Nigeria

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Abanyom
[abm] Cross River State, Ikom LGA, Abangkang, main village. 12,500 (1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abanyum, Befun, Bofon, Mbofon Dialects: None known. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 71% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 72% with Nnam [nbp], 66%–68% with Ekajuk [eka], 65%–67% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 56% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor

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Abon
[abo] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Abong town, southeast of Baissa. 1,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abõ, Abong, Ba’ban Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

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Abua
[abn] Rivers State, Degema and Ahoada LGAs. 25,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abuan Dialects: Central Abuan, Emughan, Okpeden, Otapha (Otabha). Central dialect understood by all others. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odual [odu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual

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Abureni
[mgj] Bayelsa State, Brass LGA, Agrisaba (Obo-Emeke), 4 towns; Ogbia LGA, Idema; Nembe LGA, Okoroba; Ogbia LGA, Opume, which is politically in Oloibiri. 4,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mini Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta Comments: ‘Mini’ is the Nembe name.

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Acipa, Eastern
[acp] Niger State, Kontagora LGA; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA, Randeggi, Bobi, and Igwama towns. 5,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Achipa, Acipanci, Sagamuk, Zubazuba Dialects: Bobi, Boroma (Taboroma), Randeggi. Lexical similarity: 83% with Randeggi and Bobi, 52% with Shama-Sambuga [sqa], 47%–63% with Kamuku [cdr], 42%–44% with Hungworo [nat], 15%–20% with Cicipu [awc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Adara
[kad] Kaduna State, Kajura and Kechia LGAs; Niger State, Paikoro and Muya LGAs. 300,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadara Dialects: Ada (E’da, Misiyen), Adara (Kadara, Misiyo), Eneje (Aji). Adara 75% of Eneje, 66% of Ada; Ada: 75% of Adara, 80% of Eneje; Eneje: 100% of Adara, 96% of Ada; among the 3 dialects, speakers use the vernacular with each other. Lexical Similarity: 28% with Ekhwa [ikv], 32% with Ajiya (Idon) [idc]; Dialects: Adara 64% with Eneje, 57% with Ada; Eneje 70% with Ada. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aduge
[adu] Anambra State, Oyi LGA. 1,900 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern

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Afade
[aal] Borno State, Ngala LGA. 12 villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afada, Afadeh, Affade, Kotoko, Mogari Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: Kotoko speakers in Nigeria may speak Afade.

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Agatu
[agc] Benue State, Otukpo LGA, Agatu, Ochekwu, and Adoka districts; Nassarawa State, Awe and Nasarawa LGAs. 70,000 (1987 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Idoma, Ochekwu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

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Agoi
[ibm] Cross River State, Obubra LGA, Agoi-Ekpo, Ekom-Agoi, Agoi-Ibami, and Itu-Agoi towns. 12,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibami, Ro Bambami, Wa Bambani, Wagoi Dialects: Iko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong

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Agwagwune
[yay] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agwaguna, “Akunakuna” (pej.), Akurakura, Gwune, Okurikan Dialects: Abayongo (Bayino, Bayono), Abini (Abiri, Obini), Adim (Dim, Odim), Agwagwune, Erei (“Enna” (pej.), Ezei), Etono (Etuno), Orum. A dialect cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono Comments: “Enna” is a pejorative word from Ibu.

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Àhàn
[ahn] Ondo State, Ekiti LGA, Ajowa, Igashi, and Omuo towns. 300 (2000 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahaan Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Ayere-Ahan

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Ahwai
[nfd] Kaduna State, Sanga LGA, southwest of Fadan Karshe, about 25 villages surrounding Ahwai mountain. 15,000 (2006 M. Rueck, K. Hannelová, and Z. Yoder). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ndun (Indun, Nandu), Nyeng (Hanyeng, Ningon), Shakara (Isakara, Tari). Nyeng 94% intelligible of Ndun, Shakara 88% of Nyeng and Ndun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, West-Central Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ajawa
[ajw] Bauchi State. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aja, Ajanci Dialects: None known. Related to Miya [mkf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

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Ajiya
[idc] Kaduna State, Kajuru LGA. 5,000 (Blench 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajuli, Idon, Idong, Misiwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern Comments: Identify with the Adara [kad]. Christian, Muslim.

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Ake
[aik] Nassarawa State, Lafia LGA. 3 villages. 3,000 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aike, Akye Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Eggon [ego]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B

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Akpa
[akf] Benue State, Otukpo LGA. 26,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akweya Dialects: Dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 84% with Yace [ekr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa

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Akpes
[ibe] Ondo State, Akoko North LGA. 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibaram-Efifa Dialects: Akunnu (Akpes), Ase, Daja, Efifa, Esuku (Echuku), Gedegede, Ibaram, Ikorom, Iyani. A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Akpes

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Akuku
[ayk] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Oloma [olm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

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Akum
[aku] Taraba State, near Cameroon border, Manga, Ekban, and Konkom villages. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Anyar Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

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Alago
[ala] Nassarawa State, Awe and Lafia LGAs. 35,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arago, Aragu, Argo, Idoma Nokwu Dialects: Agwatashi, Assaikio, Doma, Keana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Alege
[alf] Cross River State, Obudu LGA. 16,300 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alegi, Ugbe, Uge Dialects: None known. Related to Gayi [bzy] (Bisu of Obanliku subgroup) of Nigeria and Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

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Alumu-Tesu
[aab] Nassarawa State, Akwanga LGA, near Wamba. Alumu dialect in 7 villages; Tesu in 1. 7,000 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alumu, Arum-Cesu, Arum-Chessu, Arum-Tesu Dialects: Alumu (Arum), Tesu. Related to Toro [tdv]. The 2 dialects have only intonation differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Alumic

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Ambo
[amb] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA. 1 village east of Baissa. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

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Amo
[amo] Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 12,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amon, Among, Ba Dialects: None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Amo Comments: Ethnic autonym: Amap. ‘Kumap’, a speaker.

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Anaang
[anw] Akwa Ibom State, Ikot Ekpene, Essien Udim, Abak, Ukanafun, and Oruk-Anam LGAs. 1,400,000 (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anang, Annang Dialects: Abak, Ikot Ekpene, Ukanafun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik Comments: Referred to locally as Ekpene, Abak, and Ukanafun.

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Áncá
[acb] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nca village. 300 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bunta Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified Comments: May be the same as Manta [myg].

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Arabic, Shuwa
[shu] Borno State, Dikwa, Konduga, Ngala, and Bama LGAs, widespread across Borno and Yobe states following livestock movement. 100,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chadian Arabic, Shua Arabic, Shuwa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: The term, Shua, considered perjorative by some. Muslim.

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Arigidi
[aqg] Ondo State, Akoko North LGA; Kogi State, Kogi LGA. 48,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). 45,000 Igashi; 3,000 Uro. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Akoko Dialects: Afa (Affa, Òwòn Àfá), Aje, Arigidí, Erúsú (Erushu), Ese (Òwòn Èsé), Igashi (Ìgàshí, Ìgásí, Òwòn Ìgásí), Òge (Òwòn Ògè), Ojo, Oyin, Udo (Ido, Oke-Agbe, Òwòn Ùdò), Uro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Akokoid

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Ashe
[ahs] Kaduna State, Kechia and Kagarko LGAs; Nasarawa State, Karu LGA. 40,000 (2012 J. Barnhoorn), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ala, Koro Makama, Koron Ache, Koron Ala Dialects: Uchek, Unorr. Most similar to Koro Wachi [bqv], then to Duya [ldb], and Nyankpa [yes]. These 4 languages are often referred to as the Koro Cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro Comments: Koro is a cover term used for 2 distinct languages, Waci [bqv] and Ashe [ahs]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Asu
[aum] Niger State, Mariga LGA, villages south of Kontagora. 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abewa, Ebe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe Comments: Vocabulary heavily influenced by Nupe (1991 R. Blench).

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Atsam
[cch] Kaduna State, Kechia LGA. 30,000 (Barrett 1982). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cawai, Cawe, Cawi, Chawai, Chawe, Chawi Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Piti [pcn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awak
[awo] Gombe State, Kaltungo LGA. 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awok, Yebu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak Comments: Muslim.

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Ayere
[aye] Kwara State, Oyi LGA, Kabba district. 3,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Uwu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Ayere-Ahan

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Ayu
[ayu] Kaduna State, Sanga LGA, Kongon, Gwade, Tayu, Arau, Diger, Ikwa, Agamati, Anka Ambel, and Amantu villages. 800 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aya Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Ayu Comments: Muslim.

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Baan
[bvj] Rivers State, Gokana, Tai, and Eleme LGAs, Ban-Ogoi plus villages. 5,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baan-Ogoi, Goi, Ogoi Dialects: Ka-Ban, Kesari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West

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Baangi
[bqx] North Niger State. 15,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cibaangi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari

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Baatonum
[bba] Kwara State, Borgu LGA; Niger State. 100,000 in Nigeria (1995 R. Jones). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baatonun, Baatonun-Kwara, Barba, Bargu, Bariba, Batonnum, Batonu, Berba, Bogung, Borgawa, Borgu, Burgu, Zana Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bacama
[bcy] Adamawa State, Lamurde, Numan, Demsa, Gombi, and Guyuk LGAs; Kaduna State, northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi State, confluence of Benue and Niger rivers. 150,000 (1992 CAPRO). Central Bwatiye speakers are ethnically Bata. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abacama, Bachama, Bashamma, Besema, Bwareba, Bwatiye, Gboare Dialects: Central Bwatiye (Demsa, Demsa Bata), Mulyen (Mulwyin, Mwulyin), Opalo (Opolo), Wa-Duku. In Bata dialect subgroup. Bacama and Central Bwatiye [bcy] 54%–68% of non-riverine Bata [bta] dialects (Furo and Song); Upriver dialects have contact with downriver dialects due to fishing practices. Lexical similarity: Bacama [bcy] 89% with Central Bwatiye [bcy], 81% with Njoboliyo [bta], 86% with Furo [bta], 84% with Song Bata [bta]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Bacama fishermen migrate long distances down the Benue River with camps as far as the confluence. Bacama are joined with the Bata [bta] in the Bwatiye Association. Christian, Muslim.

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Bade
[bde] Yobe State, Bade, Jakusko, Bursari, and Karasuwa LGAs; Jigawa State, Guri LGA; Bauchi State, Zaki LGA. 250,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedde, Bede, Gidgid Dialects: Gashua Bade (Mazgarwa), Shirawa, Southern Bade (Bade-Kado), Western Bade (Amshi, Maagwaram, Magwaram). Amshi 91% and Southern 87% of all Bade dialects. Ngizim [ngi] and Duwai [dbp] not intelligible of Bade. Lexical similarity: 63% with Ngizim [ngi], 61% with Duwai [dbp]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bakpinka
[bbs] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. 4,000 (2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Begbungba, Iyongiyong, Iyoniyong, Uwet Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong

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Bali
[bcn] Adamawa State, Numan LGA, at Bali, 30 km from Numan on Jalingo road. 2,000 (1991 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bibaali, Ekpali, Ibaali, Maya Dialects: None known. Adequate intelligibility of Kpasham [pbn]; low intelligibility of Yotti [yot]; no intelligibility of Yendang [ynq]. Lexical similarity: 54% with Kpasham [pbn]; 35% with Yotti [yot]; 8% with Yendang [ynq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ibaali. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bangwinji
[bsj] Bauchi State, Balanga, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs. 6,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangjinge, Bangunji Dialects: Kaalo, Naaban. Noun class system reportedly similar to Waja [wja] and Tula [tul]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bankal
[jjr] Bauchi State, Dass LGA, Dott, Bajar, Lir; Bauchi LGA, Nyamrat, Luda, Din, and Zungur; Tafawa-Balewa LGA, Bagel; Toro LGA, Kufai and Luchi. 75,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bankala, Bankalanci, Baranci, Jaranchi, Jaranci, Jarancin Kasa, Jarawa, Jarawan Kasa, Zhar Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gwak [jgk], Duguri [dbm], and Bada [bau]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: The Bankalawa people identify as Bankalawa and also as Jarawa or Jar people.

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Barikanchi
[bxo] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Hausa based

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Basa
[bzw] Kogi State, Bassa and Ankpa LGAs; Plateau State, Nasarawa LGA; Federal Capital Territory, Yaba and Kwali LGAs; Benue State, Makurdi LGA. 100,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abacha, Abatsa, Basa-Benue, “Bassa-Komo” (pej.), “Bassa-Kwomu” (pej.), Rubasa, Rubassa Dialects: North-south dialect division along Benue River. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Basa-Gumna
[bsl] Niger State, Chanchaga LGA; Plateau State, Nasarawa LGA. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Basa Kuta, Basa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kaduna, Gwadara Basa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa

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Basa-Gurmana
[buj] Niger State, Rafi border and Chanchaga LGAs, Kafin Gurmana. 2,000 (Blench 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa

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Bassa-Kontagora
[bsr] Niger State, Mariga LGA, northeast of Kontagora. 10 (1987). Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Basa

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Bata
[bta] Adamawa State, Yola North, Gombi, Song and Fufore LGAs. 150,000 in Nigeria (1992). Population total all countries: 152,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batta, Bete, Birsa, Bwatiye, Demsa Bata, Dunu, Eastern Bwatiye, Gboati, Gbwata, Gbwate Dialects: Furo, Garoua (Garua), Jirai, Kobotachi, Malabu, Njoboliyo, Ribaw (Ribow), Song Bata, Wadi (Wa’i), Zumu (Jimo, Zomo). Bacama [bcy] and Central Bwatiye [bcy] 54%–68% of non-riverine dialects (Furo and Song); Njoboliyo [bta] 87% of Furo [bta], Song [bta], and Central Bwatiye [bcy]; Njoboliyo [bta] 73% of Bacama. Upriver dialects have contact with downriver dialects due to fishing practices. Dialect chain: Bacama [bcy] 89% with Central Bwatiye [bcy], 81% with Njoboliyo [bta], 86% with Furo [bta], 84% with Song Bata [bta]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Bacama [bcy] are joined with the Bata in the Bwatiye Association. Muslim, Christian.

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Batu
[btu] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, villages east of Baissa, below Mambila escarpment. 25000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Amanda-Afi, Angwe, Kamino. A language subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

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Bauchi
[bsf] Niger State, Rafi and Shiroro LGAs. 20,000 (Blench 1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bauci, Baushi, Kushi Dialects: Madaka (Adeka), Supana, Wayam-Rubu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana

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Beele
[bxq] Bauchi State, near Bole [bol] language area, a few villages. 120 (Temple and Temple 1922). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Àbéélé, Bele, Bellawa Dialects: None known. A separate language from Bole [bol]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Muslim.

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Bekwarra
[bkv] Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. 100,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bekworra, Ebekwara, Yakoro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

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Bena
[yun] Adamawa State, Guyuk, Gombi, and Song LGAs, Song to Yola road settlements. 95,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binna, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Gbinna, “Lala” (pej.), Purra, Yangeru, Yongor, Yungur Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba Comments: “Lala” is offensive. Purra is a cover term for the northern clans. 17 clans. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Berom
[bom] Plateau State, Barakin Ladi, Jos South, Riyom LGAs; Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA; Bauchi State. 1,000,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afango, Berum, Birom, Gbang, Kibbo, Kibbun, Kibo, Kibyen, Lêm Berom, “Shosho” (pej.) Dialects: Bachi, Du, Fan, Foron, Gashish, Gyel, Heikpang, Kuru, Rim, Riyom, Ropp, Vwang, Zawan. Three dialect groups: Eastern (Ropp, Fan, Heikpang, Foron, Du), Central (Gyel, Zawan, Kuru, Vwang), Western (Riyom, Rim, Bachi, Gashish). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic

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Bete
[byf] Taraba State, Takum LGA, Bete town, foot of Bete mountain, south of Wukari. 50 (1992). Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid Comments: 6 subgroups: Aphan (Afan), Ruke, Osu, Agu, Botsu, and Humiyan. Former land disputes with the Tiv. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bete-Bendi
[btt] Cross River State, Obudu and Obanliku LGAs. 100,000 (2006 L. Otronyi), increasing. Some elderly monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bette-Bendi, Dama Dialects: Bendi, Bete (Bette, Mbete). Bete intelligible of Bendi. Lexical similarity: 82% with Bendi; 64%–72% with Obanliku [bzy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi Comments: Different from Bete [byf] in Taraba State and Bété [bet] of Côte d’Ivoire. Bete and Bendi have positive attitudes toward each other. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bille
[bil] Adamawa State, Demsa LGA, southwest of Numan, along Bille river. 38,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Elderly are monolingual. Ethnic population: 42,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bile, Bili, Billanchi, Kunbille Dialects: None known. Bile [bil], Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], and Kulung [bbu] mutually unintelligible (less than 25%). 48% with Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], 33% with Kulung [bbu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bina
[byj] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 7,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binawa, Bogana Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Biseni
[ije] Bayelsa State, Biseni-Okordia LGA. 4,800 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amegi, Buseni, Northeast Central Ijo Dialects: None known. Not fully intelligible with other languages in Ijo language subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo

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Bitare
[brt] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, near Baissa. 46,300 in Nigeria (Blench 2003). Population total all countries: 52,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Njwande, Yukutare Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Abon [abo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid

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Bo-Rukul
[mae] Plateau State, Bokkos LGA, Barkul, Mabo, Richa, and Mwa villages. 2,000 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). 1,000 in each dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kaleri” (pej.), Mabo-Barkul, Mabo-Barukul Dialects: Bo, Rukul. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern Comments: ‘ma-’ (sg.), ‘ba-’ (pl.); prefixes referring to speakers. Culturally Kulere, but the language is different. Christian.

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Boga
[bvw] Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. 10,000 (Blench and Zeitlyn 1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boka Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern

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Boghom
[bux] Plateau State, Kanam, Wase, and Shendam LGAs. 50,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bogghom, Boghorom, Bohom, Bokiyim, Borrom, Burma, Burom, Burrum, Burum Dialects: None known. Related to Mangas [zns]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom

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Boko
[bqc] Niger State, Borgu LGA; Kebbi State, Bagudo LGA, Senji north to Kenugbe and Kaoje, 150 km south and Demmo, 50 km east. 35 villages. 50,000 in Nigeria (2012 R. Jones). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bokonya, Boo Dialects: Illo Busa (Busa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bokobaru
[bus] Kwara State, primarily Kaiama LGA, some in Baruten LGA. 35 villages. 62,000 (2012 R. Jones). 10,800 in Kaiama, 51,200 in surrounding villages. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Busa-Bokobaru, Bussawa Dialects: Kaiama, village Bokobaru. Kaiama dialect speakers and those in other villages have good mutual inherent intelligibility. Distinct from Boko [bqc] of Benin or Busa [bqp]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Boko [bqc], 91% with Busa [bqp], 62% with Kyanga [tye], 54% with Shanga [sho], 50% with Bisa [bib] of Burkina Faso and Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa Comments: Ethnic autonyms, often used interchangeably: Bokobaru, especially for Kaiama town people, and Zogben, peasant, for village people. The Hausa call several groups of people (Boko, Bokobaru, Busa, Bariba) Bussawa, while the Yoruba call them all Bariba. Glossonym: Bussanchi by the Hausa. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bokyi
[bky] Cross River State, Ikom, Obudu, and Ogoja LGAs. 140,000 in Nigeria (1989 SIL). Population total all countries: 143,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boki, Nfua, Nki, Okii, Osikom, Osukam, Uki, Vaaneroki Dialects: Abo (Abu), Basua (Bashua), Boje (Bojie), Boorim, Eastern Bokyi (East Boki), Irruan (Eerwee, Erwan), Kwakwagom, Nsadop, Oku, Osokom, Oyokom, Wula (Baswo, Kecwan, Okundi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi Comments: Ethnic groups: Ndir, Ukwese, Utang, and Yon.

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Bole
[bol] Bauchi State, Dukku, Alkaleri, and Darazo LGAs; Gombe State, Dukku LGA; Yobe State, Fika LGA; Plateau State, Wase LGA. 100,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ampika, Bolanchi, Bolawa, Bolewa, Borpika Dialects: Bara, Fika (Anpika, Fikankayen). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Distinct from Beele [bxq]. The Ngara (2,000 in 1993) claim to be part of Bole, but the Bolewa disagree. Muslim.

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Bu
[jid] Nassarawa State, Akwanga LGA. 4 villages. 6,000 (1999 R. Blench). 4,000 Bu and 2,000 Ninkada. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibut, Jida, Jida-Abu, Jidda-Abu, Nakare Dialects: Bu (Abu), Ninkada (Jida). 2 ethnically and geographically distinct groups, but reportedly linguistically similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

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Bukwen
[buz] Taraba State, near Takum. 1 village. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

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Bumaji
[byp] Cross River State, Obudu LGA, Bumaji town. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

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Bura-Pabir
[bwr] Borno State, Biu and Askira-Uba LGAs; Adamawa State, Gombi LGA. 250,000 (1987 UBS). 200,000 Pabir (1993). 32,000 in Adamawa state (1992). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Babir, Babur, Barburr, Bourrah, Bura, Burra, Huve, Huviya, Kwojeffa, Mya Bura, Pabir Dialects: Hyil Hawul (Bura Hyilhawul, Plain Bura), Pela (Bura Pela, Hill Bura). Kofa [kso] may be a related language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 Comments: Ngohi is a small subgroup. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Burak
[bys] Gombe State, Billiri and Kaltungo LGAs, Burak town. 4,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buurak Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bure
[bvh] Bauchi state, Kirfi LGA, Bure village, southeast of Company. 20 (Batic 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bubure Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Muslim.

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Buru
[bqw] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, east of Baissa, Batu area. 1 village. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified

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Busa
[bqp] Niger State, Borgu LGA; Kebbi State, Bagudo LGA. 35 villages. 48,000 (2012 R. Jones). 20,000 ethnic Laaru, Lupa and Kambari. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bisã, Bisayã, Busa-Bisã, Busano, Bussanchi Dialects: New Busa, Wawa. New Busa and Wawa dialects inherently intelligible. New Busa is prestigious, but Wawa dialect is viewed as purer and used for literature. New Busa has Hausa [hau]-influenced phonology. Illo Busa dialect has Boko [bqc] influence. Lexical similarity: 91% with Bokobaru [bus], 85% with Boko [bqc], 57% with Kyanga [tye], 56% with Shanga [sho], 50% with Bisa [bib] in Burkina Faso and Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa Comments: Different from Bisa [bib] of Burkina Faso and Ghana. The Hausa call several groups of people (Boko, Bokobaru, Busa, Bariba) Bussawa, while the Yoruba call them Bariba. Glossonym: Bussanchi by the Hausa. Muslim.

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Cakfem-Mushere
[cky] Plateau State, Mangu LGA. 5,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chakfem, Chokfem Dialects: Jajura, Kadim-Kaban. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

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Cara
[cfd] Plateau State, Bassa LGA, Teriya village. 3,000 (1999 R. Blench). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chara, Fachara, Fakara, Nfachara, Pakara, Tariya, Tera, Teriya, Terri Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, North-Central Comments: Complex morphology.

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Cen
[cen] Plateau State, Zaron village is center, southeast of Jos. 50,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chen, Icen, Icen FiForon, Icen Ibaas, Ichen Dialects: Icen, Icen Ibaas, Ichen. Lexical similarity: with Izere [izr] but has added Berom [bom] prefixes to its own prefix system and employs Berom style consonant alternation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central

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Centúúm
[cet] Bauchi State, Balanga LGA, Cham town, among Dijim [cfa] language group. 200 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cen Tuum Classification: Language isolate

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Cibak
[ckl] Borno State, Damboa LGA. 100,000 (1993 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chibbak, Chibbuk, Chibok, Chibuk, Cibuk, Kibaku, Kibbaku, Kikuk, Kyibaku Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1

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Cicipu
[awc] Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA, Sakaba; Niger State, Mariga LGA, Kumbashi and Kakihum. 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Achipa, Acipanci, Western Acipa Dialects: Ticuhun (Kakihum), Tidipo (Kadonho), Tidodimo (Kadedan), Tikula (Maburya), Tikumbasi (Kumbashi), Tirisino (Karishen), Tizoriyo (Mazarko). Mutually unintelligible with linguistically most similar Tsuvadi [tvd]. Lexical similarity: about 95% among dialects; 50% with Tsuvadi [tvd], 15%–20% with Eastern Acipa [acp]; 18% with Hungworo [nat]; 16%–17% with Shama [sqa]; 15%–17% with Kamuku [cdr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku Comments: Kumbasi perceived as most divergent from prestigious Tirisino, the hub of traditions. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Cineni
[cie] Borno State, Gwoza LGA, Cineni village. 3,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

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Cishingini
[asg] Niger State, Borgu and Agwara LGAs, west of Niger river and north of Kainji Lake National Park; Kebbi State, east of Niger river from Yelwa area south to Ngaski and Nasko. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agwara Kambari, Aschingini, Ashaganna, Ashingini, Chisingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, “Maunchi” (pej.), “Mawanchi” (pej.), Yauri Dialects: Rofia. Kambari subgroup member, which includes Tsishingini [tsw] and Tsikimba [kdl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ciwogai
[tgd] Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Tsagu village and farms area, near Diri [dwa] language area. 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sago, Tsagu Dialects: None known. Related to Diri [dwa]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Traditional religion.

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C’lela
[dri] East Kebbi State, Zuru, Sakaba, and Donko-Wasagu LGAs; Niger State, Rijau LGA; migrants south. 90,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cala-Cala, Chilala, Chilela, Dakakari, Dakarkari, Dakkarkari, Kolela, Lalawa Dialects: Adoma (Aroma, Northern Lela, Roma, Roma-Na, Yelmo), Dabai (Central Lela), Lila (Senchi, Southern Lela, Zuru), Ribah. Lexical similarity: 93%–98% with dialects at Rade, Ribah, Dabai, and Senchi, 55% with Hun-Saare [dud], 54% with the Fakai sub-group, 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga], 20% with Acipa [acp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka Comments: Ethnonym: Dakarkari by Hausa. Ethnic autonym: Lela. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Como Karim
[cfg] Taraba State, Jalingo and Karim Lamido LGAs, near Lau. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asom, Chomo, Kinzimba, Kirim, Kiyu, Nuadhu, Shomo Karim, Shomoh, Shomong Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo Comments: Ethnonym: Bakula by Shoo-Minda-Nye [bcv], Jiru [jrr], and Jessi together. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Cori
[cry] Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA. 1 village area. 1,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chori Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic

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Daba
[dbq] Adamawa State, Mubi LGA, between Mubi and Bahuli. 1 village. 1,000 in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabba Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7

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Dadiya
[dbd] Gombe State, Balanga LGA; Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa State, Numan LGA, between Dadiya and Bambam. 30,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daadiya, Dadia, Loodiya Dialects: Kookwila, Loofaa, Loofiyo, Tunga (Boleri). Dialect names are names of settlements. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Dadiya Comments: Traditional religion.

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Damakawa
[dam] Kebbi State, Sakaba LGA; 3 or 4 villages, Kilo village is central. No known L1 speakers (2012 S. McGill). Ethnic population: 750. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to C’lela [dri], Tsuvadi [tvd], and Cicipu [awc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dass
[dot] Bauchi State, Akleri, Toro, and Dass LGAs; Plateau State, Shendam LGA. 8,830. 1,130 Lukshi, 4,700 Durr-Baraza, 700 Wandi and Zumbul, 2,300 Dot (1971 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barawa Dialects: Dot (Dott, Dwat, Zodi), Durr-Baraza (Bandas), Lukshi (Dekshi), Wandi (Wangday), Zumbul (Boodla). A dialect subgroup. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3

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Daza
[dzd] Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, a few villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dazawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A Comments: Different from Dazaga [dzg] in Chad and Niger, which is Saharan.

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Defaka
[afn] Rivers State, Opobo-Nkoro LGA, Niger delta, Nkoro town. 200 (2001 R. Blench). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Afakani Dialects: None known. Related to the Ijo group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Defaka

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Degema
[deg] Rivers State, Degema LGA, Usokun-Degema (Usokun) and Degema (Atala) towns. 10,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Dekema” (pej.) Dialects: Atala, Usokun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta Comments: Obonoma (Ekomburu) in Akuku-Toru LGA shifted from Degema to Kalabari [ijn].

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Dendi
[ddn] Kebbi State, Argungu and Bagudo LGAs, on upper Niger river. 2,050 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dandawa Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Different from Dendi [deq] in Central African Republic.

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Deno
[dbb] Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, 45 km northeast of Bauchi town. 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Be, Denawa, Denwa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Dera
[kna] Adamawa State, Guyuk LGA; Borno State, Biu LGA. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanakuru Dialects: Gasi, Shani, Shellen. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Dera Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dghwede
[dgh] Borno State, Gwoza LGA. 30,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Azaghvana, Dehoxde, Hude, Johode, Tghuade, Toghwede, Traude, Wa’a, Zaghvana Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

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Dibo
[dio] Niger State, Lapai LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Plateau State, Nasarawa LGA. 100,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganagana, Ganagawa, Shitako, Zhitako, Zitako Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Dikaka
[cfa] Bauchi State, Balanga LGA; Gongola State, Numan LGA. 25,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bwilim (Fitilai, Mona, Mwana, Mwano, Mwomo, Mwona), Dijim (Cam, Cham). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona Comments: Whistle speech reported. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Diri
[dwa] Bauchi State, Ningi and Darazo LGAs. 7,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diriya, Dirya, Diryawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Distinct from Ciwogai [tgd].

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Dirim
[dir] Taraba State, Bali LGA. 9,000 (1992). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daka, Dakka, Dirin, Dirrim Dialects: Reportedly similar to Samba Daka [ccg] and may be a dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid Comments: High incidence of blindness caused by filaria. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Doka
[dbi] Kaduna State, Kechia LGA. 1 village. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern Comments: Distinct from Duka [dud] (dialect of Hun-Saare).

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Doko-Uyanga
[uya] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA, a few villages. 200 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basanga, Dosanga, Iko, Uyanga Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong

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Dong
[doh] Taraba State, Zing LGA; Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA. 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Donga Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid Comments: Distinct from Dongo [doo] (Donga) of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is in Amadi group of Ubangi (Adamawa-Ubangi).

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Duguri
[dbm] Bauchi State, Alkaleri and Bauchi LGAs; Plateau State, Kanam LGA. 65,000 (2008 M. Rueck), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Doori, Dugarwa, Duguranchi, Dugurawa, Dukuri Dialects: Badara Duguri, Gar Duguri, Northeast Duguri, Southwest Duguri. Intelligibility: 85%–91% of Mbat [bau], 75%–83% of Gwak [jgk], 67%–81% of Kantana [mma], 70%–75% of Bankal [jjr]; 71%–86% of Mbat [bau], 54%–68% of Gwak, 64%–66% of Bankal [jjr], 24% of Labir [jku]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% between Duguri dialects; dialectal differences barely acknowledged by users; 75% with Mbat [bau], 67% with Gwak [jgk], 65% with Bankal [jjr], 41% with Labir [jku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Duhwa
[kbz] Nassarawa State, Akwanga LGA, Kerifa village. 800 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karfa, Kerifa, Nzuhwi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper Comments: Ethnic autonym: Duhwa.

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Dulbu
[dbo] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Dulbu village southeast of Bauchi town. 100 (1993). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

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Dungu
[dbv] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA, Dungi town. 1,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dingi, Dungi, Dunjawa, Dwingi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Duwai
[dbp] Yobe State, Bade LGA; Kano State, Hadejia LGA. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bade, Evji Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Duwai Comments: In Bade language subgroup.

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Duya
[ldb] Kaduna State, Jema’a, Kagarko, and Jaba LGAs; Nassarawa State, Karu LGA. 78,000 (2012 W. Bai). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adong, Idun, Jaba Duya, Jaba Lunga, Lungu, Ungu Dialects: None known. Lexically similarity: with Ashe [ahs], Koro Wachi [bqv], and Nyankpa [yes]. These four languages are often referred to as the Koro Cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro Comments: Different from Ajiya [idc]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dza
[jen] Adamawa State, Numan and Lamurde LGAs; Gombe State, Bambam Kaltungo LGA; Taraba State, Lau, Gassol, Ardo-Kola, Ibi, and Karim Lamido LGAs; Jen town, east of Karim-Lamido town, south of Bambuka town, by Benue river. 20,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Janjo, Jen, Jenjo Dialects: Jaule (Joole), Kaigama, Laredo (Ardido). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Dzodinka
[add] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA. 1 village on Cameroon border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adere, Adiri Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Comments: Distinct from Adele [ade] of Ghana and Togo.

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Ebira
[igb] Kwara State, Okene, Okehi, and Kogi LGAs; Nassarawa State, Nasarawa LGA; Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. 1,000,000 (1989 J. Adive). 900,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egbira, Egbura, Ibara, Igbarra, Igbira, Igbirra, Katawa, Kotokori, Kwotto Dialects: Igara (Etuno), Koto (Bira, Biri, Egu, Igu, Ika, Panda), Okene (Hima, Ihima). A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ebughu
[ebg] Akwa Ibom State, Mbo and Oron LGAs. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oron Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ebughu

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Edo
[bin] Bendel State, Ovia, Oredo, and Orhionmwon LGAs. 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Addo, Benin, Bini, Oviedo, Ovioba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora

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Efai
[efa] Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA. 6,320 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 7,210. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Effiat Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efai

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Efik
[efi] Cross River State, Calabar nunicipality, Odukpani and Akamkpa LGAs; Akwa Ibom State, Itu town. 400,000 in Nigeria (1998). Population total all countries: 405,260. L2 users: 2,000,000 in Nigeria. Decreasing as an L2. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as LWC throughout the Cross River State in all languages in the church; also, in market, business, and media domains. The Efik Bible, published in 1868, was the very first translation into any Nigerian language and is used widely throughout the region. Alternate Names: Calabar Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik Comments: Christian.

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Efutop
[ofu] Cross River State, Ikom LGA. 10,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agbaragba, Ofutop Dialects: None known. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 66%–68% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor

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Eggon
[ego] Nassarawa State, Nasarawa Egon, Akwanga, Wamba, Lafia, Awe, Doma, Obi, Keana, Keffi, Kokona, and Karu LGAs; in some parts of Nassarawa and Toto LGAs. 140,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Egon, Hill Mada, Mada Dutse, Mada Eggon, Mo Egon Dialects: 25 dialects locally recognized, but their status is unclear. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ehueun
[ehu] Ondo State, Akoko South LGA. 14,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpenmen, Ekpimi, Epimi Dialects: None known. Related to Ukue [uku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse

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Ejagham
[etu] Cross River State, Akampka, Idom, Odukpani, and Calabar LGAs. 67,300 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 116,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekoi Dialects: Eastern Ejagham, Southern Ejagham (Abakpa, Aqua, Ekin, Kwa, Qua), Western Ejagham. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid Comments: Western Ejagham includes Bendeghe Etung (Bindege, Dindiga, Mbuma), Northern Etung, Southern Etung, Ekwe, Akamkpa-Ejagham. Eastern Ejagham includes Keaka (Keaqa, Kejaka, Edjagam), Obang (Eeafeng).

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Ekajuk
[eka] Cross River State, Ogoja LGA, Bansara, Nwang, Ntara, Mfom, and Ebanibim towns. 63,000 (Yoder). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akajo, Akajuk Dialects: Ebanimbim, Ekagongho, Esham, Mfom. Nnam [nbp] intelligible to Ekajuk. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 93%–97% with dialects, 87%–90% with Nnam [nbp], 63%–67% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 66%–68% with Abanyom [abm], 57%–59% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 52%–53% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor

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Eki
[eki] Cross River State, northeast of Efik, south of Idere. 5,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo

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Ekit
[eke] Akwa Ibom State, Eket and Esit Eket LGAs. 200,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eket Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit

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Ekpeye
[ekp] Rivers State, Ahoada East and Ahoada West LGAs. 30,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekkpahia, Ekpabya, Ekpaffia Dialects: Ako, Igbuduya, Ubye, Upata. Related to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Ekpeye

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Eleme
[elm] Rivers State, Eleme LGA. 58,000 (1990 UBS). 2,900 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Nchia, Odido. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West Comments: Eleme land is in an industrial area with people from many language groups living among them. Christian, traditional religion.

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Eloyi
[afo] Plateau State, Awe and Nasarawa LGAs; Benue State, Otukpo LGA. 25,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afao, Afo, Afu, Aho, Epe, Keffi Dialects: Mbamu, Mbeci, Mbeji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi Comments: Traditional religion.

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Emai-Iuleha-Ora
[ema] Edo State, Owan LGA. 100,000 (Schaefer 1987). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ivbiosakon, Kunibum Dialects: Emai, Iuleha, Ivhimion, Ora. Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Comments: Traditional religion.

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Engenni
[enn] Rivers State, Ahoada West LGA; Bayelsa State, Yenagoa LGA. 20,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Egene, Ngene Dialects: Ediro, Inedua, Ogua, Zarama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta

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English
[eng] L2 users: 60,000,000 in Nigeria (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Enwan
[env] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. 14,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Enwan
[enw] Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA. 15,000 (1998 B. Connell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oron Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda Comments: Incorrect glossonym: Oron.

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Epie
[epi] Bayelsa State, Yenagoa LGA. 12,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Epie-Atissa Dialects: Atisa (Atissa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Delta

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Eruwa
[erh] Delta State, Isoko LGA. 64,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arokwa, Erakwa, Erohwa Dialects: Related to Urhobo [urh]. Not intelligible with any Isoko [iso] dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

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Esan
[ish] Edo State, Esan Central, Esan North-East, Esan South-East, Esan West LGAs. 300,000 (Okojie 1994). 7,000 Ekpon in 7 villages (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anwain, Esa, Isa, Ishan Dialects: Egoro (Egholo), Ekpoma (Ekpon, Ekunma), Ewatto (Ebhoato), Ewohimi (Ebhoikimi), Ewu (Eilu), Igueben, Irrua (Uruwa), Ogwa, Opoji (Ukpozi), Ubiaja (Ubiaza), Ugboha (Owoha), Uromi (Uronmun). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Esimbi
[ags] Taraba State, south-southeast of Wukari. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aage, Age, Bogue, Essimbi, Isimbi, Mburugam, Simpi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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Etebi
[etb] Akwa Ibom State, Esit Eket LGA. 15,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit

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Etkywan
[ich] Taraba State, Takum, Sardauna, Bali, and part of Wukari LGAs. 50,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Etekwe, Icen, Ichen, Itchen, Kentu, Kyanton, Kyato, Nyidu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Etulo
[utr] Benue State, Gboko LGA; Taraba State, Wukari LGA. 10,000 (1988 R. Shain). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eturo, Turumawa, Utur Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Etulo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Evant
[bzz] Cross River State, Obanliku LGA. 10,000 in Nigeria (1996 SIL). Population total all countries: 11,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avand, Avande, Balegete, Belegete, Evand, Ovand, Ovande, Ovando Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Iceve-Maci [bec], Tiv [tiv], and Otank [uta]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ezaa
[eza] Ebonyi State, Ezaa North, Ezaa South, Ishielu, Ohaukwu, Onicha, and Ivo LGAs; Enugu State, Nkanu East LGA; Benue State, Ado LGA. 590,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eza, Ezza Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

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Fali
[fli] Adamawa State, Mubi North, Mubi South LGAs. 25,000 (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). 5,500 in the language area; 5,000 outside, many of whom return each summer. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella, Vimtim, Yimtim Dialects: Bwin (Bagira, Bween, Urambween), Huli (Bahuli, Urahuli), Madzarin (Madzara, Muchella, Ura Madzarin), Vin (Uroovin, Uvin, Vimtim). Bwin about 92% intelligible of other dialects and 71% of Zizilvakan [ziz], Huli at least 85% of other dialects and 59% of Zizilivakan, Madzara 61% of Huli, Vin 71% of Madzara. Lexical similarity: 61%–82% between the dialects, 47%–59% with Zizilivakan [ziz], 15%–23% with Kirya-Konzal [fkk], 14%–18% with Hya [hya]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fali of Baissa
[fah] South Taraba State, Falinga plateau region. Few left (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified

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Fam
[fam] Taraba State, Bali LGA, 17 km east of Kungana. 1,000 (1984). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Fam

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Firan
[fir] Plateau State, Riyom LGA, Kwakwi Station south of Jos. 2,500 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Faran, Foron, Kwakwi, Yes Firan Dialects: None known. Related to Izere [izr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] East central, Taraba and Adamawa states, Yola area. 7,610,000 all Fulfulde in Nigeria (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Adamwa and Taraba states. Alternate Names: Eastern Fulfulde, Fillanci, Fula, Fulani, Fulatanchi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Glossonym: Fulatanchi, Fillanci, or Fula. Ethnonym: Pullo (sg.), Fulbe or Fulani (pl.), meaning a speaker, the people respectively. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Fulfulde, Benin-Togo
[fue] South and west of Niger river, at Nigeria, Niger, and Benin borders, south to big tributary which joins Niger river from the east, along Niger river south to the delta. South boundary is east-west line below intersection of rivers to 75 km south in Benin-Nigeria border, to border bend from north-south, to 30 km east. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central

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Fulfulde, Nigerian
[fuv] Kano-Katsina: Kano, Katsina, Zaria, Jos plateau and southeast to Bauchi; Bornu State, Bororro, Maiduguri is center; Sokoto State, Sokoto. 11,500,000 in Nigeria (2000), increasing. 340,000 in Sokoto. Population total all countries: 11,585,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as LWC in the market in Bauchi, Gombe, and Borno states. Alternate Names: Kano-Katsina Fulfulde Dialects: Bororo (Aku, Fulfulde Caka Nigeria, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde, Woylaare), Kano-Katsina, Sokoto. Intelligibility 40%-50% of Fulfulde [fub] Cameroon. Lexical similarity: highest with Fulfulde central-eastern Niger [fuq], then Adamawa Fulfulde [fub], then Fulfulde, Benin-Togo [fue], then western Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Guinea, and Senegal. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central Comments: Sokoto is a major Fulbe geopolitical unit. Caka (Fulfulde Caka Nigeria dialect) means central. Muslim.

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Fum
[fum] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere, on Cameroon border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields Comments: May be the same as Mfumte [nfu] in Cameroon.

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Fungwa
[ula] Niger State, Rafi LGA. 1,000 (1992 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afungwa, Tufungwa, Ula, Ura Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

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Fyam
[pym] Plateau State, Jos, Barkin Ladi, and Mangu LGAs. 3000 Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fem, Fyem, Genawa, Gyem, Gyema, Paiem, Pem, Pyem Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Horom [hoe]. Chadic influence. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Fyer
[fie] Plateau State, Mangu LGA, Fyer district. 26,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fier Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer

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Gaa
[ttb] Adamawa State, Ganye LGA; Tiba plateau, between Garba Sbege and Jada, north of Shebshi Mountains. 10,000 (1997 R. Boyd). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tiba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid

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Ga’anda
[gqa] Adamawa State, Gombi LGA; Song, Guyuk, and Mubi LGAs; Borno State, Biu LGA. 43,000 (1992). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ga’andu, Ganda, Makwar, Mokar Dialects: Ga’anda, Gabin. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gade
[ged] Federal Capital Territory and Nassarawa State, Nasarawa LGA. 72,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gede Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Ebira-Gade Comments: Considered conservative by neighbors. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Galambu
[glo] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. 25,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galambe, Galambi, Galembi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Muslim.

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Gamo-Ningi
[bte] Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Crozier 1992). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Gamo (Ba-Buche, Ba-Mbutu, Buta, Mbotu, Mbuta), Ningi. Formerly a dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

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Ganang
[gne] Plateau State, Gashish Kuk Village area, Nye and Iny settlements, southeast of Jos, beyond Kura falls. 3,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gashish Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Izere [izr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central

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Gbagyi
[gbr] Niger State, Rafi, Chanchaga, Shiroro, Suleija LGAs; Kaduna State, Kechia LGA; Nassarawa State, Keffi, Nasarawa LGAs; Federal Capital Territory. 700,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Gwari, Gbagye, Gwari, Gwari Matai, Ibagyi Dialects: Diko, Kaduna, Karu, Kuta, Louome, Ngenge (Genge, Gyange, Gyengyen), Tawari, Vwezhi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbari
[gby] Niger State, Zungeru to Kaduna river north, southeast through Minna, Chanchaga, Paiko, Suleija, Agaie, Rafi, and Lapai LGA’s; Federal Capital Territory, Gwagwalada past Kwali; Nassarawa State, Nasarawa LGA. 350,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbari Yamma, Gwari Yamma, Nkwa, West Gwari Dialects: Botai, Gayegi, Gbagyi Nkwa, Izem, Jezhu, Kong, Kwali, Kwange (Agbawi, Kangye, Wake, Wi), Paiko, Wahe. Lexical similarity: 89%–98% with major dialects, 66%–78% with Gbagyi dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari Comments: Do not want to be considered Gbagyi [gbr]. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Gbaya, Northwest
[gya] Taraba State, Bali LGA. Very few in Nigeria. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baya Dialects: Gbeya (Gbea). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest

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Gbiri-Niragu
[grh] Kaduna State, Lere LGA, Gure and Kahugu villages. 25,000 (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gure-Kahugu, Tugbiri Dialects: Gbiri (Agari, Agbiri, Gura, Gure, Igbiri, Tugbiri), Niragu (Anirago, Kafugu, Kagu, Kahugu, Kapugu). Some Gbiri and Niragu people speak their own languages with each other. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru Comments: Gure and Kahugu towns have separate identities but a common market in Gure. Christian.

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Geji
[gji] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 6,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gejawa, Gezawa, Kayauri Dialects: Bolu (Magang, Pelu), Geji (Gaejawa, Gezawa, Gyaazi), Zaranda (Buu). Geji dialect subgroup, in Barawa [dot] language subgroup. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Comments: Muslim.

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Gengle
[geg] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. 4000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Momu, Wegele, Yagele Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye Comments: Not the same as Gongla [mzm]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gera
[gew] Bauchi State, Bauchi and Ganjuwa LGAs, Bauchi town. 200,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gerawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Geruma
[gea] Bauchi State, Toro, Ganjuwa, Bauchi, and South Ningi LGAs. 9,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gerema, Germa Dialects: Duurum, Sum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ghotuo
[aaa] Edo State, Owan East LGA, Ogbodo. 9,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Gibanawa
[gib] Sokoto State, Jega LGA, near Dukawa [dud] language area. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Gembanawa, Gimbanawa, Jega Classification: Pidgin, Hausa based

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Giiwo
[kks] Bauchi State, Alkaleri, Bauchi, and Darazo LGAs. 14,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bu Giiwo, Kirfi, Kirifawa, Kirifi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Muslim.

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Glavda
[glw] Borno State, Gwoza LGA, mainly Nggoshe village (different from Ngoshi); Agapalawa, Amuda, Vale, Ashigashiya, Kerawa, and Pelekwa villages. 28,500 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 31,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelebda, Glanda, Guelebda Dialects: Bokwa, Glavda, Ngoshie (Ngweshe). Reportedly similar to Guduf-Gava [gdf]. Wolff (1971) separates Glavda [glw] from Guduf-Gava and Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Goemai
[ank] Plateau State, Shendam; Nassarawa State, Lafia and Awe LGAs. 200,000 (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ankwai, Ankwe, Ankwei, Gamai, Kemai Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gokana
[gkn] Rivers State, Ogoni and Gokana LGAs. 100,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bodo, Bomu, Dere, Kibangha. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gude
[gde] Adamawa State, Mubi LGA; Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA. 68,000 in Nigeria (1987). Population total all countries: 96,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mapuda, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade Dialects: Different dialects are spoken in Cameroon and Nigeria. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Gudu
[gdu] Adamawa State, Song LGA. 5,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gudo, Gutu Dialects: Kumbi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Formerly culture and religion were similar to the Ngwaba [ngw]. Muslim.

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Guduf-Gava
[gdf] Borno State, Gwoza LGA, mainly Gava, Cikide, and Guduf. 55,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afkabiye, Gudupe Dialects: Cikide (Chikide), Gava (Yaghwatadaxa, Yawotataxa), Guduf. Reportedly similar to Glavda [glw]. Hdi [xed] 35% intelligibility of Guduf-Gava. Wolff (1971) separates Guduf-Gava from Gvoko [ngs] and Glavda [glw]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Hdi [xed], 50% with Lamang [hia] and Mabas [vem]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

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Gun
[guw] Ogun State, Badagry, Ado-Odo-Ota, and Idiroko LGAs; Lagos State. 259,000 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egun, Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Seto-Gbe Dialects: Alada (Alada-Gbe), Asento, Gbekon, Gun (Egun, Goun, Gu), Phela, Savi, Seto, Weme. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja

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Gupa-Abawa
[gpa] Niger State, Lapai LGA, Gupa and Edzu village areas. 15,000 (1989). 10,000 or more Gupa, 5,000 Abawa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Abawa, Gupa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

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Gurmana
[gvm] Niger State, Shiroro LGA, Gurmana town area. 3,000 (1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana

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Guruntum-Mbaaru
[grd] Bauchi State, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. 15,000 (1993). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gurdung, Guruntum Dialects: Dooka, Gar, Gayar, Karakara, Kuuku, Mbaaru. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Comments: Muslim.

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Gvoko
[ngs] Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA. 20,000 in Nigeria (1990). Population total all countries: 21,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Nggweshe, Ngoshe Sama, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi, Ngweshe-Ndaghan Dialects: None known. Related to Glavda [glw] and Guduf [gdf]. High level of intelligibility with Hdi [xed] as a result of contact. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda

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Gwa
[gwb] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Lame [bma]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

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Gwak
[jgk] Bauchi State, Dass LGA, Tafawa-Balewa LGA, Gital, Garam, Kardam, Dulem, Buyital, Michiyan Kuka, Bar, and Kumgas. 70,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jar, Jaracin Kasa, Jaranchi, Jaranci, Jarancin Kasa, Jarawa, Jarawan Bununu, Jarawan Kasa Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bankal [jjr], Duguri [dbm], and Bada [bau]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: The Bagyak people identify both as Bagyak and also as Jarawa or Jar people. Muslim.

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Gwamhi-Wuri
[bga] Kebbi State, Wasugu LGA, Danko-Maga area; Niger State, Magama LGA, Dusai and Kwimu; Gwamfawa around Danko; Wurawa around Maga; migrants in Niger State. 16,000 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lyase, Lyase-Ne Dialects: Gwamhi (Abaangi, Banga, Banganci, Bangawa, Gwamfanci, Gwamfi Gwamfawa), Mba (Kokanawa), Wuri (Wuranci, Wurawa). Dialects have slight lexical and tonal differences. Lexical similarity: 57% with ut-Ma’in [gel], 47% with Hun-Saare [dud], 43% with C’lela [dri]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka Comments: Ethnonym: Bangawa by Hausa, glossonym: Banganci; ‘Lyase’, mother tongue.

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Gwandara
[gwn] Niger State, Suleija LGA; Federal Capital Territory; Kaduna State, Kechia LGA; Nassarawa State, Keffi, Lafia, Nasarawa, and Akwanga LGAs. 27,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwandara Dialects: Gwandara Eastern (Toni), Gwandara Gitata, Gwandara Karashi, Gwandara Koro, Gwandara Southern (Kyan Kyar), Nimbia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Gyem
[gye] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gema, Gemawa, Gyam, Gyemawa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Comments: Different from Fyam (Gyem) [pym]. Traditional religion.

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Hasha
[ybj] Nassarawa State, Akwanga LGA, Hashasu, Kusu, and Bwora villages. 3,000 (Blench 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yashi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B

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Hausa
[hau] Sokoto, Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Bauchi, Jigawa, Zamfara, Kebbi, and Gombe states. 18,500,000 in Nigeria (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 24,988,000. L2 users: 15,000,000 in Nigeria. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in northern region.Spoken as L2 in the north. Alternate Names: Abakwariga, Habe, Haoussa, Hausawa, Kado, Mgbakpa Dialects: Adarawa, Arewa, Gobirawa, Hadejiya, Kano, Katagum, Katsina, Kebbawa, Sokoto, Zamfarawa. Barikanchi [bxo] is a Hausa pidgin used in military barracks. There is also a pidgin or market Hausa [gib]. Subdialects of Eastern Hausa: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya; of Western Hausa: Sokoto, Katsina, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa; of North Hausa: Arewa, Arawa. Abakwariga is a subgroup. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Hausa Sign Language
[hsl] Northern Nigeria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Harshen bebaye na kasar Hausa, Maganar Hannu Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Muslim.

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Hide
[xed] Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA; along Cameroon border, across from Tourou. 1 village area. 4,000 in Nigeria (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ftour, Hdi, Hedi, Tourou, Tur, Turu, Turu-Hide, Xedi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Comments: In Nigeria, Hide, is preferred; in Cameroon, Hdi. Little education. 1 primary school. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Holma
[hod] Adamawa State, north of Sorau on Cameroon border. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bali Holma, Da Holmaci Dialects: None known. Related to Nzanyi [nja]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8

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Hõne
[juh] Gombe State, Akko LGA. Pindiga dialect: Pindiga, Tumu, Kashere, Futuk, and Kaltanga; Gwana dialect: Gwana, Kasan Dare, Gobirawa, Katagum, Kwaya, Dizi, Digare, Jukon, Konan Kuka, and Andamin villages. 7,000 (Storch 1999). Ethnic population: Much more than 7,000 (Storch 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Gwana, Pindiga. Gwana and Pindiga dialects mutually intelligible with difficulty. Reportedly similar to Wãpha [juw], Jiba [juo], Wapan [juk], Jukun Takum [jbu], and Jibu [jib], but not intelligible of them. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Comments: Muslim.

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Horom
[hoe] Plateau State, Bokkos LGA. 1,500 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kaleri” (pej.) Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southeastern Comments: Horom is a village in Kulere-speaking area, and they have been erroneously referred to as “Kaleri”, a derogatory name.

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Huba
[hbb] Adamawa State, Hong, Maiha, Gombi, and Mubi LGAs. 175,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chobba, Kilba Dialects: Luwa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2

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Hun-Saare
[dud] Kebbi State, Wasagu and Yauri LGAs; Niger State, Rijau LGA; migrants farther south. Dialect centers are Rijau-Senjir, Dukku-Iri, Zente-Dogo, and Darengi. 73,000 (1985 P. Ahmed). 10,000 outside the traditional area. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Duka, Dukanchi, Dukanci, Dukawa, Dukwa Dialects: Eastern Duka (Et-Hun, Hun, Hune), Western Duka (Es-Saare). Lexical similarity: 85% between the Rijau and Dukku dialects; 63% Duka with ut-Ma’in [gel], 50% with C’lela [dri], 47% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka Comments: Glossonym: Es-Saare by Dukawa from the west, just as they refer to their own. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Hungworo
[nat] Niger State, Rafi LGA, Kagara and Maikujeri town areas. 20,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingwe, Ingwo, Ngwe, Ngwoi, Nkwoi, Ungwe Dialects: Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Kamuku [cdr] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

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Hwana
[hwo] Adamawa State, Gombi LGA; some in Song and Hong LGAs. 32,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiterya, Hona, Hwona Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Fiterya. 4 divisions: Hwana Guyaku, Hwana Tawa, Ngithambara, and Hwana Barni. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hya
[hya] Boppa, Tukwri (Tlukwi), Vi, Shike, Ligwe, Gameta, and Mukta villages. 2,000 in Nigeria (2008 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ghye, Hwate, Manta, Mukta, Munta, Za Dialects: Manta. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3

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Hyam
[jab] Kaduna State, Kechia and Jema’a LGAs. 100,000 (1994 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ham, Hyamhum, Jabba, Jeba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ibani
[iby] Rivers State, Bonny. 60,000 (1989 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bonny, Ubani Dialects: None known. Koin subgroup within the Ijo subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern

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Ibibio
[ibb] Akwa Ibom State, Itu, Uyo, Etinan, Ikot Abasi, Ikono, Ekpe-Atai, Uruan, Onna, Nsit-Ubium, and Mkpat Enin LGAs. 1,500,000 (1998 B. Connell). L2 users: 4,500,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Ibibio is the LWC of Akwa Ibom state. Dialects: Central Ibibio, Enyong, Itak, Nsit. Several dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik Comments: Christian.

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Ibino
[ibn] Akwa Ibom State, Ibeno LGA. 10,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ibeno, Ibuno Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibino

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Ibuoro
[ibr] Akwa Ibom State, Itu and Ikono LGAs. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

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Iceve-Maci
[bec] Cross River State, Obanliku LGA, 5 villages along Cameroon border including Amana. 5,000 in Nigeria (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Icheve, Oceve, Ochebe, Ocheve, Utse, Utser, Utseu Dialects: Bacheve (Baceve, Bechere, Becheve, Beheve), Maci (Kwaya, Matchi, Motom, Motomo, Olit, Olithi, Oliti, Oliti-Akwaya). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Christian.

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Idere
[ide] Akwa Ibom State, Itu LGA. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo

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Idesa
[ids] Edo State, Owan East LGA, Otuo. 5,690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Oloma [olm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

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Idoma
[idu] Benue State, Otukpo and Okpokwu LGAs. 600,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Idoma Central (Akpoto, Oturkpo), Idoma South (Igumale, Igwaale, Ijigbam), Idoma West, Okpogu. Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

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Igala
[igl] Kogi State, Ankpa, Idah, Dekina, and Bassa LGAs; Edo State, Oshimili LGA; Anambra State, Anambra LGA. 800,000 (1989 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Igara Dialects: Ankpa, Anyugba, Ebu, Ibaji, Idah, Ife, Ogugu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Igbo
[ibo] Abia State; Anambra State, Aguata, Anambra, Awka, Idemili, Ihiala, Njikoka, Nnewi, and Onitsha LGAs; Enugu State, Awgu, Enugu, Ezeagu, Igo-Etiti, Igbo-Eze, Isi-Uzo, Nkanu, Nsukka, Udi, and Uzo-Uwani LGAs; Imo State; Rivers State, Ikwerre, Bonny, and Ahoada LGAs; Delta State, Oshimili, Aniocha, and Ndokwa LGAs; Akwa Ibom State, Ika LGA; northeast Delta State; southeast Rivers State, Oyigbo LGA and Opobo part of Opobo-Nkoro LGA, and alongside Ibani [iby] langauge area in Bonny LGA. The only or majority language in Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo states. 18,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in southeastern region.Main LWC of Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo states. Alternate Names: Ibo Dialects: Afikpo, Aniocha, Bonny-Opobo, Eche, Egbema, Mbaise, Ngwa, Nsa, Nsuka, Oguta, Ohuhu, Oka (Awka), Onitsha, Orlu, Owerri (Isuama), Umuahia, Unwana. 30 dialects vary in inherent intelligibility. The standard literary form developing based on Owerri and Umuahia dialects, omitting the nasality and aspiration found in those dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Igede
[ige] Benue State, Oju, Otukpo, and Okpokwu LGAs; Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. 250,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Egede, Igedde Dialects: Gabu, Ito, Oju (Central Igede), Worku. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma

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Iguta
[nar] Plateau State, Jos-North LGA primarily; Jos-South, Jos-East, and Bassa LGAs; Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 6,120 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anaguta, Naraguta Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Comments: ‘Unaguta’ refers to a speaker.

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Igwe
[igw] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. 47,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Ihievbe
[ihi] North and east of Afuze, Owan LGA, Ihievbe Ogbe, Ebetse, and Iyakhora villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central

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Ija-Zuba
[vki] Federal Capital Territory, south of Abuja, north of Minna Suleja road. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Afiki, Koro Ija, Koro Zuba Dialects: None known. Different from Lijili [mgi], Koro Wachi [bqv], and Tanjijili [uji]. Koro is a cover term for several languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Unclassified

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Ijo, Southeast
[ijs] Bayelsa State, Brass LGA. 71,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 66,600 Nembe, 4,900 Akassa. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brass Ijo, Brass-Nembe, Ijaw, Nembe-Akassa Dialects: Akassa (Akaha), Ijo, Nembe (Nimbe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, East Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ika
[ikk] Delta State, Ika LGA. 22,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Agbor (administrative and commercial center) area dialect may become the standard form. Further east and south varieties become more similar to Igbo (Report of the Committee on Languages of Midwestern state: 12). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

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Iko
[iki] Akwa Ibom State, Obolo LGA, Iko, Atabrikang, and Ikonta villages. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Culturally consider themselves Obolo [ann], but cannot use Obolo literature. Iko is more similar to other Lower Cross languages than to Obolo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Iko

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Ikpeshi
[ikp] Bendel State, Etsako LGA. 5,320 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpeshe, Ikpeshe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Iku-Gora-Ankwa
[ikv] Kaduna State, Kechia LGA. 13,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekhwa, Iku Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: 11%–30% of Adara [kad]. Lexical similarity: less than 30% with Adara [kad], 27% with Ajiya [idc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern

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Ikulu
[ikl] Kaduna State, Kechia LGA. 50,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ankulu, Ikolu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern

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Ikwere
[ikw] Rivers State, Ikwerre, Port Harcourt, Emuoha and Obio-Akpor LGAs. 200,000 (1973 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikwerre, Ikwerri Dialects: Akpo-Mgbu-Tolu, Aluu, Apani, Egbedna, Elele, Emowhua, Ibaa, Igwuruta, Ipo, Isiokpo, Ndele, Obio-Akpo, Ogbakiri, Omagwna, Omerelu, Omudioga, Rumuji, Ubima. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ikwo
[iqw] Ebonyi State, Ikwo LGA; Cross River State, Obubura and Abi LGAs. 260,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

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Ilue
[ilv] Akwa Ibom State, Oron LGA. 5,000 (1988). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Idua Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ilue

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Irigwe
[iri] Plateau State, Bassa and Barakin Ladi LGAs; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 40,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aregwe, Idafan, Iregwe, Kwal, Kwan, Kwoll, Miango, Nnerigwe, Nyango, Rigwe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central Comments: Ethnonym: Nnerigwe or Miyango.

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Isekiri
[its] Delta State, Warri, Bomadi, and Ethiope LGAs. 510,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chekiri, Irhobo, Iselema-Otu, Ishekiri, Itsekiri, Iwere, Jekri, Selemo, Shekiri, Warri Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yoruba [yor]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

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Isoko
[iso] Delta State, Isoko and Ndokwa LGAs. 423,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Biotu” (pej.), “Igabo” (pej.), “Sobo” (pej.) Dialects: Aviara, Elu, Emede, Enhwe, Ibiede, Imiv, Irri (Iri), Itebiege, Iwire (Igbide), Iyede, Iyede-Ami, Iyowo, Ofagbe, Ole (Oleh), Olomoro, Owe (Owhe), Oyede, Ozoro, Ume, Unogboko, Uti, Uzere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern Comments: “Sobo” and “Igabo” are offensive names. “Biotu”, interior people, is the Izon name for the Isoko and is not meant offensively by the Izon; however, the Isoko do not like it.

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Iten
[etx] Plateau State, Riyom LGA; Kaduna State, Kaura LGA. 40,000 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aten, Etien, Ganawuri, “Jal” (pej.), Niten, Ten Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic Comments: Ethnonym: Eten.

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Ito
[itw] Akwa Ibom State, Akamkpa LGA. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

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Itu Mbon Uzo
[itm] Akwa Ibom State, Ikono and Itu LGAs. 5,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itu Mbon Uso, Itu Mbuzo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

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Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe
[atg] Edo State, Etsako and Akoko-Edo LGAs, Ate, Okpekpe, and Okpella villages. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Arhe (Ate, Atte), Ivbie North (Ibie North), Okpela (Okpella, Ukpella, Upella). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Iyayu
[iya] Ondo State, one fourth of Idoani town. 24,700 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Idoani Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse Comments: Listed separately from Uhami [uha] in Crozier and Blench 1992. Ethnonym: Idoani.

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Iyive
[uiv] Benue State, Kwande LGA, near Turan. 1,000 in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Asumbo, Ndir, Uive, Yiive Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ndir.

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Izere
[izr] Bauchi State, Toro LGA; Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA. South Izere dialect: Plateau State, Barikin Ladi LGA; North, Northeast Izere: Plateau State, Jos LGA. 50,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afizare, Afizarek, Afusare, Feserek, Fezere, Fizere, Hill Jarawa, Izarek, Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse, Jari, Jos-Zarazon Dialects: Northeast Izere, Northwest Izere, South Izere. Fobor dialect is prestigious. Northwest Izere subdialects: Fobor (Fobur), Shere; Northeast: Fedare (Zandi, Zendi), Jarawan Kogi (Maigemu), and Fursom (Fursum); South: Forom (Ichen). Firan [fir] is a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central Comments: Glossonyms: Izarek, Izere, or Izer; Bajari (sg.), Jarawa (pl.). Ethnonyms: Afizarek, Afizere, Afudelek, Fizere, Feserek, Fezere, Hill Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse; Jos-Zarazon for indigenous speakers in Jos.

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Izii
[izz] Ebonyi State, Izzi, Abakaliki, and Ebonyi LGAs; Benue State, Ado LGA; Cross River State, Yala LGA. 540,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Izi, Izzi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

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Izon
[ijc] Bayelsa State, Yenagoa, South Ijaw, Kolokuma-Opokuma, Ekeremor, and Sagbama LGAs; Delta State, Burutu, Warri, and Ughelli LGAs; Ondo State, Ilaje, Ese-Odo LGAs; Ekiti State, Ikole LGA. 1,000,000 (Williamson 1989). 100,000 Kolokuma (1991 UBS). 1,770,000 all Ijo languages. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Central-Western Ijo, Ijaw, Ijo, Izo, Uzo Dialects: Apoi, Arogbo, Basan (Bassan), Bumo (Boma), East Olodiama, East Tarakiri, Egbema, Ekpetiama, Furupagha, Gbarain, Iduwini, Ikibiri, Kabo (Kabowei), Kolokuma-Opokuma, Koluama, Kumbo (Kumbowei), Mein, Ogbe Ijo, Ogboin, Ogulagha, Operemo, Oporomo (Oporoma), Oporoza (Gbaranmatu), Oyiakiri, Tuomo, West Olodiama, West Tarakiri. The Ijo (Ijaw) subgroup includes 7 languages. Izon has about 30 inherently intelligible dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West Ijo

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Izora
[cbo] Plateau State, Bassa LGA. 1,500 (Blench 2003). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Comments: Glossonym: Izora or Cokobanci; Bacokobi (sg.), Cokobawa or Ndazora (pl.).

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Janji
[jni] Plateau State, Bassa LGA. 1,150 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajanji, Anafejanzi, Jenji, Tijanji Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Comments: Glossonym: Tijanji; Ujanji (sg.), Ajanji (pl.).

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Jara
[jaf] Borno State, Biu and Kwaya-Kusar LGAs; Gombe State, Akko and Yamaltu-Deba LGAs. 46,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jera Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western Comments: Different from Jere [jer], which is Benue-Congo.

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Jere
[jer] Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA; Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 23,000 (1972 SIL). 7,000 Boze, 2,350 Gusu, 2,000 Bunu, 3,500 Panawa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeere, Jera Dialects: Boze (Anabeze, Buji, Eboze), Bunu (Anegorom, Anorubuna, Gurrum, Ibunu, Narabunu, Rebina, Ribina), Ezelle (Azelle, Jengre, Jere, Jeriyawa), Gusu (Anibau, Anosangobari, Asanga, Gesawa, Gusawa, Gussum, Guzawa, Isanga), Panawa (Ipanawa, Unupanawa). In Ezelle dialect, Ozelle or Bajere (sg.), Azelle or Jarawa (pl.). In Eboze, Unabeze (sg.), Anabeze (pl.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Comments: Different from Jara [jaf], which is Chadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jiba
[juo] Taraba State, Wukari and Karim Lamido LGAs; Plateau State, Langtang and Wase LGAs; Bauchi State, Alkaleri and Akko LGAs; villages north and west of Kalingo. 2,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jibe, Jibi, Jukun Kona, Kona Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa Comments: ‘Bajibaro’ is the ethnic group. Traditional religion.

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Jibu
[jib] Taraba State, Gashaka and Bali LGA. 30,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jibanci, Jibawa Dialects: Galamjina, Garbabi, Gayam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jilbe
[jie] Borno State, Jilbe town, Cameroon border across from Dabanga town. 1 village. 100 (1999 H. Tourneux). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Zoulbou Dialects: None known. Kotoko speakers in Cameroon and Chad consistently report low intelligibility with Jilbe. Distinct from Zizilivakan [ziz]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1 Comments: Muslim.

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Jimi
[jmi] Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Jimi village. 1,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bi-Gimu Dialects: Zumo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Eastern Comments: Different from Jimi [jim] in Cameroon in the Biu-Mandara group. Muslim.

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Jiru
[jrr] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atak, Kir, Wiyap, Zhiru Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Jju
[kaj] Kaduna State, Kechia and Jema’a LGAs. 300,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kache, Kaje, Kajji Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central

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Jorto
[jrt] Plateau State, Shendam LGA, Dokan Kasuwa. 17,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

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Ju
[juu] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Ju village. 900 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jukun Takum
[jbu] Taraba State, Takum, Sardauna, and Bali LGAs. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diyi, Jukun, Njikum Dialects: Donga (Akpanzhi), Takum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Comments: ‘Njikum’ is preferred in Cameroon. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kaan
[ldl] Adamawa State, Shellen, Song, and Numan LGAs. 10,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kan, Libbo, Libo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Libo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kagoma
[kdm] Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA. 25,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agoma, Gwong, Gyong, Kwong Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic

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Kaivi
[kce] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 2,320 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaibi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Kakanda
[kka] Niger State, Agaie and Lapai LGAs; Kwara State, Kogi LGA; along Niger river centered on Budã. 20,000 (1989 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adyaktye, Akanda, Hyabe Dialects: Budon Kakanda, Gbanmi-Sokun Kakanda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

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Kakihum
[kxe] North Niger State. 15,000 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari

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Kalabari
[ijn] Rivers State, Degema, Akulga, Asaritoru, and Port Harcourt LGAs. 258,000 (Jenewari 1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible with Kirike [okr] and Ibani [iby]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern

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Kam
[kdx] Taraba State, Bali LGA, between Mayo Kam and Garba Chede. 2 villages. 5,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyingwom, Nyiwom, Yimwom Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kam Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kamantan
[kci] Kaduna State, Kechia LGA. 10,000 (Barrett 1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angan, Kamanton Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kami
[kmi] Niger State, Lapai LGA, Ebo town, and 11 villages. 5,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

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Kamo
[kcq] Gombe State, Billiri, Kaltungo and Akko LGAs. 20,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamu, Ma, Nubama, Nyima Dialects: None known. Reportedly typologically similar to Awak [awo] (no singular-plural noun suffixes). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak Comments: 5 primary schools, 1 junior secondary school. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kamuku
[cdr] Niger State, Chanchaga, Rafi, and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. 45,000 (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cinda-Regi-Tiyal, Tiyal, Tiyar, Tucipu, Tu’yara, ’Yara Dialects: Cinda (Jinda, Majinda, Makangara, Tegina, Ucinda), Kuki (Tiyal, Tiyar), Kuru (uKuru), Maruba, Regi (tuRegi). Cinda, Regi, and Kuki mutually intelligible, also by Shiyabe. Lexical similarity: 82%–97% among the 5 dialects, 47%–63% with Eastern Acipa [acp], 59%–70% with Shama-Sambuga [sqa], 65%–75% with Rogo [rod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku Comments: Clans are Uregi, Urogo, Tiyar (Kuki), Ucinda (Jinda), and Ushana. Laka, or Kamuku Laka, are Hausa-speaking ethnic Kamuku. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kamwe
[hig] Adamawa State, Michika LGA, Mandara mountains. 300,000 (1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Higgi, Higi, Hiji, Vacamwe Dialects: Dakwa (Bazza), Futu, Humsi, Modi, Nkafa, Sina, Tili Pte. Reportedly similar to Psikye [kvj] and Hya [hya] of Cameroon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kaningkom-Nindem
[kdp] Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA. 12,000 (2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaningdom-Nindem, Kaningdon-Nindem, Kaningkon-Nindem, Kaninkom-Nindem, Kaninkon-Nindem, Ninkyob-Nindem Dialects: Nindem (Inidem, Nidem), Ninkyob (Kaningkom, Kaningkwom, Kaninkon, Ninkyop). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

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Kanufi
[kni] Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA. 10,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karshi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

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Kanuri
[kau] Population total all languages: 3,760,500. Comments: Includes: Central Kanuri [knc], Manga Kanuri [kby] (Niger), Tumari Kanuri [krt] (Niger).

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Borno State, Kukawa, Kaga, Konduga, Maiduguri, Monguno, Ngala, Bama, and Gwoza LGAs; Yobe State, Nguru, Geidam, Damaturu, Fika, Fune, and Gujba LGAs; Jigawa State, Hadejia LGA. 3,000,000 in Nigeria (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Population total all countries: 3,240,500. L2 users: 500,000 in Nigeria. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Beriberi, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Yerwa Kanuri Dialects: Fadawa, Guvja, Kabari (Kuvuri), Kaga (Kagama), Kwayam, Lare (Lere), Mao, Ngazar, Njesko, Temageri, Yerwa. Kwayam dialect not understood by other Kanuri (Lukas 1937). Maiduguri dialect mutually intelligible. Reportedly most similar to Manga Kanuri [kby] and Tumari Kanuri [krt]. Yerwa is central dialect. A member of macrolanguage Kanuri [kau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Muslim.

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Kanuri, Manga
[kby] Mainly Yobe State; Jigawa and Bauchi states. 200,000 in Nigeria (1993). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanouri, Kanoury, Manga Dialects: Dagara, Manga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Muslim.

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Kapya
[klo] Taraba State, Takum LGA, at Kapya. 200 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb

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Karekare
[kai] Bauchi State, Gamawa and Misau LGAs; Yobe State, Fika and Nangere LGAs. 150,000 (1993 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karai Karai, Karaikarai, Kerekere, Kerrikerri Dialects: Birkai, Jalalam (West Karekare), Kwarta Mataci. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Karekare Comments: Muslim.

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Kariya
[kil] Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Kariya village near Miya town. 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kariyu, Kauyawa, Lipkawa, Vinahe, Wihe Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Khana
[ogo] Rivers State, Khana LGA; Akwa Ibom State, Oruk Anam LGA, Wiisoe village. 200,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kana, Ogoni Dialects: Babbe, Boúe, Ken-Khana, Norkhana, Nyo-Kana, Yeghe. Reportedly similar to Gokana [gkn] and Tee [tkq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East

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Kholok
[ktc] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, near Didango. 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kode, Koode, Kwoode, Pia, Pitiko, Widala, Wurkum Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

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Kinuku
[kkd] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 500 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinugu, Kinuka Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Kiong
[kkm] Cross River State, Odukpani and Akampka LGAs, Akpap village, northwest of Calabar, east of Cross river; Akankpa area northeast of Akpap (40 km north of Calabar). 100 (2004). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Akayon, Äkäyön~, Akoiyang, Iyoniyong, Okonyong, Okoyong Dialects: None known. Very closely related to Korop [krp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop

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Kir-Balar
[kkr] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Kir Bengbet and Kir Bajang’le villages. 3,050 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kir, Kirr Dialects: Balar (Larbawa), Kir. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom Comments: Muslim.

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Kirike
[okr] Rivers State, Okrika, Port Harcourt, and Ogu-Bolo LGAs. 248,000 (1995 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Okrika Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern

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Kirya-Konzel
[fkk] Adamawa State, Mubi LGA. 5,800 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fali of Kiria, Fali of Kiriya, Fali of Kirya, Fali of Mijilu, Kirya Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Hya [hya] and Kamwe [hig]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3

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Koenoem
[kcs] Plateau State, Shendam LGA. 3,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanam Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

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Kofa
[kso] Adamawa State, Song LGA, north of Belul road, north of Yola. 1,100 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kota Dialects: None known. Reportedly a separate language from Bura-Pabir [bwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1

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Kofyar
[kwl] Plateau State, Qua’an Pan and Mangu LGAs; Nassarawa State, Lafia LGA. 110,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bwol (Bwal, Mbol), Dimmuk (Dimuk, Doemak), Gworam (Giverom, Goram), Jipal (Jepal, Jepel, Jibyal), Kofyar (Kwong), Kwagallak (Kwa’alang, Kwalla), Mirriam (Mernyang). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kohumono
[bcs] Cross River State, Obubra LGA. 30,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bahumono, Ediba, Ekumuru, Humono, Ohumono Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono

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Koma
[kmy] Adamawa State, Ganye and Fufore LGAs, Koma Vomni and Alantika mountains. 32,000 in Nigeria (1989). Population total all countries: 35,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuma Dialects: Gomme (Damti, Koma Kampana, Panbe), Gomnome (Gimbe, Koma Kadam, Laame, Mbeya, Youtubo), Ndera (Doobe, Doome, Vomni). 3 subdialects: Koma Vomni, Koma Beiya, and Koma Damti. Ndera and Gomnome barely understand each other, but both understand Gomme. Related to Mom Jango [ver]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere Comments: Different from Koma (Komo) [xom] of Ethiopia and Sudan. 7 primary schools. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kono
[klk] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA, Kona village. 5,520 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konu, Kwono Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Koro Wachi
[bqv] Kaduna State, Kechia and Kagarko LGAs; Nassarawa State, Keffi LGA. 106,000 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agere, Begbere-Ejar, Koro Agwe, Koro Makama, Koro Myamya, Miamia, Miamiya Dialects: Koro Miamia, Koro Waci (Koro Ache). Lexical similarity: most to Koro Ashe [ahs], Duya [ldb], and Nyankpa [yes]. These 4 languages are often referred to as the Koro Cluster. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro Comments: Koro is a cover term used for 2 distinct languages, Waci [bqv] and Ashe [ahs]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Korop
[krp] Cross River State, Odukpani and Akampka LGAs. 10,200 in Nigeria (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Population total all countries: 17,640. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Durop, Kurop, Ododop Dialects: None known. Very closely related to Kiong [kkm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop

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Kpan
[kpk] Taraba State, Wukari, Takum, and Sardauna LGAs, Kato Bagha, Wukari, Suntai, Gayan, Gindin Dutse, and Likam. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abakan, Hwaso, Hwaye, Ibukwo, Ikpan, Kpanten, Kpwate, Nyatso, Nyonyo, Yorda Dialects: Apa, Bissaula, Donga (Akpanzhi), Eregba, Kente (Etkye, Kentu, Kyentu), Kumbo (Kpanzon), Takum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen

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Kpasham
[pbn] Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Kpasham town, on Numan-Jalingo road. 3000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Balo, Kpasam, Maya, Nyisam, Passam Dialects: None known. Similarity: 54% with Bali [bcn], 35% with Yotti [yot], 9% with Yendang [ynq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kpati
[koc] Taraba State, Wukari, Takum LGAs. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba

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Kubi
[kof] Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kuba, Kubawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Muslim.

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Kuce
[ruk] Plateau State, Bassa LGA. 100,000 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bace, Bache, Che, Inchazi, Rukuba, Sale Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bace, a speaker Ace.

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Kudu-Camo
[kov] Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. 42 (1990 M. Bross). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Dimmendaal 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kuda-Chamo, Kudawa Dialects: Camo (Chamo), Kudu (Kuda). Related to Butu-Ningi [bte]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

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Kugama
[kow] Adamawa State, Fufore LGA. 5,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kugamma, Wegam, Yamale, Yamalo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kugbo
[kes] Rivers State, Brass LGA. 2,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo

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Kukele
[kez] Cross River State, Ogoja LGA; Ebonyi State, Abakaliki LGA; Benue State, Okpokwu and Oju LGAs. 180,000 (2011 U. Francis), increasing. 45,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 180,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bakele, Ukele Dialects: Iteeji, Mtezi, Ugbala. 4 dialects in the north, 3 south, besides those named. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulere
[kul] Plateau State, Bokkos LGA. 15,600 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akande, Akandi, Kande, Korom Boye, Tof Dialects: Kamwai-Marhai, Richa, Tof. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper Comments: Different from Kulere [sef] of Côte d’Ivoire, a trade dialect of Senoufo.

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Kulung
[bbu] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, Balasa, Bambur, and Kirim; Wukari LGA, Gada Mayo. 40,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Elderly are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakuli, Bakulu, Bakulung, Bambur, Kukulung, Kulu, Kuluno, Wo, Wurkum Dialects: None known. Mutually unintelligible (less than 20%) with Mbula-Bwazza [mbu] and Bille [bil]. Lexical similarity: 37% with Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], 33% with Bile [bil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: 4 clans: Bambur, Balassa, Banyam, Bamingun. Different from Kulung [mpg] of Chad which is Chadic. Similar in culture to Piya, Kodei, Kwanchi, Pelang, and Pero. Christian.

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Kumba
[ksm] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa and Fufore LGAs. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Isaro, Sate, Yofo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kupa
[kug] Kwara State, Kogi LGA, Abugi area. 52 villages. 20,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe

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Kurama
[krh] Kaduna State, Saminaka and Ikara LGAs; Kano State, Tudun Waya LGA. 40,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akurmi, Akurumi, Azumu, Bagwama, Bukurumi, Tikurami Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru Comments: Glossonym: Turkurami; Akurumi (pl.), Bukurumi (sg.).

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Kushi
[kuh] Bauchi State, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs, Kushi village. 11,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chong’e, Goji, Kushe Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

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Kutep
[kub] Taraba State, Takum LGA. 44,600 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 46,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ati, “Jompre” (pej.), Kuteb, Kutev, Mbarike, Zumper Dialects: Fikyu, Jenuwa, Kentin, Kunabe, Lissam. Fikyu has subdialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kutto
[kpa] Bauchi State, Bajoga LGA; Borno State, Gujba LGA. 2 villages. 3,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kupto, Kúttò Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

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Kuturmi
[khj] Kaduna State, Kechia LGA. 10,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Aclo (Aklo, Kuturmi West), Obiro (Kuturmi East). Intelligibility between dialects acquired by many speakers. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Kwa
[kwb] Adamawa State, Numan LGA, Gyakan and Kwa towns, near Munga. 7,000 (1992). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baa, Kwah Dialects: Gyakan, Kwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Kwa Comments: Different from Kwa’ [bko] of Cameroon in the Bamileke group. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwaami
[ksq] Bauchi State, Gombe LGA. 10,000 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Komawa, Kwam, Kwamanchi, Kwami, Kwom Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper

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Kwak
[kwq] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bùkwák Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified Comments: May be the same as Yamba [yam].

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Kyak
[bka] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. 5,000 (Adelberger 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bambuka, Nyakyak Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kyanga
[tye] Kebbi State, Geshuru, Kaele, Saufu, and Tuni villages west of Illo; Boko villages of Maze, Samia, Baikinrua, Pisa. 11,000 in Nigeria (2012 R. Jones), decreasing. Population total all countries: 12,000. Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Canga, Changa, Kã, Kenga, Kyangawa, Kyenga, Tienga, Tyanga, Tyenga Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with the Busa group. Lexical similarity: 78% with Shanga [sho], 57%–62% with the Busa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Labir
[jku] Bauchi State, Bauchi and Alkaleri LGAs. 500 (2008 E. Hannelova et al.), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jakanci, Jaku, Jakun Dialects: None known. Intelligibility 31% of Bankal [jjr], 24% of Duguri [dbm] and Mbat [bau], 10% of Bankal [jjr], Gwak [jgk], and Mbat [bau]. Lexical similarity: 41% with Gwak [jgk], Bankal [jjr], Duguri [dbm], and Mbat [bau]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Laka
[lak] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA; Adamawa State, Yola LGA. 5,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Godogodo, Lakka, Lao Habe, Lau Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified Comments: Different from Laka [lap] (Kabba Laka) of Central African Republic and Chad, or from Karang [kzr] (Laka) of Cameroon and Chad. Muslim, Christian.

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Lala-Roba
[lla] Adamawa State, Gombi LGA; Borno State. 46,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gworam Dialects: Ebode, Lala (Lalla), Roba (Robba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lamang
[hia] Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Adamawa State, Michika LGA. 40,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbuhwe, Laamang, Waha Dialects: Central Laamang, North Laamang, South Laamang. 37% intelligibility of Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 31% of Hide [xed]. North Lamang subdialects: Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuba, Leghva (Luhuva), Gwoza-Wakane; Central Lamang: Hedkala (Hidkala, Xidkala, Hitkala, Hitkalanchi), Waga (Waha, Woga, Wagga), Dlige; South Lamang: Ghudavan. Lexical similarity: 64% with Hide and Vemgo-Mabas, 50% with Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang

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Lame
[bma] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Lame district. 10,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Gura (Agari, Agbiri, Tugura), Mbaru (Bambara, Bambaro, Bamburo, Bombaro, Bomberawa, Bunberawa), Ruhu (Rufawa, Rufu). Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: Different from Pévé [lme] (Lamé) of Cameroon and Chad.

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Lamja-Dengsa-Tola
[ldh] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, Ganglamja area (Lamja mountain), between Mayo Belwa and Tola. 13 villages. Lamja central town is Ganglamja; Dengsa are south of Lamja. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dengsa, Lamja, Tola. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid Comments: 8 primary schools. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lamnso’
[lns] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, scattered, mixed with other languages. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bansaw, Banso, Banso’, Lamnsok, Lamso, Nsaw, Nsho’, Nso, Nso’, Panso Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East Comments: Most Lamnso’ fled to Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Laru
[lan] Niger State, Borgu LGA, Niger river banks, Karabonde, Monnai, Leshigbe, Luma, Sansanni, and Shagunu villages. 5,000 (1995 R. Jones). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laranchi, Larawa, Laro, Sengwe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake Comments: Muslim.

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Leelau
[ldk] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, between Bambuka and Karim-Lamido town, near Lake Mungah. 5,000 (Adelberger 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lelau, Lelo, Munga, Munga Lelau Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: In Bikwin ethnic subgroup. Clan names: Tanyam, Munzigah, Brem, Gopi. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Legbo
[agb] Cross River State, Obubra LGA; Ebonyi State, Afikpo LGA. 60,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agbo, Gbo, Igbo, Imaban, Itigidi, Leggbo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo

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Lemoro
[ldj] Plateau State, Bassa LGA; Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 10,000 (1998 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anemoro, Anowuru, Emoro, Limoro, Limorro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Comments: Glossonym: Emoro; Limoro (sg.), Anemoro (pl.). Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lenyima
[ldg] Cross River State, Obubra LGA. 13,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anyima, Inyima Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo Comments: Ethnonym: Anyima.

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Lere
[gnh] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. Ethnic population: 16,300 (2000). Possibly few speakers left. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Gana (Ganawa, SiGana), Si (Kauru, Kuzamani, Rishuwa), Takaya (Taura). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

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Leyigha
[ayi] Cross River State, Obubra LGA. 10,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asiga, Assiga, Ayiga, Ayigha, Yigha Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo

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Lijili
[mgi] Nassarawa State, Awe and Lafia LGAs. 50,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koro Lafia, Koro of Lafia, Ligili, Megili, Migili, Mijili Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern Comments: ‘Migili’ is people name.

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Limbum
[lmp] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Mambila uplands. Few in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kambu, Wimbum Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe

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Lokaa
[yaz] Cross River State, Obubra LGA. 120,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loke, Loko, Luko, Yakö, Yakurr Dialects: Nkpam, Ugep. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko

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Longuda
[lnu] Adamawa State, Guyuk LGA; Bauchi State, Balanga LGA. 32,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Languda, Longura, Nunguda, Nungura, Nunguraba Dialects: Nya Ceriya (Banjiram, Cirimba), Nya Dele (Jessu), Nya Guyuwa (Guyuk, Plain Nya Guyuwa, Turuba), Nya Gwanda (Gwandaba, Nyuwar), Nya Tariya (Taraba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Longuda Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Loo
[ldo] Gombe State, Kaltungo and Shongom LGAs; Taraba State, Lau and Karim Lamido LGAs, northeast of Karim Lamido town, Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road. 8,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Lo, Loh, Shungo, Shunhu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: Clan names: Fore (Kyilayo), Bene, Tamu, Bana, Talau, Tadam, Wawa. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lopa
[lop] Kebbi State, Ngaski LGA, Lopa, Gafara, and Raishe; Niger State, Magama LGA, Cifamini, Gungun Tagwaye, and Kwanga; Kainji Reservoir eastern shore, from inlet to dam. Ollop dialect: Lopa to Wara; Urcibar: Wara to New Busa. 5,000 (1996 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djiri, Kirikjir, Lopawa, Lupa, Ollaran Dialects: Ollop, Urcibar. Marginal intelligibility between dialects; use Hausa [hau] instead. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake Comments: Those in Borgu LGA assimilating to Bisã language and culture.

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Lubila
[kcc] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA, Ojo Nkomba and Ojo Akangba. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabila, Kabire, Lubilo, Ofor, Ojor Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko

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Lufu
[ldq] Taraba State, Takum LGA, Lufu, and Lufu Jauro. 3,200 (2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Unclassified Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Luri
[ldd] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Kayarda and Luri villages. No known L1 speakers. In 2002, spoken only by the old chief and his wife (R. Blench). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: May have been a dialect of Polci [plj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

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Maaka
[mew] Borno State, Gujba LGA, Bara town and associated hamlets. 10,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maga, Magha, Maha, Maka Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mada
[mda] Plateau State, Akwanga and Keffi LGAs; Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA. 100,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Madda, Yidda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A Comments: Different from Mada [mxu] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mafa
[maf] Borno State, Gwoza LGA. 4,910 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bula, Bulahai, “Matakam” (pej.), Natakan Dialects: Mafa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5

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Mághdì
[gmd] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, a section of the Widala. 2,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tala, Widala Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: Ethnonym: Widala. Kholok [ktc] is also called Widala.

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Mak
[pbl] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, off Banbuka to Karim-Lamido road. 5,690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Leemak, Lemak, Panya, Panyam, Zo Dialects: Panya, Zo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: In Bikwin ethnic subgroup. Clan names: Guma, Zidah, Togon, Mungok, Tawok, Tagwam. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mala
[ruy] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 6,630 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amala, Rumaiya, Rumaya, Tumala Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Mama
[mma] Nassarawa State, Akwanga LGA. 20,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kantana, Kwarra Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian

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Mambila, Nigeria
[mzk] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Mambila plateau. 99,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bang, Lagubi, Mabila, Mambere, Mambilla, Nor, Nor Tagbo, Tongbo Dialects: Barup. Nearly every village has a separate dialect, forming a chain. Dialect centers are Bang, Dorofi, Gembu, Hainari, Kabri, Mayo Ndaga, Mbamnga, Tamien, Tepo, Warwar. Reportedly similar to Mambila [mcu] of Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mangas
[zns] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Mangas town. 100 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Marghi Central
[mrt] Borno State, Askira-Uba and Damboa LGAs; Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGAs. 158,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marghi, Margi Dialects: Gulak (Dzerngu), Lassa (Babal), Madube (Gwara), Mulgwe (Malgwa), Wurga. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2 Comments: Marghi South, Marghi [mfm] Central, and Putai [mfl] form a language subgroup.

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Marghi South
[mfm] Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa State, Mubi and Michika LGAs. 166,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Hildi, Wamdiu. Marghi South, Marghi Central [mrt], and Putai [mfl] form a language subgroup. Hoffman (1963) relates Marghi South to Huba [hbb] rather than to Margi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2

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Mashi
[jms] Taraba State, near Takum. 1000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Beboid

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Mawa
[wma] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, possibly Mara village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified Comments: Apparently different from the Mawa [mcw] language of Chad, which is Chadic.

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Mbat
[bau] Plateau State, Kanam LGA. 40,000 (2006 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bada’, Badanchi, Badawa, Bat, Garaka, Jar, Jarawan Kogi, Kanna, Mbada, Mbadawa, Plains Jarawa, River Jarawa Dialects: Galamkya (Gidgid, Gyanggyang), Mbat (Gagdi-Gum). Mbat and Galamkya are mutually intelligible, Mbat intelligible to Duguri [dbm], Duguri [dbm] intelligible to Mbat but not Galamkya, Kantana [mma] marginally intelligible to Galamkya and Mbat. Lexical similarity: Mbat 82% with Galamkya, 75% with Duguri [dbm], 67% with Kantana [mma], 64% with Gwak [jgk], 63% with Bankal [jjr], 41% with Labir [jku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant), Muslim.

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Mbe
[mfo] Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. 65,000 (2011 F. Ekpong). 15,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ketuen, Western Mbube Dialects: Ekumtak, Idum, Odaje. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Mbe Comments: Distinct from Mbe’ [mtk] of Cameroon, a Grassfields language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mbembe, Cross River
[mfn] Cross River State, Obubra and Ikom LGAs; Anambra State, Abakaliki LGA. 100,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekokoma, Ifunubwa, Oderiga, Ofunobwam, Okam, Wakande Dialects: Adun, Apiapum, Ekama (Ekamu), Oferikpe, Ofombonga (Ewumbonga), Ofonokpan, Okom (Eghom, Ohana-Onyen), Osopong (Ezopong, Osophong). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Mbembe Comments: Different from Tigon Mbembe [nza].

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Mbembe, Tigon
[nza] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kurmi district. 20,000 in Nigeria (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akonto, Akwanto, Noale, Tigim, Tigon, Tigong, Tukun Dialects: Ashuku (Kitsipki), Nama (Dama, Eneeme, Kporo, Namu, Nzare). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe Comments: Entirely different from Mbembe [mfn] in Cross River group. Dialects form a subgroup. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mboi
[moi] Adamawa State, Song, Fufore, and Gombi LGAs. 19,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gena, Mboire, Mboyi Dialects: Banga, Handa, Mboi. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Mboi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mbongno
[bgu] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kakara town. 3,000 in Nigeria (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bungnu, Bungun, Bunu, Gbunhu, Kakaba, Kamkam Dialects: Several minor dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mbula-Bwazza
[mbu] Adamawa State, Numan, Girei, Song, Shelleng and Demsa LGAs. 100,000 (2012 M. Rueck, Z. Yoder, and K. Hannelová). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bakopi (kunBuko), Bwazza (Bare, Bere, Bwaza, Bwa’za, kunBwazza), Gwamba (Nkono), Mbula, Tambo (Begel, kunBegel, Taumbo). Mbula 73% intelligible of Tambo, over 80% of other dialects. Mbula-Bwazza [mbu], Kulung [bbu], and Bile [bil] mutually unintelligible (less than 25%). Lexical similarity: Mbula 75% with Bwazza and Gwamba, 70% with Bakopi, 64% with Tambo; Mbula-Bwazza [mbu] 37% with Kulung [bbu], 48% with Bile [bil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: Primary schools in major villages; a few secondary schools. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mburku
[bbt] Bauchi State, Darazo LGA. 12,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barke, Barko, Burkanawa, Kariya, Lipkawa, Mburkanci, Wudufu, Wuufu Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2

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Mgbolizhia
[gmz] Ebonyi State, Ohaukwu LGA; Benue State, Ado LGA. 190,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mgbo, Ngbo Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Igbo [ibo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

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Mingang Doso
[mko] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, 15 km east of Karim Lamido town. 1 village and area hamlets. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doso, Munga Doso, Ngwai Mungàn Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miship
[mjs] Plateau State, Pankshin, Mangu, and Shendam LGAs. 6,000 (1976 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chip, Cip, Ship Dialects: Doka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

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Miya
[mkf] Bauchi State, Ganjuwa LGA, Miya town. 30,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Miyawa, Muya Dialects: Demshin, Faishang, Federe, Fursum, Gala. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mom Jango
[ver] Adamawa State, Yola and Fufore LGAs, Verre hills. 104,000 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 110,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kobo, Vere, Verre, Were Dialects: Mom Jango, Momi (Ziri). Mom Jango and Momi are probably separate languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Montol
[mtl] Plateau State, Shendam LGA. 21,900 (1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baltap, Montal, Teel Dialects: Baltap-Lalin, Montol. Related to Tal [tal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

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Moo
[gwg] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, northeast of Karim Lamido town, Bambuka to Karim-Lamido road area, near Gomu Mountain. 5,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gomu, Gwom, Gwomo, Gwomu, Ngwaa Móò, Yáá Mòò Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen Comments: In Bikwin ethnic subgroup. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mumuye
[mzm] Taraba State, Jalingo, Zing, Karim Lamido, Yorro, and Bali LGAs; Adamawa State, Ganye, Fufore, Yola, Numan, and Mayo Belwa LGAs. 400,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yoro Dialects: Dong, Gnoore, Gola (Bajama), Gongla, Jalingo, Jeng, Kasaa, Kugong, Kwaji, Lankaviri, Mang, Meeka, Nyaaja, Saawa, Sagbee, Shaari, Yaa, Yakoko, Yoro, Zinna (Zing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mundat
[mmf] Plateau State, Bokkos LGA, Mundat village near Sha. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sha [scw] and Duhwa [kbz]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

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Mvanip
[mcj] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, 25% of Zongo Ajiya and hamlets northwest of Mambila plateau. 100 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Magu, Mvanlip, Mvano, Mvanon, Mvanöp Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila

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Mwaghavul
[sur] Plateau State, Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGAs. 295,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sura Dialects: Mupun (Mapan, Mapun), Panyam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1

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Nde-Gbite
[ned] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biti, Bötö Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified

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Nde-Nsele-Nta
[ndd] Cross River State, Ikom LGA. 19,500 (1987). 12,000 Nde, 3,000 Nsele, 4,500 Nta. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nde (Befon, Ekamtulufu, Mbenkpe, Mbofon, Udom), Nsele (Nselle), Nta (Afunatam, Atam). Lexical similarity: 88%–92% among dialects, 66%–68% with Efutop [ofu], 65%–67% with Abanyom [abm], 53%–58% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 58%–61% with Nnam [nbp], 57%–59% with Ekajuk [eka]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor

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Ndoe
[nbb] Cross River State, Ikom LGA. 7,340 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Balep (Anep, Anyep), Ekparabong (Akparabong). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid

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Ndoola
[ndr] Taraba State, Bali, Gashaka, and Sardauna LGAs. 60,400 in Nigeria (2000). Population total all countries: 62,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ndola, Ndoro, Njoyame, Nundoro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ndunda
[nuh] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, near Mvanip, on Tea Estate road, northwest of Gembu. 350 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila

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Ngamo
[nbh] Yobe State, Fika LGA; Gambe State, Nafada-Bajoga LGA. 60,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gamawa, Gamo, Ngamawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Ngas
[anc] Plateau State, Pankshin, Kanam, and Langtang LGAs. 400,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angas, Karang, Kerang Dialects: Hill Angas, Plain Angas. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Comments: Kerang or Karang is a place name.

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Nggwahyi
[ngx] Borno State, Askira-Uba LGA. 2,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngwaxi, Ngwohi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2

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Ngizim
[ngi] Yobe State, Damaturu LGA. 80,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngezzim, Ngizmawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper Comments: Muslim.

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Ngwaba
[ngw] Adamawa State, Gombi LGA at Fachi and Guduniya, and Hong LGA. 2 villages. 10,000 (1993 CAPRO). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Goba, Gombi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nigerian Sign Language
[nsi] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Influences from American [ase] and Ghanaian [gse] sign languages. Originated in 1960.

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Ningye
[nns] Kaduna State, Sanga LGA, Ningeshen Kurmi village, Akwankwan, Kobin, and Ningeshen Dutse settlements. 10,000 (2008 K. Hannelova et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ningeshe Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: 60%–74% of Numana [nbr]; 86%–96% of Numba and Aninka [nbr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ninzo
[nin] Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA; Nassarawa State, Akwanga LGA. 35,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akiza, Amar Tita, Ancha, Fadan Wate, Gbhu D Amar Randfa, Hate, Incha, Kwasu, Ninzam, Nunzo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

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Njerep
[njr] Southeast, near the Mambila [mzk] language area. 6 (2000 B. Connell). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Njerup Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Njerup

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Nkari
[nkz] Akwa Ibom State, Ikono LGA. 5,000 (1998 B. Connell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of Ibibio [ibb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro

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Nkem-Nkum
[isi] Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. 51,000 (Yoder), increasing. 26,600 Nkem, 24,400 Nkum. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nkem (Adagom, Ishibori, Nkim, Ogboja), Nkum (Alladim, Ibil, Igordori, Ikangdangha, Ishiaya, Ishindede, Nkum-Iborr). Dialects more than 75% mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects, 65%–67% with Nnam [nbp], 63%–67% with Ekajuk [eka], 71% with Abanyom [amb], 53%–58% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 51%–52% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor Comments: Christian.

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Nkoroo
[nkx] Rivers State, Opobo-Nkoro LGA. 4,550 (1989 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nkoro Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern Comments: A separate language within Ijo subgroup.

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Nkukoli
[nbo] Cross River State, at the juncture of Ikom, Obubra, and Akamkpa LGAs, Iko Ekperem development area. 1,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekuri, Lokoli, Lokukoli, Nkokolle Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko

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Nnam
[nbp] Cross River State, Ikom and Ogoja LGAs. 3,000 (1987 O. Asinya). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ndem Dialects: None known. Other Bakor varieties not intelligible unless acquired. Lexical similarity: 87%–90% with Ekajuk [eka], 65%–67% with Nkem-Nkum [isi], 72% with Abanyom [abm], 58%–61% with Nde-Nsele-Nta [ndd], 53% with Efutop [ofu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor

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Nshi
[nsc] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere, Nkiri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Unclassified Comments: May be the same as Wushi [bse].

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Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu
[nbr] Kaduna State, Jema’a and Sanga LGAs. 40,000 (2008 K. Hannelova et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sanga Dialects: Aninka (Gwantu, Kurmi, Ninka, Sanga), Gbantu (Gwanto, Gwantu), Numana (Arak, Inmwen, Nimana), Numbu, Nunku. Intelligibility: Numbu and Aninka 86%–89% of Numana; Numana 72% of Aninka; Numana and Numbu 22%–24% of Ningye [nns]; Aninka 78% of Ningye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Nungu
[rin] Plateau State, Akwanga LGA. 50,000 (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lindiri, Rendre, Rindiri, Rindre Dialects: Gudi, Rindre. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A

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Nupe-Nupe-Tako
[nup] Niger State, Mariga, Gbako, Agaie, and Lapai LGAs; Kwara State, Edu LGA; Kogi State, Kogi LGA; Federal Capital Territory. 800,000 (1990). L2 users: 200,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Nufawa, Nupe, Nupeci, Nupecidji, Nupenchi, Nupencizi Dialects: Nupe Central (Ampeyi, Anupe, Anupecwayi, Anuperi, Nife, Nupecizi, Nupencizi, Takpa, Tapa, Tappah), Nupe Tako (Bassa Nge). Nupe Central is literary norm. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nyam
[nmi] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, Ndallang, northeast of Andamin village. 100 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nyambolo Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper

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Nyankpa
[yes] Kaduna State, Jema’a LGA; Nassarawa State, Karu LGA. 70,000 (2012 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyenkpa, Yasgua, Yeskwa Dialects: Ejira (Tattara), Ejung (Panda), Engbe (Barde, Bede), Ogbom (Buzi, Gitata). All dialects mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: Ejung 90% with Ejira, 83% with Ogbom, 74% with Engbe; Ejira dialect: 87% with Ogbom, 77% with Engbe; Engbe dialect: 72% with Ogbom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro Comments: Ejung is reportedly the standard form of Nyankpa. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nyong
[muo] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA. 6 villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chukkol, Daganyonga, Mubako, Mumbake, Nyoking, Nyongnepa, Peti, Teteka, Yapeli Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nzanyi
[nja] Adamawa State, Maiha LGA. 170,000 in Nigeria (2013 SIL). Population total all countries: 179,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jeng, Jenge, Kobotshi, Njai, Njanyi, Njei, Njeing, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany Dialects: Dede, Hoode, Lovi, Magara, Maiha, Mutidi, Nggwoli, Paka, Rogede. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Obanliku
[bzy] Cross River State, Obanliku LGA. 65,000 (Faraclas 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abanliku Dialects: Basang, Bebi, Bishiri, Bisu (Gayi), Busi. Bebi, Bisiri, Bisu, and Busi mutually intelligible, Basang less understood. Related to Alege [alf]. Lexical similarity 76%–96% among dialects, 64%–72% with Bete-Bendi [btt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Obolo
[ann] Rivers State, Andoni LGA; Akwa Ibom State, Eastern Obolo LGA, islands and peninsulas off southern coast. Ibibio [ibb] language area is east and northeast, Ogoni [ogo] is northwest, Ibani [iby] west, Atlantic Ocean is south. 250,000 (2012 U. Aaron), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Andone, Andoni, Andonni Dialects: Ataba, Ibot Obolo, Ngo, Okoroete, Unyeada. Ngo (in the Central area) is prestige dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo Comments: Ethnic autonym: Obolo; Ethnonym: Andoni by the government. Stronger Obolo ethnic identity being established in the east. Christian, traditional religion.

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Obulom
[obu] Rivers State, Port Harcourt LGA, Abuloma town. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abuloma Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

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O’chi’chi’
[xoc] Rivers State, Etche LGA, Ikwewengwo and Umuebulu. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

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Odual
[odu] Rivers State, Abua-Odual LGA. 18,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Saka Dialects: Adibom, Arughunya. Lexical similarity: 70% with Abua [abn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual

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Odut
[oda] Cross River State, Odukpani LGA. 20 (1980 R. Blench). May be extinct (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop

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Ogbah
[ogc] Rivers State, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA, north Niger delta. 170,000 (1993 A. Ahiamadu). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ogba Dialects: Egnih, Igburu-Usomini. Igbo language subgroup member. Lexical similarity: 81%–94% among dialects. Ogbah dialect has 45% lexical similarity with Ndoni [ukw], 41% with Igbo [ibo], 32% with Ikwere [ikw], 23% with Ekpeye [ekp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ogbia
[ogb] Bayelsa State, Brass LGA. 200,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ogbinya Dialects: Agholo (Kolo), Anyama, Oloibiri. Dialect subgroup but all inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

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Ogbogolo
[ogg] Rivers State, Ahoada LGA. 1 town. 10,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Obogolo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

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Ogbronuagum
[ogu] Rivers State, Degema LGA, Bukuma village near Buguma. 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kari). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukuma Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta

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Oko-Eni-Osayen
[oks] Kogi State, Okene LGA, Ogori and Magongo towns, south southwest of Okene. 10,000 (Williamson 1989). 4,000 in Ogori, 3,000 in Magongo, 3,000 in Eni. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ogori-Magongo, Oko Dialects: Eni, Oko (Ogori, Uku), Osayen (Magongo, Osanyin). Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Seems equally distantly related to Yoruba [yor], Ebira [igb], Edo [bin], Igbo [ibo], and Idoma [idu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Oko

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Okobo
[okb] Akwa Ibom State, Okobo LGA. 50,000 (Connell and Hajek 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Possibly 2 dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Okobo

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Okodia
[okd] Bayelsa State, Yenagoa LGA. 3,600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Okordia Dialects: None known. Not fully intelligible with Biseni [ije] or other Ijo languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo

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Okpamheri
[opa] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. 30,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Opameri Dialects: Emhalhe (Emarle, Semolika, Somorika), Ibilo, Okulosho (Okurosho), Western Okpamheri. Subdialects of Okulosho: Ojirami (Eekunu), Dagbala (Dangbala), Oja (Oza), Makeke (Uuma), Oma. Subdialects of Western Okpamheri: Ekpe, Bekuma, Lankpese (Lampese, Lankpeshi), Imoga (Imorga, Uma), Eko (Ekon, Ekor), Ikaran-Oke (Ikeram-Oke), Ebunn-Oke, Ikaran-Ele (Ikeran-Ile), Ebunn-Ugbo, Ikpesa, Igbo-Ola-Sale (Ugboshi-Sale), Aiyegunle (Oshi), Igbo-Ola-Oke (Ugboshi-Oke), Onumo (Onumu), Ogugu, Ogbe-Sale, Ogbe-Oke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Okpe
[oke] Edo State, Okpe LGA. 25,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern Comments: Distinct from Okpe [okx], which is Northwestern Edoid.

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Okpe
[okx] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. 8,700 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern Comments: Distinct from Okpe [oke], which is Southwestern Edoid.

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Oloma
[olm] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Southern

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Olulumo-Ikom
[iko] Cross River State, Ikom LGA. May be in Cameroon. 30,000 (Faraclas 1989). 5,000 Olulumo, 25,000 Ikom. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lulumo Dialects: Ikom, Okuni, Olulumo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Ikom

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Oring
[org] Benue State, Okpokwu LGA; Ebonyi State, Ishielu LGA. 75,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koring, Orri, Orrin, Orringorrin Dialects: Okpoto, Ufia (Utonkon), Ufiom (Effium). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Koring

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Oro
[orx] Akwa-Ibom State, Oron LGA. 75,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oron Dialects: Some dialect variation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Oro

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Oruma
[orr] Bayelsa State, Ogbia LGA, Oruma and Ibelebiri towns. 5,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo

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Ososo
[oso] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. 19,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Otank
[uta] Cross River State, Obanliku LGA; Benue State, Kwande LGA. 15,000 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itang, Itank, Otang, Otanga, Utanga, Utange, Utank Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Tiv [tiv], 60% with Iceve-Maci [bec], 50% with Evant [bzz], 40% with Mesaka [iyo] and Eman [emn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Christian.

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Pa’a
[pqa] Bauchi State, Ningi and Bauchi LGAs. 8,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afa, Afanci, Afawa, Fa’awa, Foni, Fucaka, Pa’awa, Pala Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Panawa
[pwb] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 5 villages. 3,500 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bugel, Bujiye Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos

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Pangseng
[pgs] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Jega, Komo, Pangseng. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

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Pangu
[png] Niger State, Rafi LGA, Gumna and Tegina districts, between Kusheriki (north), Zungeru (south); Sabon Gari Pangu is center; Kaduna, Minna, Kontagora, and Bida towns. Bordered by Kamuku [cdr], Ngwoi [nat], Ura [ula], Basa-Kaduna [bsl], Bauchi [bsf], Basa-Gurmana [buj], Gurmana [gvm], and Gbari [gby] language areas. 30,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arringeu, Pongo, Pongu, Tarin Dialects: Tarin, Waga. Lexical similarity: 94%–99% among dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku Comments: Sister exchange pattern in marriage (now rarely practiced). Muslim, traditional religion.

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Pe
[pai] Plateau State, Pankshin LGA, 17 km south of Jos-Amper main road. 7 villages. 4,000 (Blench 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dalong, Pai Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid

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Peere
[pfe] Adamawa State, Ganye LGA. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kotofo, Kotopo, Kotpojo, Koutin, Kutin, Kutine, Kutinn, Pare, Patapori, Peer, Pere, Potopo, Potopore Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin Comments: Speakers reportedly moved to Cameroon after Gashaka-Gumti National Park was created. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Pero
[pip] Gombe State, Kaltungo LGA, Gwandum, Gundalf, Kushi, Yapito, and Burak. 25,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Filiya, Pipero Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Comments: Christian.

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Pidgin, Nigerian
[pcm] Southern states; northern states in Sabon Garis; coastal and urban areas. 30,000,000 including L1 and L2 speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Broken English, Brokin, Brokun, Nigerian Creole English, Nigerian Pidgin English Dialects: Benin Pidgin, Cross River Pidgin, Delta Pidgin, Lagos Pidgin. No unified standard. Dialects may be very different from each other. Partially intelligible with Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone and Cameroon Pidgin [wes]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio

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Piti
[pcn] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 8,100 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abisi, Bisi, Pitti Dialects: Riban (Ribam). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam

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Piya-Kwonci
[piy] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA; some in Bauchi State. 21 villages or more. 5,000 (1992). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ambandi, Pia, Pitiko, Piya, Wurkum Dialects: Kwonci, Piya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Comments: Similar in culture to the Kulung [bbu], and Pero [pip]. Ethnic autonym: Ambandi is their self-name. Christian, Muslim.

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Polci
[plj] Bauchi State, Dass, Toro, and Bauchi LGAs. 22,000 (1995 CAPRO). 2,000 Zul (1995), 4,000 Buli (1993), 400 Langas (1993), 15,000 Polci, 250 Baram (1993), 800 Dir (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Palchi, Palci, Polchi Dialects: Baram (Barang, Mbaram), Buli, Dir (Baram Dutse, Diir, Dra), Langas (Lundur, Nyamzax), Polci (Palci, Polshi, Posa), Zul (Barma, Mbarmi). Dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

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Psikye
[kvj] Adamawa State, north and east of Michika, south of Madagali, in Mandara mountains. 12,000 in Nigeria (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake Dialects: Psikye (Kamu, Kapsiki), Wula (Lying, Oula, Ula-Xangku), Zlenge. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Putai
[mfl] Borno State, Damboa LGA. 50 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marghi West Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1

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Pyapun
[pcw] Plateau State, Shendam LGA. 17,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Tal [tal] and Montol [mtl]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2

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Rang
[rax] Taraba State, Zing LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mumuye [mzm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

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Reshe
[res] South Kebbi State, Yauri LGA; west Niger State, Borgu LGA; Niger river banks, north of Busa. 44,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bareshe, Gunga, Gunganchi, Gungawa, Tsureja, Tsureshe, Yaurawa Dialects: None known. Most divergent of Western Kainji languages (Blench 1988). Lexical similarity: 43% with Lopa [lop], 33% with Laru [lan], 20% with Hun-Saare [dud], 11% with Tsishingini [tsw] (Salka). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Reshe Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bareshe, glossonym: Reshe or Tsureshe. Ethnic subgroups: Gungawa, Yaurawa (Yauri). Strong association between wrestling, the traditional religion, and ethnic identity. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Rogo
[rod] Niger State, Rafi and Mariga LGAs, Ucanja town area, northwest of Kagara; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Burogo, Shiyabe, toRogo, Toshiyabe, Ucanja Kamuku, Urogo Dialects: Cinda [cdr] and Regi [cdr] are intelligible of some Rogo dialects. Lexical similarity: 66% with Eastern Acipa [acp], 67% with Shama [sqa], 70% with Kamuku (Cinda) [cdr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku

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Ron
[cla] Plateau State, Bokkos, Barakin-Ladi, and Mangu LGAs. 115,000 (1995). 20,000 Shagawu (Monguna). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Chala” (pej.), “Challa” (pej.) Dialects: Bokkos (Alis I Run), Daffo-Butura (Lis Ma Run), Monguna (Maleni, Nafunfia, Shagau, Shagawu). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

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Ruma
[ruz] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 5,090 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagwama, Rurama, Ruruma, Turama Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Samba Daka
[ccg] Taraba State, Gashaka, Jalingo, Bali, and Zing LGAs; Adamawa State, Ganye and Mayo Belwa LGAs. 107,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chamba Daka, Daka, Dakka, Dekka, Deng, Jama, Nakanyare, Sama, Samba, Tchamba, Tikk, Tsamba Dialects: Dirim, Samba Daka, Samba Jangani, Samba Nnakenyare, Samba of Mapeo, Taram. It may form a language subgroup with Lamja-Dengsa-Tola [ldh]. Reportedly similar to Dirim [dir]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid Comments: Different from Samba Leko [ndi] or Akaselem [aks] of Togo. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Samba Leko
[ndi] Adamawa State, Ganye, Fufore, Wukari, and Takum LGAs. 62,000 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chamba Leko, Lego, Leko, Lekon, Ndi, Samba, Samba Leeko, Suntai Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kolbila [klc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sambe
[xab] Kaduna State, Sambe village 10 km west of Agamati town. 6 (Blench 2003). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Hasha [ybj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B

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Sanga
[xsn] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 20,100 (2000). 1,600 Bujiyel (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asanga, Isanga Dialects: Bujiyel. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera Comments: Glossonym: Isanga. Ethnonym: Osanga (sg.), Asanga (pl.). Distinct from Numana-Nunku-Gbantu [nbr] (Sanga) of Kaduna and Plateau states. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sasaru
[sxs] Edo State, Akoko-Edo LGA. 12,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Saya
[say] Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. 300,000 (2013 SIL). 7,000 Sigidi (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sayanci, Sayara, Sayawa, Seiyara, Seya, Seyawa, Vigzar, Vikzar, Zaar Dialects: Gambar (Gambar Leere, Kal, Lusa, Vigzar, Vikzar), Ntumu, Okak (Ntumu), Sigidi (Segiddi, Sigdi, Sugudi). Dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Lusa is the prestige dialect and other dialects are thought to be shifting to Lusa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Comments: A person who speaks Zaar is known as a Vigzar (Vikzar). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sha
[scw] Plateau State, Bokkos LGA, Sha district. 3,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper

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Shall-Zwall
[sha] Bauchi State, Dass LGA. 8,900 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Shall (Shal), Zwall. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Beromic

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Shama-Sambuga
[sqa] Niger State, Rafi and Mariga LGAs; Kaduna State, Birnin Gwari LGA. 5,000 (1995 S. and S. Dettweiler). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tushama, Ushama Dialects: Sambuga, Shama. No intelligibility of Kamuku [cdr] by Shama. Lexical similarity: 54%–75% with Kamuku [cdr]; 69% with Hungworo [nat], 66% with Eastern Acipa [acp], 16%–17% with Cicipu [awc], 82% with Maruba [cdr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kamuku Comments: The Sambuga dialect appears extinct.

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Shamang
[xsh] Kaduna State, Kechia and Jema’a LGAs. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samang, Samban Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic

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Shanga
[sho] Kebbi State, Sakace, Lopo, Sawa, and Samia villages south of Nasarawa, within a km of the Niger River. 6,000 (2012 R. Jones). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2010 R. Jones). There is ethnic Shanga population speaking Hausa [hau] in Shanga, Dugu Tsofo, and some other villages in Kebbi State between Kaoje and Yauri, Niger river, both sides. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shangawa, Shonga, Shongawa Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with the Busa group. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kyanga [tye], 54%–65% with the Busa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Shau
[sqh] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Shau and Mana villages. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lìsháù, Sho Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

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Sheni
[scv] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 6 (2004 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Shaini, Shani, Shenanci Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

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Shiki
[gua] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. Gubi and Guru towns north of Bauchi town. 1,200 (2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guba, Gubawa, Gubi, Mashiki Dialects: Gubi, Guru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian Comments: Muslim.

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Shoo-Minda-Nye
[bcv] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA, Benue river banks. 10,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Minda (Jinleri), Nye (Kunini), Shoo (Banda, Bandawa). All 3 dialects are of equal status. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified Comments: Called ‘Bakula’ together with Como Karim [cfg], Munga [ldk], Jiru [jrr], and Jessi. Ethnic groups: Banda, Kunini, Lau Habe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Shuwa-Zamani
[ksa] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 1,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kauru, Kuzamani, Rishuwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Siri
[sir] Bauchi State, Ningi LGA. 3,800 (2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sirawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Somyev
[kgt] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Kila Yang, Njike, Kuma, Jabu, Kikau, and Mayo Daga towns. 15 (2000 B. Connell). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kila, Somyewe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila Comments: Live among the Mambila. Muslim.

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Sorko
[bze] Niger, Kwara, and Kebbi states, Lake Kainji. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Boso” (pej.), Bozo, Corogama, Jenaama Bozo, Jenama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorogama Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama Comments: New Sorko speaking groups migrating downriver into Nigeria. Muslim.

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Sukur
[syk] North tip Adamawa State, Michika LGA, Mandara mountains. 14,800 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adikimmu Sukur, Gemasakun, Sakul, Sugur Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.6 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sur
[tdl] Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA; Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. 5,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dishili, Myet, Nsur, Suru, Tapshin, Tapshinawa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid Comments: Traditional religion.

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Surubu
[sde] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 7,170 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiti, Skrubu, Srubu, Zurubu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Tal
[tal] Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. 10,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tala
[tak] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA, Kuka and Talan Kasa villages. 1,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tamajaq, Tawallammat
[ttq] Far northwest Sokoto State. Few in Nigeria. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azbinawa, Buzu, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tuareg Dialects: Ioullemmeden. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Comments: Seasonal migrants and laborers. No resident villages. May be the eastern, not western, dialect in Nigeria. Muslim.

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Tambas
[tdk] Plateau State, Pankshin LGA. 3,000 (2001 R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tambes, Tembis Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer

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Tangale
[tan] Gombe State, Billiri, Kaltungo, Akko, and Balanga LGAs. 130,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tangle Dialects: Biliri, Kaltungo, Shongom, Ture. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tanjijili
[uji] Niger State, Chanchaga and Suleija LGAs, Kafin Koro on Minna to Abuja road. About 10 villages. 8,540 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jijili, Koro, Koro Funtu of Kafin Koro, Koro Funtu of Minna, Koro Funtu of Shakoyi, Ujijili Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Southern Comments: All alternate names listed, except Tanjijili, are names of the people.

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Tarok
[yer] Plateau State, Kanam, Wase, and Langtang LGAs; Taraba State, Wukari LGA. 300,000 (1998 R. Blench). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Appa, Yergam, Yergum Dialects: Igyang, Itarok (Plain Tarok), Itarok Oga Asa, Izini (Hill Tarok), Selyer. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid

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Tedaga
[tuq] Borno State, northeast LGAs. A few villages. 2,000 in Nigeria (Blench and Zeitlyn 1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kecherda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu Comments: Ethnic autonym: Teda. Muslim.

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Tee
[tkq] Rivers State, Tai LGA. 313,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of Khana [ogo]. Has a number of sounds not found in Khana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East

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Teme
[tdo] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa LGA, Mayo Belwa river banks. 4,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tema Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Tera
[ttr] Gombe State, Yamaltu-Deba LGA; Borno State, Kwayakusar LGA. 101,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bura Kokura, Nyimatli (Nimalto, Nyemathi, Nyimatali, Yamaltu), Pidlimdi (Ghena, Ghuna, Hina, Hinna). Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western

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Tha
[thy] Taraba State, near Lau. 1,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Joole Manga, Kapawa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen

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Tita
[tdq] Taraba State, Jalingo LGA, Hoai Petel. 3,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hoai Petel Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo

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Tiv
[tiv] Benue State, Makurdi, Gwer, Gboko Kwande, Vandeikya, and Katsina Ala LGAs; Plateau State, Lafia LGA; Taraba State, Bali, Takum, and Wukari LGAs. 2,210,000 in Nigeria (1991 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: “Munshi” (pej.) Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Toro
[tdv] Nassarawa State, Akwanga LGA, northeast of Wamba, Turkwam village. 3,930 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Turkwam Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau Comments: Identify culturally with the Kantana [mma].

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Tsikimba
[kdl] Niger State, Magama and Mariga LGAs, Auna and Wara areas, west of Kainji lake on Niger river. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agaushi, Akimba, Auna, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Kimba Dialects: Agaunshe, Ashen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tsishingini
[tsw] Niger State, Magama and Mariga LGAs, Salka area. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ashingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Salka Dialects: Ibeto. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari Comments: Primarily rural. Christian, Muslim.

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Tso
[ldp] Adamawa State, Numan LGA; Bauchi State, Kaltungo LGA. 16,000 (1992 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cibbo, Cuyi Tsó, Kitta, Lotsu-Piri, Pire, Piri, Tsóbó Dialects: Berbou, Gusubou, Swabou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona

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Tsuvadi
[tvd] Niger State, Magama, Kontagora, Mariga and Rijau LGAs; Kebbi State, Ngaski LGA. 130,000 (2011 M. Hansley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abadi, Avadi, Evadi, Ibeto, Kamberi Dialects: Tsuvadi-Agadi, Tsuvadi-Azozolo. Lexical similarity: 77%–80% with Azozolo and Agadi dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Kambari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Tula
[tul] Gombe State, Kaltungo LGA, 30 km east of Billiri. 30,000 (1998 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kotule, Kutule Dialects: Baule, Kutule, Yili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula Comments: Several primary and secondary schools.

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Tumi
[kku] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 2,270 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitimi, Tutumi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Tunzuii
[dza] Plateau State, Jos East Local Government. 5 villages; Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 2 villages. 2,500 (Blench 2003). Ethnic population: 4,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dugusa, Duguza, Itunzu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

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Tyap
[kcg] Kaduna State, Kechia, Saminaka, and Jema’a LGAs. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katab, Kataf Dialects: Atakat (Atakar, Attaka, Attakad, Attakar, Takat), Gworok (Agolok, Agorok, Aguro, Agwolok, Agwot, Kagoro), Kachichere (Aticherak, Daroro, Techera), Kafanchan (Fantuan, Fantwam, Kpashan), Katab (Atyap, Tyap), Sholio (Aholio, Asholio, Asolio, Maroa, Maruwa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Central, South-Central Comments: An important district language.

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Ubaghara
[byc] Cross River State, Akampka LGA. 30,000 (1985 UBS). 24,000 Biakpan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Biakpan, Etono, Ikun, Ugbem, Utuma (Utama, Utamu). Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Ubaghara

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Ubang
[uba] Cross River State, Obudu LGA. 11,100 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

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Uda
[uda] Akwa Ibom State, Mbo LGA. 10,000 (1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda

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Uhami
[uha] Ondo State, Akoko South and Owo LGAs. 13,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ishua Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse

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Ukaan
[kcf] Ondo State, Ikakumo-Akoko, Auga, and Ishe towns; Edo state, Ikakumo-Edo and Ayanran towns. 18,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: AIKA (Ayanran-Ishe-Kakumo-Auga), Anyaran, Auga, Ikan, Kakumo Dialects: Iiagu, Ijion (Iinno, Iyinno), Ikaan, Ujegbe (Ayegbe, Iisheu). Only 1-way intelligibility between some dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Ukaan

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Ukpe-Bayobiri
[ukp] Cross River State, Obudu and Ikom LGAs. 21,500 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bayobiri, Ukpe. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi

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Ukpet-Ehom
[akd] Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA. 11,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akpet-Ehom Dialects: Ehom (Ebeteng, Ubeteng), Ukpet (Akpet). A dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Akpet

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Ukue
[uku] Ondo State, Akoko South LGA. 14,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpenmen, Ekpenmi, Epinmi, Ukpe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Northwestern, Osse

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Ukwa
[ukq] Cross River State, Akampka LGA. 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik

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Ukwuani-Aboh-Ndoni
[ukw] Delta State, Ndokwa LGA; Rivers State, Ogba-Egbema-Ndoni LGA. 150,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Abo (Aboh, Eboh), Ndoni, Ukwuani (Kwale, Ukwali, Ukwani). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Igboid, Igbo

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Ulukwumi
[ulb] Delta State, Aniocha and Oshimili LGAs. 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri

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Umon
[umm] Cross River State, Akampka LGA. 25 villages. 20,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amon Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono

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Uneme
[une] Edo State, Etsako, Agbazko, and Akoko-Edo LGAs. 19,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ileme, Ineme, Uleme Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee

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Uokha
[uok] North and west of Afuze, Owan LGA. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central

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Urhobo
[urh] Delta State, Ethiope and Ughelli LGAs. 546,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Sobo” (pej.) Dialects: Agbarho, Agbon, Udu, Ujevwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

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Usaghade
[usk] Cross River State, Odukpani LGA, Calabar area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Isangele, Usakade, Usakedet Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade

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ut-Ma’in
[gel] Kebbi State, Zuru LGA, Fakai district, migrants south; Sakaba LGA, Kur. 36,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fakai, Fakanchi, Fakanci, Fakkanci, Gelanchi Dialects: Fer (Et-Fer, Fere, Kukum, Wipsi-Ni), Jiir (Et-Jiir, Gelanchi), Kag (Et-Kag, Fakanchi, Puku), Koor (Kulu), Kur (Kar, Kelanchi, Kelinci, Kelli-Ni, Kere, Keri-Ni), Ror (Er-Gwar, Et-Maror, Tudanchi), Us (Et-Us), Zuksun (Et-Zuksun, Zussun). Kag, Ker, Jiir, and Fer have 79%-92% inherent intelligibility of Ror. Ror and Kag, the largest dialects, Koor and Us, the smallest. Lexical similarity: 81%–97% among dialects, 63% with Hun-Saare [dud], 50% with C’lela [dri], 57% with Gwamhi-Wuri [bga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Western, Duka Comments: Want literature in their language. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Utugwang-Irungene-Afrike
[afe] Cross River State, Obudu, Ogoja, and Bekwarra LGAs. 70,000 (2012 L. Otronyi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ebe Cluster, Putukwam Dialects: Afrike (Aferike, Utumane), Irungene (Mbe Afal, Mbe East, Mbube Eastern, Obe, Upper Mbe), Mgbenege (Ngbenege), Okworogung (Ukworogung), Ukwortung (Okorotung), Utugwang (Otukwang, Utukwang). Utugwang intelligible of all dialects. Afrike and Irungene are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: Irungene 89% with Afrike, 80%–86% with Utugwang sub-group; Afrike and Irungene 67%–78% with Utugwang subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Bendi Comments: Utugwang, Okwortung, Okworogung, and Mgbenege accept Utugwang as a cover term. Christian, traditional religion.

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Uvbie
[evh] Delta State, Ethiope LGA. 19,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Effurun, “Evhro” (pej.), Evrie, Uvhria, Uvwie Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, Southwestern

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Uzekwe
[eze] Cross River State, Ogoja LGA. 5,000 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ezekwe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele

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Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri
[bij] Plateau State, Mangu LGA; Bauchi State, Tafawa Balewa LGA. 10 villages 20 km south of Tafawa Balewa. 20,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kwanka Dialects: Bijim, Legeri, Vaghat (Kadun, Kwanka, Tivaghat), Ya (Boi, Tiya). Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Vemgo-Mabas
[vem] Adamawa State, Michika LGA, Madagali district. 10,000 in Nigeria (1993). Population total all countries: 15,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Mabas, Vemgo, Visik (Vizik). 56% intelligibility of Lamang [hia], 36% intelligibility of Hdi [xed]. Possibly intelligible of Mafa [maf]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Hdi [xed], 64% with Lamang [hia], 50% with Gvoko [ngs]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Comments: Maya may be an alternate name. Different from Maba [mde] of Chad. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Viti
[vit] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Antere. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vötö Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified

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Vono
[kch] Kaduna State, Saminaka LGA. 500 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kiballo, Kiwollo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru

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Voro
[vor] Adamawa State, Guyuk and Song LGAs, south of Dumne road, Waltande, area hamlets. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bena, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Woro, Yungur Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba

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Vute
[vut] Taraba State, Sardauna LGA, Northeast Mambila plateau. 1,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Babute, Bute, Buti, Fute, Mbute, Mbutere, Mfuti, Vutere, Wetere, Wute Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute

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Waja
[wja] Gombe State, Balanga, Akko, and Yamaltu Deba LGAs; Adamawa State, northern Michika LGA; Borno State, Gwoza LGA; Taraba State, Bali LGA. 60,000 (1989 U. Kleinewillinghöfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyan Wiyau, Wiyaa, Wuya Dialects: Deruwo (Wajan Dutse), Waja (Wajan Kasa). Small dialect differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Waka
[wav] Taraba State, Karim Lamido LGA. 5,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye

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Wandala
[mfi] Borno State, Damboa, Bama, Gwoza, and Konduga LGAs. 20,000 in Nigeria (1993). 10,000 Gamargu, 9,300 Kirawa. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandara, Ndara Dialects: Gamargu (Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa), Gwanje, Jampalam, Kamburwama, Kirawa, Masfeima, Mazagwa, Ziogba. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Wannu
[jub] Benue State, Makurdi LGA, Iharev district, Abinsi town. 4000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abinsi, Awannu, Jukun Abinsi, River Jukun Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wapan
[juk] Taraba State, Wukari LGA; Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang LGAs; Nassarawa State, Lafia and Awe LGAs. 100,000 (1994 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jinkum, Jukon, Juku, Juku Junkun, Jukum, Jukun Wapan, Jukun Wukari, Wakari, Wapã, Wukari Dialects: Wukan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wãpha
[juw] Plateau State, Shendam, Wase LGA, Wase Tofa village; Langtang LGA, Kumbur village. 1,610 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wase, Wase Tofa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun Comments: Traditional religion.

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Warji
[wji] Bauchi State, Ningi LGA; Jigawa State, Birnin Kudu LGA. 77,700 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sar, Sarawa, Warja, Warjawa Dialects: Miya [mkf] may be a dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wom
[wom] Adamawa State, Fufore LGA. 5,000 (Blench 1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pere, Pereba, Perema Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Samba Leko [ndi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko Comments: Reportedly intermarry with Mom Jango [ver]. Wom is a town name. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Yace
[ekr] Cross River State, Yala LGA, Osina, Imbuor, Uchu, Aliforkpa, Wonyer, and Maa. 50,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekpari, Iyace, Yache, Yatye Dialects: Alifokpa, Ijiegu. Lexical similarity: 84% with Akpa [akf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa

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Yala
[yba] Cross River State, concentrated in Yala, Obubra, and Ikom LGAs. 200,000 (2008 L. Otronyi), increasing. 50,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Iyala Dialects: Nkum (Yala Ikom), Nkum Akpambe (Yala Obubra), Yala Ogoja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yamba
[yam] Taraba State, Sardauna and Gashaka LGAs, Antere, and other border villages. Few in Nigeria (1990 R. Blench). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Kaka” (pej.), Mbem Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe

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Yangkam
[bsx] Plateau State, Kanam, Langtang, and Wase LGAs, west of Bashar, on Amper-Bashar road, Tukur, Bayar, Pyaksam, and Kiram villages. 100 (1996 R. Blench). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bashar, Basharawa, Bashiri, Yankam Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pe [pai]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Tarokoid Comments: Heavily influenced by 19th-century slave raids. Muslim.

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Yedina
[bdm] Borno State, islands in Lake Chad. 3,000 in Nigeria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Buduma, Yedana, Yedima, Yidana Dialects: Buduma, Kuri (Kakaa, Kouri). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma Comments: Seminomadic. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yekhee
[ets] Edo State, Etsako, Agbako, and Okpebho LGAs. 274,000 (1995 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afenmai, Etsako, Etsakor, Iyekhee, “Kukuruku” (pej.) Dialects: Auchi, Avianwu (Fugar), Aviele, Ekperi, Ivhiadaobi, South Ibie (South Ivbie), Uwepa-Uwano (Weppa Wano), Uzairue. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee Comments: Not all speakers recognize Yekhee as language name; some prefer Etsako. However, Etsako is not the only language spoken in Etsako LGA.

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Yendang
[ynq] Adamawa State, Mayo Belwa; Taraba State, Yoro, Lau, Zing, and Karim Lamido LGAs; Jalingo; a village quarter of Yola. 50,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuseki, Nyandang, Yadang, Yandang, Yendam, Yundum Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yotti [yot] and Waka [wav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang

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Yiwom
[gek] Plateau State, Shendam and Langtang South LGAs. 14,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gerka, Gerkanchi, Gerkawa, Gurka Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Yiwom

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Yoruba
[yor] Most of Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Kwara, and Lagos states; Kogi State, west LGAs; northeast Ondo State, Ào. 18,900,000 in Nigeria (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 19,380,800. L2 users: 2,000,000 in Nigeria. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in southwestern region. Alternate Names: Yariba, Yooba Dialects: Akono, Ào, Awori, Aworo, Bunu (Bini), Egba, Ekiti, Gbedde, Igbonna, Ijebu, Ijesha, Ikale, Ila, Ilaje, Iworro, Jumu, Ondo, Owe, Oyo, Wo, Yagba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yotti
[yot] Taraba State, south of Mayo-Lope, 8 villages. 3,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yoti Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35% with Bali [bcn], 35% with Kpasham [pbn], 13% with Yendang [ynq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang

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Yukuben
[ybl] Taraba State, Takum LGA, between Katsina Ala and Gamana rivers. About 20 villages. 15,000 in Nigeria (1992). Population total all countries: 15,950. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ayikiben, Balaabe, Balaaben, Boritsu, Nyikobe, Nyikuben, Oohum, Uhumkhegi, Uuhum, Uuhum-Gigi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb Comments: Traditional religion.

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Zangwal
[zah] Bauchi State, Bauchi LGA. 100 (1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Twar, Zwangal Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Comments: Muslim.

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Zari
[zaz] Bauchi State, Toro, Dass, and Tafawa Balewa LGAs. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 20,700 (2000 CAPRO). 20,000 Zakshi (1995 CAPRO), 1,000 Boto (Gunn 1953). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Zariwa Dialects: Boto (Bibot, Boot), Zakshi (Zaksa), Zari (Kopti, Kwapm). Dialect cluster within Barawa cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Comments: Hausa [hau] is rapidly replacing the indigenous languages. (Shimizu 1978). Muslim.

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Zarma
[dje] Kebbi State, Argungu, Birnin Kebbi, and Bunza LGAs; Niger State north of Mokwa along Kontagora road; Yobe State north of Nguru. 87,800 in Nigeria (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zerma Dialects: Kaado. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Zeem
[zua] Bauchi State, Toro LGA. 400 (Blench 2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chaari Dialects: Danshe, Dyarum (Kaiwari, Kaiyorawa), Lushi (Dokshi, Lukshi), Tulai. Zeem dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Tulai and Danshe dialects have no remaining speakers. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper

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Zhire
[zhi] Kaduna State, Kechia and Jema’a LGAs. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenyi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic

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Ziriya
[zir] Bauchi State, Toro LGA, Kere and Ziriya. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jiriya Dialects: None known. May not be distinct from Sheni [scv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera

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Zizilivakan
[ziz] Adamawa State, Mubi North LGA, Jilvu town, near Cameroon border. 6,000 in Nigeria (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Population total all countries: 6,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Àmzírív, Fali of Jilbu, Jilvu, Zhilvu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken Dialects: None known. Intelligibility 20% of Fali [fli]. Lexical similarity: 47%–59% with Fali [fli]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Comments: People called Fali of Jilbu. Christian, traditional religion.

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Zumbun
[jmb] Bauchi State, Darazo LGA, Jimbim settlement. 2,000 (1995 CAPRO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jimbin, Jimbinawa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Comments: Traditional religion.

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