-Tiyal, Tiyal, Tiyar, Tucipu, Tu’yara, ’Yara. Dialects: Cinda (Jinda, Majinda, Makangara, Tegina, Ucinda), Regi (tuRegi), Kuki (Tiyal, Tiyar), Kuru (uKuru), Maruba. Cinda, Regi, and Kuki mutually intelligible, also by Shiyabe. Lexical similarity: 82%–97% among the 5 dialects, 47%–63% with Eastern Acipa [acp], 59%–70% with Shama-Sambuga [sqa], 65%–75% with Rogo [rod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Comments: Clans are Uregi, Urogo, Tiyar (Kuki), Ucinda (Jinda), and Ushana. Laka, or Kamuku Laka, are Hausa-speaking ethnic Kamuku. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kamwe
[hig] Adamawa state: Michika LGA, Mandara mountains. 300,000 (1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Higgi, Higi, Hiji, Vacamwe. Dialects: Nkafa, Dakwa (Bazza), Sina, Futu, Tili Pte, Modi, Humsi. Reportedly similar to Psikye [kvj] and Hya [hya] of Cameroon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kanufi
[kni] Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA. 10,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karshi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A.

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Kanuri
[kau] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 3,810,500 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Kanuri [knc], Manga Kanuri [kby] (Niger), Tumari Kanuri [krt] (Niger).

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Borno state: Kukawa, Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri, Monguno, Ngala, Bama, and Gwoza LGAs; Yobe state: Nguru, Geidam, Damaturu, Fika, Fune, and Gujba LGAs; Gombe state: 1 enclave in each of Yamaltu-Deba, Akko, and Kwami LGAs. 3,000,000 in Nigeria (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). L2 users: 500,000 in Nigeria. Total users in all countries: 3,790,500 (as L1: 3,290,500; as L2: 500,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Beriberi, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Yerwa Kanuri. Dialects: Kaga (Kagama), Lare (Lere), Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Yerwa. Kwayam dialect not understood by other Kanuri (Lukas 1937). Maiduguri dialect mutually intelligible. Reportedly most similar to Manga Kanuri [kby] and Tumari Kanuri [krt]. Yerwa is central dialect. A member of macrolanguage Kanuri [kau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Muslim.

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Kanuri, Manga
[kby] Yobe state; also Jigawa and Bauchi states. 200,000 in Nigeria (1993). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanouri, Kanoury, Manga. Dialects: Dagara, Manga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Muslim.

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Kapya
[klo] Taraba state: Takum LGA, Kapya. 200 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb.

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Karekare
[kai] Yobe state: Fika and Nangere LGAs; Bauchi state: Gamawa and Misau LGAs; Gombe state: Dukku LGA small area. 150,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karai Karai, Karaikarai, Karai-karai, Kerekere, Kerrikerri. Dialects: Jalalam (West Karekare), Birkai, Kwarta Mataci. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Karekare. Comments: Muslim.

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Kariya
[kil] Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Kariya village near Miya town. 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kariyu, Kauyawa, Lipkawa, Vinahe, Wihe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Khana
[ogo] Rivers state: Khana LGA; Akwa Ibom state: Oruk Anam LGA, Wiisoe village. 200,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kana, Ogoni. Dialects: Yeghe, Norkhana, Ken-Khana, Boúe, Nyo-Kana, Babbe. Reportedly similar to Gokana [gkn] and Tee [tkq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East.

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Kholok
[ktc] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, near Didango. 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kode, Koode, Kwoode, Pia, Pitiko, Widala, Wurkum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper.

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Kibaku
[ckl] Borno state: Chibok, Askira-Uba, and Damboa LGAs. 200,000 (2014 NBTT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chibbak, Chibbuk, Chibok, Chibuk, Cibak, Cibuk, Kibbaku, Kikuk, Kyibaku. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1. Comments: Christian.

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Kinuku
[kkd] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 500 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinugu, Kinuka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Kiong
[kkm] Cross River state: Odukpani and Akampka LGAs, Akpap village, northwest of Calabar, east of Cross river; Akankpa area northeast of Akpap (40 km north of Calabar). 100 (2004). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Akayon, Äkäyön~, Akoiyang, Iyoniyong, Okonyong, Okoyong. Dialects: None known. Very closely related to Korop [krp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop.

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Kir-Balar
[kkr] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Kir Bengbet and Kir Bajang’le villages. 3,050 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kir, Kirr. Dialects: Kir, Balar (Larbawa). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom. Comments: Muslim.

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Kirike
[okr] Rivers state: Okrika, Port Harcourt, and Ogu-Bolo LGAs. 248,000 (1995 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Okrika. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern.

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Kirya-Konzel
[fkk] Adamawa state: Mubi LGA. 5,800 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fali of Kiria, Fali of Kiriya, Fali of Kirya, Fali of Mijilu, Karya, Kirya, Konzal. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Hya [hya] and Kamwe [hig]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3.

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Koenoem
[kcs] Plateau state: Shendam LGA. 3,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2.

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Kofa
[kso] Adamawa state: Song LGA, north of Belul road, north of Yola. 1,100 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kota. Dialects: None known. Reportedly a separate language from Bura-Pabir [bwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1.

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Kofyar
[kwl] Plateau state: Qua’an Pan and Mangu LGAs; Nassarawa state: Lafia LGA. 110,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kofyar (Kwong), Kwagallak (Kwa’alang, Kwalla), Dimmuk (Dimuk, Doemak), Mirriam (Mernyang), Bwol (Bwal, Mbol), Gworam (Giverom, Goram), Jipal (Jepal, Jepel, Jibyal). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kohumono
[bcs] Cross River state: Obubra LGA. 30,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bahumono, Ediba, Ekumuru, Humono, Ohumono. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono.

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Koma
[kmy] Adamawa state: Ganye and Fufore LGAs, Koma Vomni and Alantika mountains. 32,000 in Nigeria (1989). Total users in all countries: 35,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuma. Dialects: Gomme (Damti, Koma Kampana, Panbe), Gomnome (Gimbe, Koma Kadam, Laame, Mbeya, Youtubo), Ndera (Doobe, Doome, Vomni). 3 subdialects: Koma Vomni, Koma Beiya, and Koma Damti. Ndera and Gomnome barely understand each other, but both understand Gomme. Related to Mom Jango [ver]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere. Comments: Different from Koma (Komo) [xom] of Ethiopia and Sudan. 7 primary schools. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kono
[klk] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA, Kona village. 5,520 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konu, Kwono. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Koro Wachi
[bqv] Kaduna state: Kachia and Kagarko LGAs; Nassarawa state: Keffi LGA. 106,000 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agere, Begbere-Ejar, Koro Agwe, Koro Makama, Koro Myamya, Miamia, Miamiya. Dialects: Koro Miamia, Koro Waci (Koro Ache). Lexical similarity: most to Koro Ashe [ahs], Duya [ldb], and Nyankpa [yes]. These 4 languages are often referred to as the Koro Cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro. Comments: Koro is a cover term used for 2 distinct languages, Waci [bqv] and Ashe [ahs]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Korop
[krp] Cross River state: Odukpani and Akampka LGAs. 10,200 in Nigeria (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Total users in all countries: 17,640. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Durop, Kurop, Ododop. Dialects: None known. Very closely related to Kiong [kkm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop. Comments: Efik [efi] has become a dominant language in the ethnic group (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007).

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Kpan
[kpk] Taraba state: Wukari, Takum, and Sardauna LGAs, Kato Bagha, Wukari, Suntai, Gayan, Gindin Dutse, and Likam. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abakan, Hwaso, Hwaye, Ibukwo, Ikpan, Kpanten, Kpwate, Nyatso, Nyonyo, Yorda. Dialects: Bissaula, Kumbo (Kpanzon), Takum, Donga (Akpanzhi), Apa, Kente (Etkye, Kentu, Kyentu), Eregba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen.

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Kpasham
[pbn] Adamawa state: Numan LGA, Kpasham town, on Numan-Jalingo road. 3000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Balo, Kpasam, Maya, Nyisam, Passam. Dialects: None known. Similarity: 54% with Bali [bcn], 35% with Yotti [yot], 9% with Yendang [ynq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kpati
[koc] Taraba state: Wukari, Takum LGAs. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba.

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Kubi
[kof] Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kuba, Kubawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Muslim.

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Kuce
[ruk] Kaduna state: Kajuru LGA; Plateau state: Bassa LGA. 100,000 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bace, Bache, Che, Inchazi, Kuche, Rukuba, Sale. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A.

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Kudu-Camo
[kov] Bauchi state: Ningi LGA. 42 (1990 M. Bross). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kuda-Chamo, Kudawa. Dialects: Kudu (Kuda), Camo (Chamo). Related to Butu-Ningi [bte]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Kugama
[kow] Adamawa state: Fufore LGA. 5,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kugamma, Wegam, Yamale, Yamalo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kugbo
[kes] Rivers state: Abua-Odual LGA; Bayelsa, north Brass LGA. 2,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo.

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Kukele
[kez] Cross River state: Ogoja LGA; Ebonyi state: Abakaliki LGA; Benue state: Okpokwu and Oju LGAs. 180,000 (2011 U. Francis), increasing. 45,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 180,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bakele, Ukele. Dialects: Mtezi, Ugbala, Iteeji. 4 dialects in the north, 3 south, besides those named. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulere
[kul] Plateau state: Bokkos LGA. 15,600 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akande, Akandi, Kande, Korom Boye, Tof. Dialects: Tof, Richa, Kamwai-Marhai. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Comments: Different from Kulere [sef] of Côte d’Ivoire, a trade dialect of Senoufo.

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Kulung
[bbu] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, Balasa, Bambur, and Kirim; Wukari LGA, Gada Mayo. 40,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Elderly are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakuli, Bakulu, Bakulung, Bambur, Kukulung, Kulu, Kuluno, Wo, Wurkum. Dialects: None known. Mutually unintelligible (less than 20%) with Mbula-Bwazza [mbu] and Bille [bil]. Lexical similarity: 37% with Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], 33% with Bile [bil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: 4 clans: Bambur, Balassa, Banyam, Bamingun. Different from Kulung [mpg] of Chad which is Chadic. Similar in culture to Piya, Kodei, Kwanchi, Pelang, and Pero. Christian.

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Kumba
[ksm] Adamawa state: Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Isaro, Sate, Yofo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kupa
[kug] Kogi state: Lokoja LGA, Abugi area, 52 villages; Niger state: Katcha LGA. 20,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe.

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Kurama
[krh] Kaduna state: Saminaka and Ikara LGAs; Kano state: Tudun Waya LGA. 40,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akurmi, Akurumi, Azumu, Bagwama, Tikurami. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Kushi
[kuh] Gombe state: Shomgom LGA, Kushi village. 11,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chong’e, Goji, Kushe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper.

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Kutep
[kub] Taraba state: Takum LGA. 44,600 in Nigeria (2000). Total users in all countries: 46,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ati, “Jompre” (pej.), Kuteb, Kutev, Mbarike, Zumper. Dialects: Jenuwa, Lissam, Fikyu, Kunabe, Kentin. Fikyu has subdialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kutto
[kpa] Gombe state: Funakaye LGA, 2 villages. 3,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kupto, Kúttò. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper.

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Kuturmi
[khj] Kaduna state: Kachia LGA. 10,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Aclo (Aklo, Kuturmi West), Obiro (Kuturmi East). Intelligibility between dialects acquired by many speakers. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Kwa
[kwb] Adamawa state: Lamurda and Numan LGAs, Gyakan and Kwa towns, near Munga; Taraba state: Karim-Lamido LGA. 7,000 (1992). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baa, Kwah. Dialects: Gyakan, Kwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kwa. Comments: Different from Kwa’ [bko] of Cameroon in the Bamileke group. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwaami
[ksq] Bauchi state: Gombe LGA. 10,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Komawa, Kwam, Kwamanchi, Kwami, Kwom. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper.

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Kyak
[bka] Gombe state: Balanga LGA; Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa state: Lamurda LGA small area. 5,000 (Adelberger 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bambuka, Nyakyak. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kyanga
[tye] Kebbi state: Geshuru, Sarufu, and Tuni villages west of Illo; Boko villages of Maze, Samia, Baikinrua, Pisa. 14,000 in Nigeria (2015 R. Jones). Ethnic population: 200,000. Total users in all countries: 15,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Canga, Changa, Kã, Kenga, Kyangawa, Kyenga, Tienga, Tyanga, Tyenga. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with the Busa group. Lexical similarity: 78% with Shanga [sho], 57%–62% with the Busa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Labir
[jku] Bauchi state: Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. 500 (2008 E. Hannelova et al.), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jakanci, Jaku, Jakun. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility 31% of Bankal [jjr], 24% of Duguri [dbm] and Mbat [bau], 10% of Bankal [jjr], Gwak [jgk], and Mbat [bau]. Lexical similarity: 41% with Gwak [jgk], Bankal [jjr], Duguri [dbm], and Mbat [bau]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Laka
[lak] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa state: Yola LGA. 5,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Godogodo, Lakka, Lao Habe, Lau. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified. Comments: Different from Laka [lap] (Kabba Laka) of Central African Republic and Chad, or from Karang [kzr] (Laka) of Cameroon and Chad. Muslim, Christian.

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Lala-Roba
[lla] Adamawa state: Gombi LGA; Borno state. 46,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gworam. Dialects: Lala (Lalla), Roba (Robba), Ebode. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lamang
[hia] Borno state: Gwoza LGA; Adamawa state: Michika LGA. 40,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbuhwe, Laamang, Waha. Dialects: North Laamang, Central Laamang, South Laamang. 37% intelligibility of Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 31% of Hide [xed]. North Lamang subdialects: Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuba, Leghva (Luhuva), Gwoza-Wakane; Central Lamang: Hedkala (Hidkala, Xidkala, Hitkala, Hitkalanchi), Waga (Waha, Woga, Wagga), Dlige; South Lamang: Ghudavan. Lexical similarity: 64% with Hide and Vemgo-Mabas, 50% with Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang.

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Lame
[bma] Bauchi state: Toro LGA, Lame district. 10,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ruhu (Rufawa, Rufu), Mbaru (Bambara, Bambaro, Bamburo, Bombaro, Bomberawa, Bunberawa), Gura (Agari, Agbiri, Tugura). Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: Different from Pévé [lme] (Lamé) of Cameroon and Chad.

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Lamja-Dengsa-Tola
[ldh] Adamawa state: Mayo Belwa LGA, Ganglamja area between Mayo Belwa and Tola. 13 villages. Lamja central town is Ganglamja; Dengsa are south of Lamja. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lamja, Dengsa, Tola. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Comments: 8 primary schools. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lamnso’
[lns] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, mixed with other languages. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bansaw, Banso, Banso’, Lamnsok, Lamso, Nsaw, Nsho’, Nso, Nso’, Panso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East. Comments: Most Lamnso’ fled to Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Laru
[lan] Niger state: Borgu LGA, Niger river banks, Karabonde, Monnai, Leshigbe, Luma, Sansanni, and Shagunu villages. 5,000 (1995 R. Jones). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laranchi, Larawa, Laro, Sengwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake. Comments: Muslim.

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Leelau
[ldk] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, between Bambuka and Karim-Lamido town, near Lake Mungah. 5,000 (Adelberger 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakula, Lelau, Lelo, Munga, Munga Lelau. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: In Bikwin ethnic subgroup. Clan names: Tanyam, Munzigah, Brem, Gopi. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Legbo
[agb] Cross River state: Obubra LGA; Ebonyi state: Afikpo LGA. 60,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agbo, Gbo, Igbo, Imaban, Itigidi, Leggbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo.

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Lemoro
[ldj] Kaduna state: Lere LGA; Bauchi state: Toro LGA. 10,000 (1998 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anemoro, Anowuru, Emoro, Limorro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lenyima
[ldg] Cross River state: Obubra LGA. Ethnic population: 13,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anyima, Inyima. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo.

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Lere
[gnh] Kaduna state: Lere LGA. Ethnic population: 16,300 (2000). Possibly few speakers left. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Si (Kauru, Kuzamani, Rishuwa), Gana (Ganawa, SiGana), Takaya (Taura). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Leyigha
[ayi] Cross River state: Obubra LGA. 10,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asiga, Assiga, Ayiga, Ayigha, Yigha. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo.

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Lijili
[mgi] Nassarawa state: Awe and Lafia LGAs. 50,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koro Lafia, Koro of Lafia, Ligili, Megili, Migili, Mijili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern. Comments: ‘Migili’ is people name.

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Limbum
[lmp] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Mambila uplands. Few in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kambu, Wimbum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Lokaa
[yaz] Cross River state: Obubra LGA. 120,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loke, Loko, Luko, Yakö, Yakurr. Dialects: Ugep, Nkpam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko.

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Longuda
[lnu] Gombe state: Balanga LGA; Adamawa state: Guyuk LGA. 32,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Languda, Longura, Nunguda, Nungura, Nunguraba. Dialects: Nya Ceriya (Banjiram, Cirimba), Nya Gwanda (Gwandaba, Nyuwar), Nya Guyuwa (Guyuk, Plain Nya Guyuwa, Turuba), Nya Dele (Jessu), Nya Tariya (Taraba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Longuda. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Loo
[ldo] Gombe state: Kaltungo and Shongom LGAs; Taraba state: Lau and Karim Lamido LGAs, Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road. 8,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Lo, Loh, Shungo, Shunhu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: Clan names: Fore (Kyilayo), Bene, Tamu, Bana, Talau, Tadam, Wawa. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lopa
[lop] Kebbi state: Ngaski LGA, Lopa, Gafara, and Raishe; Niger state: Magama LGA, Cifamini, Gungun Tagwaye, and Kwanga; Kainji Reservoir eastern shore, from inlet to dam. Ollop dialect: Lopa to Wara. 5,000 (1996 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djiri, Kirikjir, Lopawa, Lupa, Ollaran. Dialects: Ollop. Marginal intelligibility between dialects; use Hausa [hau] instead. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake. Comments: Those in Borgu LGA assimilating to Bisã language and culture.

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Lubila
[kcc] Cross River state: Akamkpa LGA, Ojo Nkomba and Ojo Akangba. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabila, Kabire, Lubilo, Ofor, Ojor. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko.

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Lufu
[ldq] Taraba state: Takum LGA, Lufu, and Lufu Jauro. Ethnic population: 3,200 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Luri
[ldd] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Kayarda and Luri villages. No known L1 speakers. In 2002, spoken only by the old chief and his wife (R. Blench). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lúr. Dialects: May have been a dialect of Polci [plj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper.

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Maaka
[mew] Yobe state: Gulani LGA, Bara town area. 10,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maga, Magha, Maha, Maka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mada
[mda] Nassarawawa state: Akwanga and Nasarawawa-Eggon LGAs; Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA on southern border; Kaura LGA. 100,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Madda, Yidda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Comments: Different from Mada [mxu] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mafa
[maf] Borno state: Gwoza LGA. 4,910 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bula, Bulahai, “Matakam” (pej.), Natakan. Dialects: Mafa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5.

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Mághdì
[gmd] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, part of the Widala. 2,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tala, Widala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen.

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Mak
[pbl] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, Banbuka to Karim-Lamido road. 5,690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Leemak, Lemak, Panya, Panyam, Zo. Dialects: Panya, Zo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: In Bikwin ethnic subgroup. Clan names: Guma, Zidah, Togon, Mungok, Tawok, Tagwam. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mala
[ruy] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 6,630 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amala, Rumaiya, Rumaya, Tumala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Mama
[mma] Nassarawa state: Akwanga LGA. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kantana, Kwarra. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian.

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Mambila, Nigeria
[mzk] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Mambila plateau. 99,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bang, Lagubi, Mabila, Mambere, Mambilla, Nor, Nor Tagbo, Tongbo. Dialects: Barup. Nearly every village has a separate dialect, forming a chain. Dialect centers are Bang, Dorofi, Gembu, Hainari, Kabri, Mayo Ndaga, Mbamnga, Tamien, Tepo, Warwar. Reportedly similar to Mambila [mcu] of Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mangas
[zns] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Mangas town. 100 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Marghi Central
[mrt] Borno state: Askira-Uba and Damboa LGAs; Adamawa state: Mubi and Michika LGAs. Ethnic population: 158,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). 135,000 in Marghi Central, Marghi South, and Putai languages (1999). Madube: 4,000, Mulgwe: 6,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marghi, Margi. Dialects: Lassa (Babal), Gulak (Dzerngu), Madube (Gwara), Mulgwe (Malgwa), Wurga. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2. Comments: Marghi South [mfm], Marghi Central, and Putai [mfl] form a language subgroup.

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Marghi South
[mfm] Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa state: Mubi and Michika LGAs. Ethnic population: 166,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). 135,000 in Marghi Central, Marghi South, and Putai languages (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Wamdiu, Hildi. Marghi South, Marghi Central [mrt], and Putai [mfl] form a language subgroup. Hoffman (1963) relates Marghi South to Huba [hbb] rather than to Margi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2.

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Mashi
[jms] Taraba state: near Takum. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid.

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Mawa
[wma] Bauchi state: Toro LGA, possibly Mara village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Apparently different from the Mawa [mcw] language of Chad, which is Chadic.

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Mbat
[bau] Plateau state: Kanam LGA; Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA; Gombe state: Alkakeri LGA. 40,000 (2006 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bada’, Badanchi, Badawa, Bat, Garaka, Jar, Jarawan Kogi, Kanna, Mbada, Mbadawa, Plains Jarawa, River Jarawa. Dialects: Mbat (Gagdi-Gum), Galamkya (Gidgid, Gyanggyang). Mbat and Galamkya are mutually intelligible, Mbat intelligible to Duguri [dbm], Duguri [dbm] intelligible to Mbat but not Galamkya, Kantana [mma] marginally intelligible to Galamkya and Mbat. Lexical similarity: Mbat 82% with Galamkya, 75% with Duguri [dbm], 67% with Kantana [mma], 64% with Gwak [jgk], 63% with Bankal [jjr], 41% with Labir [jku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbe
[mfo] Cross River state: Ogoja LGA. 65,000 (2011 F. Ekpong). 15,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ketuen, Western Mbube. Dialects: Idum, Ekumtak, Odaje. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbe. Comments: Distinct from Mbe’ [mtk] of Cameroon, a Grassfields language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mbembe, Cross River
[mfn] Cross River state: Obubra, Yala, and Ikom LGAs; Ebonyi state: Izzi and Abakaliki LGAs. 100,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekokoma, Ifunubwa, Oderiga, Ofunobwam, Okam, Wakande. Dialects: Okom (Eghom, Ohana-Onyen), Apiapum, Adun, Osopong (Ezopong, Osophong), Ofombonga (Ewumbonga), Ofonokpan, Ekama (Ekamu), Oferikpe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Mbembe. Comments: Different from Tigon Mbembe [nza].

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Mbembe, Tigon
[nza] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Kurmi district. 20,000 in Nigeria (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akonto, Akwanto, Noale, Tigim, Tigon, Tigong, Tukun. Dialects: Ashuku (Kitsipki), Nama (Dama, Eneeme, Kporo, Namu, Nzare). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe. Comments: Entirely different from Mbembe [mfn] in Cross River group. Dialects form a subgroup. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mboi
[moi] Adamawa state: Song, Fufore, and Gombi LGAs. 19,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gena, Mboire, Mboyi. Dialects: Banga, Mboi, Handa. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Mboi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbongno
[bgu] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Kakara town. 3,000 in Nigeria (Blench 1999b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bungnu, Bungun, Bunu, Gbunhu, Kakaba, Kamkam. Dialects: Several minor dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mbula-Bwazza
[mbu] Adamawa state: Numan, Girei, Song, Shelleng and Demsa LGAs. 100,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bwazza (Bare, Bere, Bwaza, Bwa’za, kunBwazza), Mbula, Bakopi (kunBuko), Gwamba (Nkono), Tambo (Begel, kunBegel, Taumbo). Mbula 73% intelligible of Tambo, over 80% of other dialects. Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], Kulung [bbu], and Bile [bil] mutually unintelligible (less than 25%). Lexical similarity: Mbula 75% with Bwazza and Gwamba, 70% with Bakopi, 64% with Tambo; Mbula-Bwazza [mbu] 37% with Kulung [bbu], 48% with Bile [bil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: Primary schools in major villages; a few secondary schools. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mburku
[bbt] Bauchi state: Darazo LGA. 12,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barke, Barko, Burkanawa, Kariya, Lipkawa, Mburkanci, Wudufu, Wuufu. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2.

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Mgbolizhia
[gmz] Ebonyi state: Ohaukwu LGA; Benue state: Ado LGA. 190,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mgbo, Ngbo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo.

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Mingang Doso
[mko] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA. 1 village area. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doso, Munga Doso, Ngwai Mungàn. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miship
[mjs] Plateau state: Pankshin, Mangu, and Shendam LGAs. 6,000 (1976 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chip, Cip, Ship. Dialects: Doka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1.

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Miya
[mkf] Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Miya town. 30,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Miyawa, Muya. Dialects: Gala, Faishang, Fursum, Demshin, Federe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mom Jango
[ver] Adamawa state: Yola and Fufore LGAs, Verre hills. 104,000 in Nigeria (2000). Total users in all countries: 110,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kobo, Vere, Verre, Were. Dialects: Mom Jango, Momi (Ziri). Mom Jango and Momi are probably separate languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Montol
[mtl] Plateau state: Shendam LGA. 21,900 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baltap, Montal, Teel. Dialects: Montol, Baltap-Lalin. Related to Tal [tal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2.

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Moo
[gwg] Gombe state: Shomgom and Balanga LGAs, Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road area, near Gomu Mountain. 5,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gomu, Gwom, Gwomo, Gwomu, Ngwaa Móò, Yáá Mòò. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen. Comments: In Bikwin ethnic subgroup. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mumuye
[mzm] Taraba state: Jalingo, Zing, Karim Lamido, Yorro, and Bali LGAs; Adamawa state: Ganye, Fufore, Yola, Numan, and Mayo Belwa LGAs. 400,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yoro. Dialects: Zinna (Zing), Dong, Yoro, Lankaviri, Gola (Bajama), Gongla, Kasaa, Saawa, Jalingo, Nyaaja, Jeng, Gnoore, Yaa, Sagbee, Shaari, Kugong, Mang, Kwaji, Meeka, Yakoko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mundat
[mmf] Plateau state: Bokkos LGA, Mundat village near Sha. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sha [scw] and Duhwa [kbz]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper.

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Mvanip
[mcj] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, 25% of Zongo Ajiya and hamlets northwest of Mambila plateau. 100 (Blench 1999b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Magu, Mvanlip, Mvano, Mvanon, Mvanöp. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila.

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Mwaghavul
[sur] Plateau state: Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGAs. 295,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Maghavul, Sura. Dialects: Mupun (Mapan, Mapun), Panyam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1.

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Nde-Gbite
[ned] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA southeast, Antere. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biti, Bötö. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified.

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Nde-Nsele-Nta
[ndd] Cross River state: Ikom LGA. 19,500 (1987). 12,000 Nde, 3,000 Nsele, 4,500 Nta. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nde (Befon, Ekamtulufu, Mbenkpe, Mbofon, Udom), Nsele (Nselle), Nta (Afunatam, Atam). Lexical similarity: 88%–92% among dialects, 66%–68% with Efutop [ofu], 65%–67% with Abanyom [abm], 53%–58% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 58%–61% with Nnam [nbp], 57%–59% with Ekajuk [eka]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor.

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Ndoe
[nbb] Cross River state: Ikom LGA. 7,340 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ekparabong (Akparabong), Balep (Anep, Anyep). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid.

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Ndoola
[ndr] Taraba state: Bali, Gashaka, and Sardauna LGAs. 60,400 in Nigeria (2000). Total users in all countries: 62,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ndola, Ndoro, Njoyame, Nundoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ndunda
[nuh] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, near Mvanip, on Tea Estate road, northwest of Gembu. 350 (Blench 1999b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila.

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Ngamo
[nbh] Yobe state: Fika LGA; Gombe state: Nafada-Bajoga LGA: Bauchi state: Darazo LGA. 60,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gamawa, Gamo, Ngamawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Ngas
[anc] Plateau state: Pankshin, Kanam, and Langtang LGAs. 400,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angas, Karang, Kerang. Dialects: Hill Angas, Plain Angas. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1. Comments: Kerang or Karang is a place name.

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Nggwahyi
[ngx] Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa state: Hong LGA. 2,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngwaxi, Ngwohi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2.

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Ngizim
[ngi] Yobe state: Damaturu LGA. 80,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngezzim, Ngizmawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper. Comments: Muslim.

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Ngwaba
[ngw] Adamawa state: Gombi LGA at Fachi and Guduniya, and Hong LGA. 2 villages. 10,000 (1993 CAPRO). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Goba, Gombi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nigerian Sign Language
[nsi] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: NSL. Dialects: Western (Lagos), Southern/southeastern (Imo state). Related to American Sign Language (ASL) [ase] and Ghanaian Sign Language [gse]. Influence from spoken English [eng]. Incorporates many local and regional signs, enough that Nigerian Sign Language is now distinct from ASL (2015 E. Asonye). Incorporation of regional signs results in significant dialect differences between western Nigeria (Lagos and vicintiy) vs. southern/southeastern regions, such as three Deaf schools in Imo state (2015 E. Asonye). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Originated in 1960, developing out of Deaf schools established by Deaf American educator Andrew Foster. Some classes in NSL for parents of deaf children (2015 E. Asonye).

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Nikyob-Nindem
[kdp] Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA. 12,000 (2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaningdom-Nindem, Kaningdon-Nindem, Kaningkom-Nindem, Kaningkon-Nindem, Kaninkom-Nindem, Kaninkon-Nindem, Ninkyob-Nindem. Dialects: Nikyob (Kaningkom, Kaningkwom, Kaninkon, Ninkyob, Ninkyop), Nindem (Inidem, Nidem). Nikyob and Nindem are closely related and mutually intelligible. Two varieties of Nikyob are Nikpechio (Kpechio) and Nituran (Turan); there are only slight differences between them (2014 SIL). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Comments: Kaningkom is the Hausa name for Nikyob. Christian.

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Ningye
[nns] Kaduna state: Sanga LGA, Ningeshen Kurmi village, Akwankwan, Kobin, and Ningeshen Dutse settlements. 10,000 (2008 K. Hannelova et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ningeshe. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: 60%–74% of Numana [nbr]; 86%–96% of Numba and Aninka [nbr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ninzo
[nin] Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA; Nassarawa state: Akwanga LGA. 35,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akiza, Amar Tita, Ancha, Fadan Wate, Gbhu D Amar Randfa, Hate, Incha, Kwasu, Ninzam, Nunzo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A.

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Njerep
[njr] Taraba state: near Mambila [mzk] language area. 6 (2000 B. Connell). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Njerup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Njerup.

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Nkari
[nkz] Akwa Ibom state: Ini LGA; Abia state: Arochukwa LGA. 5,000 (1998 B. Connell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of Ibibio [ibb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro.

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Nkem-Nkum
[isi] Cross River state: Ogoja LGA. 51,000 (Yoder et al 2008), increasing. 26,600 Nkem, 24,400 Nkum. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nkem (Adagom, Ishibori, Nkim, Ogboja), Nkum (Alladim, Ibil, Igordori, Ikangdangha, Ishiaya, Ishindede, Nkum-Iborr). Dialects more than 75% mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects, 65%–67% with Nnam [nbp], 63%–67% with Ekajuk [eka], 71% with Abanyom [amb], 53%–58% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 51%–52% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor. Comments: Christian.

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Nkoroo
[nkx] Rivers state: Opobo-Nkoro LGA. 4,550 (1989 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nkoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern. Comments: A separate language within Ijo subgroup.

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Nkukoli
[nbo] Cross River state: Ikom, Obubra, and Akamkpa LGAs juncture, Iko Ekperem development area. 1,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekuri, Lokoli, Lokukoli, Nkokolle. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko.

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Nnam
[nbp] Cross River state: Ikom and Ogoja LGAs; Ebonyi state: Izzi LGA. 3,000 (1987 O. Asinya). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ndem. Dialects: None known. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 87%–90% with Ekajuk [eka], 65%–67% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 72% with Abanyom [abm], 58%–61% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 53% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor.

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Nshi
[nsc] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nkiri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified. Comments: May be the same as Wushi [bse].

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Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu
[nbr] Kaduna state: Jemaa and Sanga LGAs; Nassarawa state: Akwanga LGA. 40,000 (2008 K. Hannelova et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sanga. Dialects: Nunku, Numana (Arak, Inmwen, Nimana), Gbantu (Gwanto, Gwantu), Numbu, Aninka (Gwantu, Kurmi, Ninka, Sanga). Intelligibility: Numbu and Aninka 86%–89% of Numana; Numana 72% of Aninka; Numana and Numbu 22%–24% of Ningye [nns]; Aninka 78% of Ningye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Nungu
[rin] Nassarawa state: Wamba, Akwanga, and Nasarawa-Eggon LGAs; Kaduna state: Sanga, Jema’a, and Kaura LGAs; Plateau state: Riyom and Bokkos LGAs. 50,000 (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lindiri, Rendre, Rindiri, Rindre. Dialects: Rindre, Gudi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A.

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Nupe-Nupe-Tako
[nup] Niger state: Mariga, Gbako, Agaie, and Lapai LGAs; Kwara state: Edu LGA; Kogi state: Kogi LGA; possibly Abuja Capital Territory. 800,000 (1990). L2 users: 200,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Nufawa, Nupe, Nupeci, Nupecidji, Nupenchi, Nupencizi. Dialects: Nupe Central (Ampeyi, Anupe, Anupecwayi, Anuperi, Nife, Nupecizi, Nupencizi, Takpa, Tapa, Tappah), Nupe Tako (Bassa Nge). Nupe Central is literary norm. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nya Huba
[hbb] Adamawa state: Hong, Maiha, Girei, and Mubi LGAs; Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA. 306,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chobba, Huba, Kilba. Dialects: Nya Hong, Nya Gaya, Nya Mugwahi, Nya Garaha, Nya Kopre, Nya Ya Dil. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Nyam
[nmi] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, Ndallang, northeast of Andamin village. Ethnic population: 100 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nyambolo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper.

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Nyankpa
[yes] Kaduna state: Jema’a LGA; Nassarawa state: Karu LGA. 70,000 (2012 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyenkpa, Yasgua, Yeskwa. Dialects: Ejung (Panda), Ejira (Tattara), Engbe (Barde, Bede), Ogbom (Buzi, Gitata). All dialects mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: Ejung 90% with Ejira, 83% with Ogbom, 74% with Engbe; Ejira dialect: 87% with Ogbom, 77% with Engbe; Engbe dialect: 72% with Ogbom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro. Comments: Ejung is reportedly the standard form of Nyankpa. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nyong
[muo] Taraba state: Zing LGA; Adamawa state: Mayo Belwa LGA. 6 villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chukkol, Daganyonga, Mubako, Mumbake, Nyoking, Nyongnepa, Peti, Teteka, Yapeli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nzanyi
[nja] Adamawa state: Maiha LGA. 77,000 in Nigeria (1993). Total users in all countries: 86,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jeng, Jenge, Kobotshi, Njai, Njanyi, Njei, Njeing, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany. Dialects: Paka, Rogede, Nggwoli, Hoode, Maiha, Magara, Dede, Mutidi, Lovi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Obanliku
[bzy] Cross River state: Obanliku LGA; Benue state: Kwande LGA. 65,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abanliku. Dialects: Bebi, Busi, Basang, Bisu (Gayi), Bishiri. Bebi, Bisiri, Bisu, and Busi mutually intelligible, Basang less understood. Related to Alege [alf]. Lexical similarity 76%–96% among dialects, 64%–72% with Bete-Bendi [btt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Obolo
[ann] Rivers state: Andoni LGA; Akwa Ibom state: Eastern Obolo LGA, islands and peninsulas off southern coast. Ibibio [ibb] language area is east and northeast; Ogoni [ogo] language area is northwest, Ibani [iby] language area is west. 250,000 (2012 U. Aaron), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Andone, Andoni, Andonni. Dialects: Ibot Obolo, Okoroete, Ataba, Unyeada, Ngo. Ngo (in the Central area) is prestige dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo. Comments: Stronger Obolo ethnic identity being established in the east. Christian, traditional religion.

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Obulom
[obu] Rivers state: Port Harcourt LGA, Abuloma town. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abuloma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta.

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O’chi’chi’
[xoc] Rivers state: Etche LGA, Ikwewengwo and Umuebulu. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta.

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Odual
[odu] Rivers state: Abua-Odual LGA; Bayelsa state: Ogbia LGA. 18,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Saka. Dialects: Arughunya, Adibom. Lexical similarity: 70% with Abua [abn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual.

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Odut
[oda] Cross River state: Odukpani LGA. 20 (1980 R. Blench). May be extinct (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop.

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Ogbah
[ogc] Rivers state: Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, north Niger delta; Bayelsa, Sagbama LGA. 170,000 (1993 A. Ahiamadu). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ogba. Dialects: Egnih, Igburu-Usomini. Igbo language subgroup member. Lexical similarity: 81%–94% among dialects. Ogbah dialect has 45% lexical similarity with Ndoni [ukw], 41% with Igbo [ibo], 32% with Ikwere [ikw], 23% with Ekpeye [ekp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ogbia
[ogb] Bayelsa state: Brass and Ogbia LGAs; Rivers state: Abua-Odual LGA. 200,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ogbinya. Dialects: Agholo (Kolo), Oloibiri, Anyama. Dialect subgroup but all inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta.

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Ogbogolo
[ogg] Rivers state: Ahoada LGA. 1 town. 10,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Obogolo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta.

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Ogbronuagum
[ogu] Rivers state: Degema LGA, Bukuma village near Buguma. 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukuma, Obronuagum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta.

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Oko-Eni-Osayen
[oks] Kogi state: Okene LGA, Ogori and Magongo towns, south southwest of Okene; Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. 10,000 (Williamson 1989). 4,000 in Ogori, 3,000 in Magongo, 3,000 in Eni. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ogori-Magongo, Oko. Dialects: Oko (Ogori, Uku), Osayen (Magongo, Osanyin), Eni. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Seems equally distantly related to Yoruba [yor], Ebira [igb], Edo [bin], Igbo [ibo], and Idoma [idu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Oko.

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Okobo
[okb] Akwa Ibom state: Okobo LGA; some in Cross River state. 50,000 (Connell and Hajek 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Possibly 2 dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Okobo.

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Okodia
[okd] Bayelsa state: Sagbama LGA; Rivers state: Ogba-Egbena-Ndoni LGA. 3,600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akita, Okordia. Dialects: None known. Not fully intelligible with Biseni [ije] or other Ijo languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo.

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Okpamheri
[opa] Ekiti state: Ekiti East, Aiyekire, Emure, and Ise-Orun LGAs; Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA; Ondo state: Akoko North West and Akoko North East LGAs; Kogi state: Ogori-Magongo LGA. 30,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Opameri. Dialects: Okulosho (Okurosho), Western Okpamheri, Emhalhe (Emarle, Semolika, Somorika), Ibilo. Subdialects of Okulosho: Ojirami (Eekunu), Dagbala (Dangbala), Oja (Oza), Makeke (Uuma), Oma. Subdialects of Western Okpamheri: Ekpe, Bekuma, Lankpese (Lampese, Lankpeshi), Imoga (Imorga, Uma), Eko (Ekon, Ekor), Ikaran-Oke (Ikeram-Oke), Ebunn-Oke, Ikaran-Ele (Ikeran-Ile), Ebunn-Ugbo, Ikpesa, Igbo-Ola-Sale (Ugboshi-Sale), Aiyegunle (Oshi), Igbo-Ola-Oke (Ugboshi-Oke), Onumo (Onumu), Ogugu, Ogbe-Sale, Ogbe-Oke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Okpe
[oke] Delta state: Sapele LGA and Ughelli South LGA, southeast of Warri. 25,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern. Comments: Distinct from Okpe [okx], which is Northwestern Edoid.

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Okpe
[okx] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. 8,700 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern. Comments: Distinct from Okpe [oke], which is Southwestern Edoid.

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Oloma
[olm] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern.

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Olulumo-Ikom
[iko] Cross River state: Ikom LGA. May be in Cameroon. 30,000 (Faraclas 1989). 5,000 Olulumo, 25,000 Ikom. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lulumo. Dialects: Okuni, Olulumo, Ikom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Ikom.

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Oring
[org] Benue state: Okpokwu LGA; Ebonyi state: Ishielu LGA. 75,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koring, Orri, Orrin, Orringorrin. Dialects: Okpoto, Ufia (Utonkon), Ufiom (Effium). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Koring.

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Oro
[orx] Akwa Ibom state: Oron, Udung Uko, and Urue-Offrong-Oruko LGAs. 75,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oron. Dialects: Some dialect variation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Oro.

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Oruma
[orr] Bayelsa state: Ogbia LGA, Oruma and Ibelebiri towns. 5,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo.

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Ososo
[oso] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA; Kogi state: Okene and Adavi LGAs. 19,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Otank
[uta] Cross River state: Obanliku LGA; Benue state: Kwande LGA. 15,000 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itang, Itank, Otang, Otanga, Utanga, Utange, Utank. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Tiv [tiv], 60% with Iceve-Maci [bec], 50% with Evant [bzz], 40% with Mesaka [iyo] and Eman [emn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Christian.

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Pa’a
[pqa] Bauchi state: Ningi and Bauchi LGAs. 8,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afa, Afanci, Afawa, Fa’awa, Foni, Fucaka, Pa’anci, Pa’awa, Pala. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Panawa
[pwb] Bauchi state: Toro LGA, 5 villages; Plateau state: Bassa LGA. 3,500 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bugel, Bujiye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos.

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Pangseng
[pgs] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Pangseng, Komo, Jega. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye.

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Pangu
[png] Niger state: Rafi LGA, Gumna and Tegina districts, between Kusheriki (north), Zungeru (south); Sabon Gari Pangu is center; Kaduna, Minna, Kontagora, and Bida towns. Bordered by Kamuku [cdr], Cahungwarya [nat], Ura [ula], Basa-Kaduna [bsl], Bauchi [bsf], Basa-Gurmana [buj], Gurmana [gvm], and Gbari [gby] language areas. 30,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akwa, Arringeu, Pongo, Pongu, Tarin. Dialects: Tarin, Waga. Lexical similarity: 94%–99% among dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Comments: Sister exchange pattern in marriage (now rarely practiced). Muslim, traditional religion.

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Pe
[pai] Plateau state: Pankshin LGA, 17 km south of Jos-Amper main road. 7 villages. 4,000 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dalong, Pai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid.

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Peere
[pfe] Adamawa state: Ganye LGA. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kotofo, Kotopo, Kotpojo, Koutin, Kutin, Kutine, Kutinn, Pare, Patapori, Peer, Pere, Potopo, Potopore. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin. Comments: Non-indigenous. Speakers reportedly moved to Cameroon after Gashaka-Gumti National Park was created. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Pero
[pip] Gombe state: Kaltungo LGA, Gwandum, Gundalf, Kushi, Yapito, and Burak; Taraba state: Karim-Lamido LGA; possibly Bauchi State. 25,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Filiya, Pipero. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Comments: Christian.

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Pidgin, Nigerian
[pcm] Widespread; coastal and urban areas. 30,000,000 including L1 and L2 speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin, Broken English, Brokin, Brokun, Nigerian Creole English, Nigerian Pidgin English. Dialects: Lagos Pidgin, Delta Pidgin, Cross River Pidgin, Benin Pidgin. No unified standard. Dialects may be very different from each other. Partially intelligible with Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone and Cameroon Pidgin [wes]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio.

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Piti
[pcn] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 8,100 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abisi, Bisi, Pitti. Dialects: Riban (Ribam). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam.

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Piya-Kwonci
[piy] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA; Bauchi state. 21 villages or more. 5,000 (1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ambandi, Pia, Pitiko, Piya, Wurkum. Dialects: Piya, Kwonci. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Comments: Similar in culture to the Kulung [bbu], and Pero [pip]. Christian, Muslim.

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Polci
[plj] Bauchi state: Dass, Toro, and Bauchi LGAs. 22,000 (1995 CAPRO). 2,000 Zul (1995), 4,000 Buli (1993), 400 Langas (1993), 15,000 Polci, 250 Baram (1993), 800 Dir (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Palchi, Palci, Polchi. Dialects: Zul (Barma, Mbarmi), Baram (Barang, Mbaram), Dir (Baram Dutse, Diir, Dra), Buli, Langas (Lundur, Nyamzax), Polci (Palci, Polshi, Posa). Dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper.

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Psikye
[kvj] Adamawa state: north and east of Michika, south of Madagali, in Mandara mountains. 12,000 in Nigeria (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake. Dialects: Psikye (Kamu, Kapsiki), Zlenge, Wula (Lying, Oula, Ula-Xangku). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Putai
[mfl] Borno state: Akira-Uba, Chibok, Hawul, Biu, Damboa, Konduga, and Kaga LGAs; Adamawa state: Michika and Madagali LGAs. 50 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marghi West. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1.

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Pyapun
[pcw] Plateau state: Shendam LGA. 17,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Tal [tal] and Montol [mtl]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2.

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Rang
[rax] Taraba state: Zing LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mumuye [mzm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye.

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Reshe
[res] Kebbi state: Yauri LGA; Niger state: Borgu LGA; Niger river banks, north of Busa. 44,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bareshe, Gunga, Gunganchi, Gungawa, Tsureja, Tsureshe, Yaurawa. Dialects: None known. Most divergent of Western Kainji languages (Blench 1988). Lexical similarity: 43% with Lopa [lop], 33% with Laru [lan], 20% with Hun-Saare [dud], 11% with Tsishingini [tsw] (Salka). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Reshe. Comments: Strong association between wrestling, the traditional religion, and ethnic identity. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Rogo
[rod] Niger state: Rafi and Mariga LGAs, Ucanja town area, northwest of Kagara; Kaduna state: Birnin Gwari LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Burogo, Shiyabe, toRogo, Toshiyabe, Ucanja Kamuku, Urogo. Dialects: Cinda [cdr] and Regi [cdr] are intelligible of some Rogo dialects. Lexical similarity: 66% with Eastern Acipa [acp], 67% with Shama [sqa], 70% with Kamuku (Cinda) [cdr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku.

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Ron
[cla] Plateau state: Bokkos, Barakin-Ladi, and Mangu LGAs; possibly Nasawara state. 176,000 (2006 census). 20,000 Shagau (Manguna). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Chala” (pej.), “Challa” (pej.). Dialects: Alis I Ron (Alis I Run, Bokkos), Lis Ma Ron (Lis Ma Run), Shagau (Maleni, Manguna, Nafunfia, Shagawu). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper. Comments: Different clans within Lis Ma Ron are Mbar, Mangor, Kunduk, Bargesh, Daffo, and Butura. Christian.

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Ruma
[ruz] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 5,090 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagwama, Rurama, Ruruma, Turama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Samba Daka
[ccg] Taraba state: Gashaka, Jalingo, Bali, and Zing LGAs; Adamawa state: Ganye and Mayo Belwa LGAs. 107,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chamba, Chamba Daka, Daka, Dakka, Dekka, Deng, Jama, Nakanyare, Naken, Nyare, Sama, Samba, Tchamba, Tikk, Tsamba. Dialects: Samba Daka, Samba Jangani, Samba Nnakenyare, Samba of Mapeo, Taram, Dirim. It may form a language subgroup with Lamja-Dengsa-Tola [ldh]. Reportedly similar to Dirim [dir]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid. Comments: Different from Samba Leko [ndi] or Akaselem [aks] of Togo. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Samba Leko
[ndi] Benue state: Kwande LGA; Taraba state: Takum LGA; Taraba state: Donga and Bali LGAs; Adamawa state: Jada LGA; five separate enclaves. 62,000 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chamba Leko, Lego, Leko, Lekon, Ndi, Samba, Samba Leeko, Suntai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kolbila [klc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sambe
[xab] Kaduna state: Sambe village 10 km west of Agamati town. 6 (Blench 2003). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Hasha [ybj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B.

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Sanga
[xsn] Bauchi state: Toro LGA; Plateau state: Bassa LGA; Kaduna state: Lere LGA. 20,100 (2000). 1,600 Bujiyel (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asanga, Isanga. Dialects: Bujiyel. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera. Comments: Distinct from Numana-Nunku-Gbantu [nbr] (Sanga) of Kaduna and Plateau states. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sasaru
[sxs] Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA. 12,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Saya
[say] Bauchi state: Toro, Dass, Tafawa-Balewa, and Bogoro LGAs; Plateau state: Kanem and Mangu LGAs borders. 300,000 (2013 SIL). 7,000 Sigidi (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sayanci, Sayara, Sayawa, Seiyara, Seya, Seyawa, Vigzar, Vikzar, Zaar. Dialects: Ntumu, Okak (Ntumu), Sigidi (Segiddi, Sigdi, Sugudi), Gambar (Gambar Leere, Kal, Lusa, Vigzar, Vikzar). Dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Lusa is the prestige dialect and other dialects are thought to be shifting to Lusa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Comments: A person who speaks Zaar is known as a Vigzar (Vikzar). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sha
[scw] Plateau state: Bokkos LGA, Sha district; Kaduna state: Sanga LGA border. 3,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper.

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Shall-Zwall
[sha] Bauchi state: Dass LGA. 8,900 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Shall (Shal), Zwall. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic.

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Shama-Sambuga
[sqa] Niger state: Rafi and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna state: Birnin Gwari LGA. 5,000 (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tushama, Ushama. Dialects: Shama, Sambuga. No intelligibility of Kamuku [cdr] by Shama. Lexical similarity: 54%–75% with Kamuku [cdr]; 69% with Cahungwarya [nat], 66% with Eastern Acipa [acp], 16%–17% with Cicipu [awc], 82% with Maruba [cdr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku. Comments: The Sambuga dialect appears extinct.

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Shamang
[xsh] Kaduna state: Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samang, Samban. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic.

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Shanga
[sho] Kebbi state: Sakace, Lopo, Sawa, and Samia villages south of Nasarawa. 6,000 (2012 R. Jones). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2010 R. Jones). There is ethnic Shanga population speaking Hausa [hau] in Shanga, Dugu Tsofo, and some other villages in Kebbi State between Kaoje and Yauri, Niger river, both sides. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shangawa, Shonga, Shongawa. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with the Busa group. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kyanga [tye], 54%–65% with the Busa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Shau
[sqh] Bauchi state: Toro LGA, Shau and Mana villages. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lìsháù, Sho. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Sheni
[scv] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 6 (2004 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Shaini, Shani, Shenanci. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Shiki
[gua] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Gubi and Guru towns north of Bauchi town. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guba, Gubawa, Gubi, Mashiki. Dialects: Gubi, Guru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian. Comments: Muslim.

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Shoo-Minda-Nye
[bcv] Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, Benue river banks. 10,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakula. Dialects: Shoo (Banda, Bandawa), Minda (Jinleri), Nye (Kunini). All 3 dialects are of equal status. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified. Comments: Ethnic groups: Banda, Kunini, Lau Habe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Shuwa-Zamani
[ksa] Kaduna state: Kajuru LGA. 1,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kauru, Kuzamani, Rishuwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Siri
[sir] Bauchi state: Ningi LGA. Ethnic population: 3,800 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sirawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Somyev
[kgt] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Kila Yang, Njike, Kuma, Jabu, Kikau, and Mayo Daga towns. 15 (2000 B. Connell). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kila, Somyewe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila. Comments: Live among the Mambila. Muslim.

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Sorko
[bze] Niger, Kwara, and Kebbi states, Lake Kainji. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Boso” (pej.), Bozo, Corogama, Jenaama Bozo, Jenama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorogama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama. Comments: Non-indigenous. New Sorko speaking groups migrating downriver into Nigeria. Muslim.

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Sukur
[syk] Adamawa state: Madagali LGA, Mandara mountains; Borno state: Gwoza LGA. 14,800 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adikimmu Sukur, Gemasakun, Sakul, Sugur. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.6. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sur
[tdl] Bauchi state: Tafawa Balewa LGA; Plateau state: Pankshin LGA. 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dishili, Myet, Nsur, Suru, Tapshin, Tapshinawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Surubu
[sde] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 7,170 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiti, Skrubu, Srubu, Zurubu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Tal
[tal] Plateau state: Pankshin LGA. 10,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tala
[tak] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Kuka and Talan Kasa villages. 1,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tamajaq, Tawallammat
[ttq] Sokoto state. Few in Nigeria. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azbinawa, Buzu, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tamajaq, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tuareg. Dialects: Ioullemmeden. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Seasonal migrants and laborers. No resident villages. May be the eastern, not western, dialect in Nigeria. Muslim.

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Tambas
[tdk] Plateau state: Pankshin LGA. 3,000 (2001 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tambes, Tembis. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer.

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Tangale
[tan] Gombe state: Billiri, Kaltungo, Akko, and Balanga LGAs; Baluchi state: Alkaleri LGA, Futuk village. 200,000 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tangle. Dialects: Kaltungo (Tangale East), Biliri (Tangale West). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper. Comments: Kaltungo dialect is sub-divided into Shongom, Ture and Kalargo. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tanjijili
[uji] Niger state: Chanchaga and Suleija LGAs, Kafin Koro on Minna to Abuja road. About 10 villages. 8,540 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jijili, Koro, Koro Funtu of Kafin Koro, Koro Funtu of Minna, Koro Funtu of Shakoyi, Ujijili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern. Comments: All alternate names listed, except Tanjijili, are names of the people.

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Tarjumo
[txj] Borno state. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Old Kanembu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Central Kanuri [knc] and Kanembu [kbl]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Muslim.

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Tarok
[yer] Plateau state: Kanam, Wase, and Langtang LGAs; Taraba state: Wukari LGA. 300,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Appa, Yergam, Yergum. Dialects: Izini (Hill Tarok), Itarok (Plain Tarok), Selyer, Itarok Oga Asa, Igyang. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid.

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Tedaga
[tuq] Borno state: northeast LGAs. A few villages. 2,000 in Nigeria (Blench and Zeitlyn 1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Teda. Dialects: Kecherda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Tee
[tkq] Rivers state: Tai LGA. Ethnic population: 313,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai. Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of Khana [ogo]. Has a number of sounds not found in Khana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East.

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Teme
[tdo] Adamawa state: Mayo Belwa LGA, Mayo Belwa river banks. 4,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Tera
[ttr] Gombe state: Yamaltu-Deba LGA; Borno state: Kwayakusar LGA. 101,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nyimatli (Nimalto, Nyemathi, Nyimatali, Yamaltu), Pidlimdi (Ghena, Ghuna, Hina, Hinna), Bura Kokura. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western.

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Tha
[thy] Taraba state: Lau area. 1,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Joole Manga, Kapawa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen.

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Tita
[tdq] Taraba state: Jalingo LGA, Hoai Petel. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hoai Petel. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo.

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Tiv
[tiv] Benue state: Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko, Kwande, Vandeikya, Katsina Ala, Guma, Buruku, and Ushongo LGAs; Nassarawa state: Doma, Nasarawa, Lafia, Obi, Keana, and Awe LGAs; Plateau state: Qua’an Pan and Shendam LGAs; Taraba state: Bali, Takum, and Wukari LGAs, Cross River state: Yala, Bekwara, Obudu, and Obanliku LGAs. 2,210,000 in Nigeria (1991 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: “Munshi” (pej.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Toro
[tdv] Kaduna state: Sanga LGA; Nassarawa state: Wamba LGA, northeast of Wamba, Turkwam village. 3,930 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Turkwam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau. Comments: Identify culturally with the Kantana [mma].

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Tsikimba
[kdl] Niger state: Magama, Mashegu, and Mariga LGAs, Auna and Wara areas, east of Kainji lake on Niger river; Kebbi state: Ngaski LGA, south end of Kainji lake. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agaushi, Akimba, Auna, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Kimba. Dialects: Agaunshe, Ashen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tsishingini
[tsw] Niger state: Rijau, Mashegu, Kontagora, Magama, and Mariga LGAs, Salka area; Kebbi state: Ngaski LGA, east of Kainji lake. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ashingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Salka. Dialects: Ibeto. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Comments: Primarily rural. Christian, Muslim.

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Tso
[ldp] Adamawa state: Lamurde LGA; Gombe state: Balanga LGA. 16,000 (1992 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cibbo, Cuyi Tsó, Kitta, Lotsu-Piri, Pire, Piri, Tsóbó. Dialects: Berbou, Gusubou, Swabou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona.

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Tsucuba
[cbq] Kebbi state: Ngaski LGA, Wara. 8 villages. 1,000 (2014 S. McGill). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuba, Urcibar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake.

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Tsuvadi
[tvd] Niger state: Magama, Kontagora, Mariga and Rijau LGAs; Kebbi state: Ngaski LGA. 130,000 (2011 M. Hansley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abadi, Avadi, Evadi, Ibeto, Kamberi. Dialects: Tsuvadi-Agadi, Tsuvadi-Azozolo, Kakihum. Lexical similarity: 77%–80% with Azozolo and Agadi dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Tula
[tul] Gombe state: Kaltungo LGA, 30 km east of Billiri. 30,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kotule, Kutule. Dialects: Kutule, Baule, Yili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula. Comments: Several primary and secondary schools.

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Tumi
[kku] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 2,270 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitimi, Tutumi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Tunzuii
[dza] Plateau state: Jos East LGA, 5 villages; Bauchi state: Toro LGA, 2 villages. 2,500 (Blench 2003). Ethnic population: 4,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dugusa, Duguza, Itunzu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Tyap
[kcg] Kaduna state: Kachia, Saminaka, and Jema’a LGAs. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katab, Kataf. Dialects: Atakat (Atakar, Attaka, Attakad, Attakar, Takat), Kachichere (Aticherak, Daroro, Techera), Kafanchan (Fantuan, Fantwam, Kpashan), Katab (Atyap, Tyap), Sholio (Aholio, Asholio, Asolio, Maroa, Maruwa), Gworok (Agolok, Agorok, Aguro, Agwolok, Agwot, Kagoro). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central. Comments: An important district language.

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Ubaghara
[byc] Cross River state: Akampka LGA. 30,000 (1985 UBS). 24,000 Biakpan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Biakpan, Ikun, Etono, Ugbem, Utuma (Utama, Utamu). Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Ubaghara.

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Ubang
[uba] Cross River state: Obudu LGA. 11,100 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi.

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Uda
[uda] Akwa Ibom state: Mbo LGA. 10,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda.

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Uhami
[uha] Ekiti state: Ikere LGA. 13,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ishua. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse.

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Ukaan
[kcf] Ekiti state: Akoko North East LGA; Edo state: Akoko-Edo LGA; Kogi state: Ijimu LGA, Ayanran, Auga, and Ishe towns. 18,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: AIKA (Ayanran-Ishe-Kakumo-Auga), Anyaran, Auga, Ikan, Kakumo. Dialects: Ikaan, Iiagu, Ujegbe (Ayegbe, Iisheu), Ijion (Iinno, Iyinno). Only 1-way intelligibility between some dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Ukaan.

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Ukpe-Bayobiri
[ukp] Cross River state: Obudu and Ikom LGAs. 21,500 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ukpe, Bayobiri. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi.

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Ukpet-Ehom
[akd] Cross River state: Akamkpa LGA. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akpet-Ehom. Dialects: Ukpet (Akpet), Ehom (Ebeteng, Ubeteng). A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Akpet.

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Ukue
[uku] Ekiti state: Ado-Ekiti and Irepodun-Ifelodun LGAs. 14,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpenmen, Ekpenmi, Epinmi, Ukpe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse.

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Ukwa
[ukq] Cross River state: Akampka LGA. 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik.

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Ukwuani-Aboh-Ndoni
[ukw] Delta state: Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA; Anambra state: Ogbaru LGA; Rivers state: Oguta and Ohaji-Egbema Ndoni LGAs; Edo state: Ndokwa East LGA. 150,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ukwuani (Kwale, Ukwali, Ukwani), Abo (Aboh, Eboh), Ndoni. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo.

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Ulukwumi
[ulb] Edo state: Esan South East LGA, west of Niger river. 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri.

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Umon
[umm] Cross River state: Akampka LGA. 25 villages. 20,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono.

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Uneme
[une] Edo state: Etsako, Agbazko, and Akoko-Edo LGAs. 19,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ileme, Ineme, Uleme. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee.

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Urhobo
[urh] Delta state: Ethiope East, Ughelli North and Ughelli South LGAs, Sapele and Warri areas; Edo state: Orhiomwon and Ikpoba-Okha LGAs. 546,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Sobo” (pej.). Dialects: Agbarho, Ujevwe, Agbon, Udu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern.

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Usaghade
[usk] Cross River state: Odukpani LGA, Calabar area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Isangele, Usakade, Usakedet. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade.

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ut-Ma’in
[gel] Kebbi state: Zuru LGA, Fakai district, migrants south; Sakaba LGA, Kur; Zamfara state: Kebbe LGA. 36,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fakai, Fakanchi, Fakanci, Fakkanci, Gelanchi. Dialects: Kag (Et-Kag, Fakanchi, Puku), Jiir (Et-Jiir, Gelanchi), Kur (Kar, Kelanchi, Kelinci, Kelli-Ni, Kere, Keri-Ni), Zuksun (Et-Zuksun, Zussun), Ror (Er-Gwar, Et-Maror, Tudanchi), Fer (Et-Fer, Fere, Kukum, Wipsi-Ni), Us (Et-Us), Koor (Kulu). Kag, Ker, Jiir, and Fer have 79%–92% inherent intelligibility of Ror. Ror and Kag, the largest dialects, Koor and Us, the smallest. Lexical similarity: 81%–97% among dialects, 63% with Hun-Saare [dud], 50% with C’lela [dri], 57% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka. Comments: Want literature in their language. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Utugwang-Irungene-Afrike
[afe] Cross River state: Obudu, Ogoja, and Bekwarra LGAs; Benue state: Vandeika LGA. 70,000 (2012 L. Otronyi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ebe Cluster, Putukwam. Dialects: Utugwang (Otukwang, Utukwang), Okworogung (Ukworogung), Ukwortung (Okorotung), Afrike (Aferike, Utumane), Mgbenege (Ngbenege), Irungene (Mbe Afal, Mbe East, Mbube Eastern, Obe, Upper Mbe). Utugwang intelligible of all dialects. Afrike and Irungene are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: Irungene 89% with Afrike, 80%–86% with Utugwang sub-group; Afrike and Irungene 67%–78% with Utugwang subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi. Comments: Utugwang, Okwortung, Okworogung, and Mgbenege accept Utugwang as a cover term. Christian, traditional religion.

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Uvbie
[evh] Delta state: Ethiope LGA. 19,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Effurun, “Evhro” (pej.), Evrie, Uvhria, Uvwie. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern.

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Uzekwe
[eze] Cross River state: Ogoja LGA. 5,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ezekwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele.

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Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri
[bij] Plateau state: Mangu LGA; Bauchi state: Tafawa Balewa LGA. 10 villages 20 km south of Tafawa Balewa. 20,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Vwhat. Dialects: Vaghat (Tivaghat), Ya (Boi, Tiya), Bijim, Legeri. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Vemgo-Mabas
[vem] Adamawa state: Michika LGA, Madagali district. 10,000 in Nigeria (1993). Total users in all countries: 11,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Vemgo, Mabas, Visik (Vizik). 56% intelligibility of Lamang [hia], 36% intelligibility of Hdi [xed]. Possibly intelligible of Mafa [maf]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Hdi [xed], 81% with Lamang [hia], 64% with Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang. Comments: Maya may be an alternate name. Different from Maba [mde] of Chad. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Viti
[vit] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Antere. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vötö. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified.

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Vono
[kch] Kaduna state: Saminaka LGA. 500 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kiballo, Kiwollo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru.

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Voro
[vor] Adamawa state: Guyuk and Song LGAs, Waltande, area hamlets. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bena, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Woro, Yungur. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba.

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Vute
[vut] Taraba state: Sardauna LGA, Northeast Mambila plateau. 1,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Babute, Bute, Buti, Fute, Mbute, Mbutere, Mfuti, Vutere, Wetere, Wute. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute.

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Waja
[wja] Gombe state: Balanga, Akko, and Yamaltu Deba LGAs; Adamawa state: northern Michika LGA; Borno state: Gwoza LGA; Taraba state: Bali LGA. 60,000 (1989 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyan Wiyau, Wiyaa, Wuya. Dialects: Deruwo (Wajan Dutse), Waja (Wajan Kasa). Small dialect differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Waka
[wav] Adamawa state: Numan and Demsa LGAs. 5,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye.

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Wandala
[mfi] Borno state: Damboa, Bama, Gwoza, and Konduga LGAs. 20,000 in Nigeria (1993). 10,000 Gamargu, 9,300 Kirawa. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandara, Ndara. Dialects: Kamburwama, Masfeima, Jampalam, Ziogba, Mazagwa, Gwanje, Gamargu (Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa), Kirawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Wannu
[jub] Benue state: Makurdi LGA, Iharev district, Abinsi town. 4000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abinsi, Awannu, Jukun Abinsi, River Jukun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wapan
[juk] Taraba state: Wukari and Gassol LGAs; Nassarawa state: Lafia and Awe LGAs; Plateau state: Shendam and Langtang South LGAs; Benue state: Guma LGA. 100,000 (1994 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jinkum, Jukon, Juku, Juku Junkun, Jukum, Jukun Wapan, Jukun Wukari, Wakari, Wapã, Wukari. Dialects: Wukan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wãpha
[juw] Plateau state: Shendam, Wase LGA, Wase Tofa village; Langtang LGA, Kumbur village. 1,610 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wase, Wase Tofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Warji
[wji] Bauchi state: Ningi LGA; Jigawa state: Birnin Kudu LGA. 77,700 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sar, Sarawa, Warja, Warjawa. Dialects: Miya [mkf] may be a dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wom
[wom] Adamawa state: Fufore LGA. 5,000 (Blench 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pere, Pereba, Perema. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Samba Leko [ndi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko. Comments: Reportedly intermarry with Mom Jango [ver]. Wom is a town name. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Yace
[ekr] Cross River state: Yala LGA, Osina, Imbuor, Uchu, Aliforkpa, Wonyer, and Maa. 50,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpari, Iyace, Yache, Yatye. Dialects: Alifokpa, Ijiegu. Lexical similarity: 84% with Akpa [akf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa.

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Yala
[yba] Cross River state: Yala, Obubra, and Ikom LGAs; Benue state: Oju LGA. 200,000 (2008 L. Otronyi), increasing. 50,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Iyala. Dialects: Nkum (Yala Ikom), Nkum Akpambe (Yala Obubra), Yala Ogoja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yamba
[yam] Taraba state: Sardauna and Gashaka LGAs, Antere, and other border villages. Few in Nigeria (1990 R. Blench). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Kaka” (pej.), Mbem. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe.

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Yangkam
[bsx] Plateau state: Kanam, Langtang, and Wase LGAs, on Amper-Bashar road, Tukur, Bayar, Pyaksam, and Kiram villages. 100 (1996 R. Blench). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bashar, Basharawa, Bashiri, Yankam. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pe [pai]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid. Comments: Heavily influenced by 19th-century slave raids. Muslim.

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Yedina
[bdm] Borno state: islands in Lake Chad. 3,000 in Nigeria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Buduma, Yedana, Yedima, Yidana. Dialects: Buduma, Kuri (Kakaa, Kouri). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma. Comments: Seminomadic. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yekhee
[ets] Edo state: Etsako West, Etsako Central, and Etsako East LGAs; Kogi state: Ajaokuta LGA. 274,000 (1995 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afenmai, Etsako, Etsakor, Iyekhee, “Kukuruku” (pej.). Dialects: Auchi, Uzairue, South Ibie (South Ivbie), Uwepa-Uwano (Weppa Wano), Avianwu (Fugar), Aviele, Ivhiadaobi, Ekperi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee. Comments: Not all speakers recognize Yekhee as language name; some prefer Etsako. However, Etsako is not the only language spoken in Etsako LGA.

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Yendang
[ynq] Adamawa state: Mayo Belwa; Taraba state: Yoro, Lau, Zing, and Karim Lamido LGAs; Jalingo; a village quarter of Yola. 50,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuseki, Nya Korok, Nya Yendang, Nyandang, Yadang, Yandang, Yendam, Yundum. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yotti [yot] and Waka [wav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang.

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Yoruba
[yor] Widespread in southwest. 18,900,000 in Nigeria (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 2,000,000 in Nigeria. Ethnic population: 37,000,000 (2015 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 21,043,700 (as L1: 19,043,700; as L2: 2,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in southwestern region. Alternate Names: Yariba, Yooba. Dialects: Oyo, Ijesha, Ila, Ijebu, Ondo, Wo, Owe, Jumu, Iworro, Igbonna, Yagba, Gbedde, Egba, Akono, Aworo, Bunu (Bini), Ekiti, Ilaje, Ikale, Awori, Ào. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yotti
[yot] Taraba state: south of Mayo-Lope. 8 villages. 3,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wonkorok, Yoti. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35% with Bali [bcn], 35% with Kpasham [pbn], 13% with Yendang [ynq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang.

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Yukuben
[ybl] Taraba state: Takum LGA, between Katsina Ala and Gamana rivers. About 20 villages. 15,000 in Nigeria (1992). Total users in all countries: 15,950. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ayikiben, Balaabe, Balaaben, Boritsu, Nyikobe, Nyikuben, Oohum, Uhumkhegi, Uuhum, Uuhum-Gigi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ywom
[gek] Plateau state: Mikang, Shendam and Langtang LGAs; Taraba state. 14,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gerka, Gerkanchi, Gerkawa, Gurka, Yiwom. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Yiwom.

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Zangwal
[zah] Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA. 100 (1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Twar, Zwangal. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum. Comments: Muslim.

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Zari
[zaz] Bauchi state: Toro, Dass, and Tafawa Balewa LGAs. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 20,700 (2000 CAPRO). 20,000 Zakshi (1995 CAPRO), 1,000 Boto (Gunn 1953). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Zariwa. Dialects: Zakshi (Zaksa), Boto (Bibot, Boot), Zari (Kopti, Kwapm). Dialect cluster within Barawa cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper. Comments: Hausa [hau] is rapidly replacing the indigenous languages. (Shimizu 1978). Muslim.

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Zarma
[dje] Kebbi state: Argungu, Birnin Kebbi, and Bunza LGAs; Niger state: on Kontagora road; Yobe state: north of Nguru. 87,800 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zerma. Dialects: Kaado. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Zeem
[zua] Bauchi state: Toro LGA. 400 (Blench 2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chaari. Dialects: Tulai, Danshe, Lushi (Dokshi, Lukshi), Dyarum (Kaiwari, Kaiyorawa). Zeem dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Tulai and Danshe dialects have no remaining speakers. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper.

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Zhire
[zhi] Kaduna state: Kachia and Jema’a LGAs. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenyi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic.

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Ziriya
[zir] Bauchi state: Toro LGA, Kere and Ziriya. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jiriya. Dialects: None known. May not be distinct from Sheni [scv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera.

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Zizilivakan
[ziz] Adamawa state: Mubi North LGA, Jilvu town, near Cameroon border. 6,000 in Nigeria (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Total users in all countries: 6,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Àmzírív, Fali of Jilbu, Jilvu, Zhilvu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility 20% of Fali [fli]. Lexical similarity: 47%–59% with Fali [fli]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8. Comments: People called Fali of Jilbu. Christian, traditional religion.

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Zumbun
[jmb] Bauchi state: Darazo LGA, Jimbim settlement. 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jimbin, Jimbinawa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2. Comments: Traditional religion.

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