[fkv] North; Tromso and Finnmark counties, Ruija, Kveeniland; Tromso; Oteren, Skibotn, Storslett, Kvaenangsbotn, Nordreisa, Alta, Borselv, Neiden, Bygoynes, and Vadso. 5,000 (1998 Federation of Norwegian Kven People). L2 users: From 1997 accepted as L2 in Norway. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kven, North Finnish Dialects: Considered Old Finnish, speakers of Tornedalen [fit] and Kven recognize the differences between the two. Standard Finnish [fin] speakers generally understand, except some vocabulary. Reportedly more similar to Tornedalen Finnish than to standard Finnish. Various dialects: northwest coast varieties differ from east. Kven integrates Norwegian [nor] loans, whereas Tornedalen has integrated Swedish [swe] loans. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian (Laestadian).
[nor] 4,640,000 in Norway. Population total all countries: 4,741,780. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Norsk Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Danish-Bokmal Comments: Norwegian has 2 written standards, both of which are assigned codes in the ISO 639-3 standard: Bokmål Norwegian (nob) and Nynorsk Norwegian (nno). It draws lexicon and syntax from both West Scandinavian and East Scandinavian speech varieties. Bokmål differs from Riksmål in genders, lexicon, counting system, using diphthongs versus single vowels, etc. While Norwegian is here classified as East Scandinavian, the two written standards Nynorsk and Bokmal display characteristics of both West and East Scandinavian, respectively. Nynorsk, used by a minority of Norwegians, is West Scandinavian; Bokmål, the written standard of the majority of the population, is East Scandinavian.
Norwegian Sign Language
[rmg] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Norwegian Traveller, Rodi Dialects: None known. Based on Norwegian [nor] with heavy lexical borrowing from Northern Romani varieties and German Rotwelsch [rmd]. Not intelligible with Angloromani [rme]. Classification: Mixed language, Norwegian-Romani Comments: Spoken by the Fanter, who are not Gypsies, but intermarried with Gypsies and Yeniche (German Travellers). Romani influence from speakers descended from the first diaspora from India. Romani people were abandoned on the coast of Norway from British ships from 1544 onwards.
[sme] Finnmark, Troms provinces; Nordland province, Ofoten. 15,000 in Norway (Krauss 1992). Population total all countries: 20,700. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1995 M. Krauss). 30,000–40,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sami Administrative District (1987, Sami Act, No. 12, Article 3). Alternate Names: “Lapp” (pej.), “Northern Lappish” (pej.), Northern Saami, “Norwegian Lapp” (pej.), Saami, Same, Sámegiella, Samic Dialects: Ruija, Sea Lappish, Torne. Two-thirds of all Saami speak Ruija dialect. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern Comments: Formerly called “Finns” which they consider derogatory.