[cab] Atlántico Sur Autonomous Region of the South Atlantic, Orinoco village, far from speakers in other countries. A few in Nicaragua (2001 E. Velásquez). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1982). Status: 8a (Moribund). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern coasts (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, “Moreno” (pej.) Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri
[mom] Highlands, Atlántico Norte Autonomous Region. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 10,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chorotega, Monimbo Classification: Unclassified Comments: Few traits of their pre-conquest American Indian culture remain.
[mtn] Central highlands, Matagalpa and Jinotega departments. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 18,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pantasmas Classification: Misumalpan, Sumu-Cacaopera-Matagalpa, Cacaopera-Matagalpa
[yan] Atlántico Norte Autonomous Region and Jinotega Department; along Waspuk river, Bambana, Tungi, and Santo Tomás de Umbra, the upper Wawa, Panamahka dialect: along stretches of Wanki river, Tuahka dialect: Wasakin area, near Rosita. 8,000 in Nicaragua (Adelaar 2007). Population total all countries: 8,700. Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Sumu Dialects: Panamahka (Panamaca), Tuahka (Taguasca). Reportedly similar to Ulwa [ulw]. Classification: Misumalpan
[miq] Atlántico Norte and Atlántico Sur autonomous regions and Jinotega Department; from Pearl lagoon to Black river, coast and lowlands; Puerto Cabeza city; Prinzapolka, Tronquera, San Carlos (Río Coco), Waspam, Leimus, Bocana de Paiwas, Karawala, Sangnilaya, Wasla, Sisin, Rosita, Bonanza, Siuna, Bihmuna, and all along Río Coco area. 154,000 in Nicaragua (1993 census). Population total all countries: 183,000. Ethnic population: 154,000 (1993). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in northern, southern Atlantic regions (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act, Article 4). Alternate Names: Marquito, Mískitu, Miskuto, Mísquito, Mosquito Dialects: Baymuna (Baldam, Baymunana), Cabo (Kabo), Honduran Mískito (Mam), Tawira (Tauira), Wanki (Wangki). Reportedly most similar to Mayangna [yan]. Wanki dialect spoken in Puerto Cabeza area; other dialects in settlements southwest. Classification: Misumalpan Comments: Educational materials in Wanki. Christian.
Nicaragua Creole English
[bzk] Atlántico Norte and Atlántico Sur autonomous regions; Bluefields region, Rama Cay island, Pearl lagoon, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, and Corn islands. 30,000 (2001 SIL). 630 Rama Cay Creole speakers (Holm 1989). L2 users: L1 of Creole people and most Garifuna. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern and southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Mískito Coast Creole English Dialects: Bluefields Creole English, Rama Cay Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western Comments: There is a continuum of variation from basilectal Creole to acrolectal English of the educated.
Nicaraguan Sign Language
[ncs] Scattered, especially Managua. 3,000 (1997 ANSNIC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua Dialects: None known. Unrelated to El Salvadoran [esn], Costa Rican [csr], or other sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: There was no strong Nicaraguan deaf community until the late 1970s when Nicaraguan Sign Language emerged among deaf children from the increased focus on deaf education and the establishment of deaf schools.
[rma] Atlántico Sur Autonomous Region, Rama Cay, 30-mile radius. 24 (1989 J. Holm). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 C. Grinevald). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Statutory language of national identity (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Votic
[spa] 5,310,000 in Nicaragua (2014). L2 users: 577,000 in Nicaragua (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 11). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian
[sut] León Department, Pacific slope. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba Comments: Few traits of pre-conquest culture remain.