Norway

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Finnish, Kven
[fkv] North; Tromso and Finnmark counties, Ruija, Kveeniland; Tromso; Oteren, Skibotn, Storslett, Kvaenangsbotn, Nordreisa, Alta, Borselv, Neiden, Bygoynes, and Vadso. 5,000 (1998 Federation of Norwegian Kven People). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kven, North Finnish Dialects: Considered, Old Finnish, speakers of Tornedalen and Kven recognize the differences between the two. Standard Finnish [fin] speakers generally understand, except some vocabulary. More similar to Tornedalen Finnish [fit] (see Sweden) than to standard Finnish. Various dialects: northwest coast varieties differ from east. Kven integrates Norwegian loans, whereas Tornedalen has integrated Swedish [swe] loans. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian (Laestadian).

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Norwegian
[nor] Also in Canada, Sweden, United States. 4,640,000 in Norway. Population total all countries: 4,741,780. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Riksmål. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Danish-Bokmal Comments: Norwegian has 2 written standards, both of which are assigned codes in the ISO 639-3 standard: Bokmål Norwegian (nob) and Nynorsk Norwegian (nno). It draws lexicon and syntax from both West Scandinavian and East Scandinavian speech varieties. Bokmål differs from Riksmål in genders, lexicon, counting system, using diphthongs versus single vowels, having a tendency to permit concrete noun endings in abstract situations, etc. While Norwegian is here classified as East Scandinavian, the two written standards Nynorsk and Bokmal follow the norms of both West and East Scandinavian respectively. Nynorsk, the spoken language of a majority of the population is West Scandinavian. Bokmål is East Scandinavian.

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Norwegian Sign Language
[nsl] 4,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Holmestrand, Oslo, Trondheim. Intelligible with Danish [dsl] and Swedish [swl] sign languages with only moderate difficulty. Not intelligible with Finnish Sign Language [fse]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Norwegian, Traveller
[rmg] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Norwegian Traveller, Rodi Dialects: Based on Norwegian [nor] with heavy lexical borrowing from Northern Romani varieties and German Rotwelsch [rmd]. Not intelligible with Angloromani [rme]. Classification: Mixed language, Norwegian-Romani Comments: Spoken by the Fanter, who are not Gypsies, but intermarried with Gypsies and Yeniche (German Travellers). Romani influence from speakers descended from the first diaspora from India. Romani people were abandoned on the coast of Norway from British ships from 1544 onwards.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 500 in Norway (Johnstone 1993). 3,500 ethnic Gypsies in Norway. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Saami, Lule
[smj] Tysfjord, Hamaroy, and Folden. 500 in Norway (Krauss 1992). 1,000–2,000 speakers in Norway and Sweden (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000–2,000 in Norway (1995 M. Krauss); 31,600–42,600 ethnic Sámi in Norway (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lule, Saame Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern

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Saami, North
[sme] Finnmark, Troms provinces; Nordland province, Ofoten. Also in Finland, Sweden. 15,000 in Norway (Krauss 1992). Population total all countries: 20,700. Ethnic population: 30,000–40,000 in Norway (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sami Administrative District (1987, Sami Act, No. 12, Article 3). Alternate Names: “Lapp” (pej.), “Northern Lappish” (pej.), Northern Saami, “Norwegian Lapp” (pej.), Saami, Same, Sámegiella, Samic Dialects: Ruija, Sea Lappish, Torne. Two-thirds of all Saami speak Ruija dialect. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern Comments: Formerly called “Finns” which they consider derogatory.

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Saami, Pite
[sje] Between Saltenfjord and Ranenfjord. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Lapp” (pej.), Pite Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern

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Saami, South
[sma] Hatfjelldal and Wefsen, south to Elga. 300 in Norway (Krauss 1992). Ethnic population: 600 in Norway. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Northern Lappish” (pej.), “Norwegian Lapp” (pej.), Saami, Same, Samic Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Southern

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