Nepal

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Official Name
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Population
26,494,000
Principal Languages
Nepali
Literacy Rate
48% (2010 UNESCO)
Immigrant Languages
English (2,030), Magahi (35,600), Oriya (580), Sindhi (520)
Deaf Population
192,000
Deaf Institutions
3
General References
Bista 1967, 1973, 1996; Burling 2003; Ebert 1994; Hale 1982; Hansson 1991; Hugoniot 1970; Matisoff, Baron, and Lowe 1996; Thurgood and LaPolla 2003; Toba 1976, 1983, 1991; Toba, Toba and Rai 2002, 2005; Van Driem 2001, 2007
Recognized Nationalities

The government of Nepal officially recognizes 59 indigenous nationalities, or “Adibasi Janajatis” as they are called in Nepali. They are enumerated in the 2002 legislation that created the National Foundation for Development of Indigenous Nationalities, Act 20, Section 2a. Furthermore, the Interim Constitution of 2007 states in Article 5 that all languages spoken as mother tongues in Nepal are considered national languages.

Language Counts
The number of individual languages listed for Nepal is 122. Of these, 120 are living and 2 are extinct. Of the living languages, 7 are institutional, 21 are developing, 29 are vigorous, 55 are in trouble, and 8 are dying.