Nepal

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Angika
[anp] Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts. 15,900 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Athpariya
[aph] Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, north of the Tamur, between the Dhankuta khola west, and the Tangkhuwa east; Dhankuta municipality and Bhirgau VDC. 2,000 (Ebert 1994), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Arthare, Athapre, Athpare, Athpre, Sanango Ring Dialects: Athpare and Belhariya [byw] are very similar, but not mutually intelligible (Bickel 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Communities prefer to be called Kirati rather than Kirant. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Avadhi
[awa] Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi and Kapilvastu districts; Bheri Zone, Banke and Bardia districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district; Seti Zone, Kailali district; Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district. 561,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. The 2001 census does not distinguish between the Avadhi and Bhojpuri languages in the Rupandehi and Nawalparasi districts. Speakers of Dehati (alternate name for Avadhi in the Kailali and Kanchanpur districts) were not included in the 2001 census. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Abadhi, Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Awadhi, Dehati, Deshi, Gawnaru, Koseli Dialects: Baiswari, Chhatisgadhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, Christian, Sikh.

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Bagheli
[bfy] Koshi Zone, Morang district. Ethnic population: 137,000 Kewat (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20). Alternate Names: Bagelkhandi, Bhugelkhud, Gangai, Kawathi, Kenat, Kevat Boli, Kevati, Kewani, Kewat, Kewati, Kewot, Mandal, Mannadi, Riwai Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Comments: Further research is needed to identify whether Bagheli in Nepal is linked with Gangai (and Rajbanshi [rjs] or with Avadhi [awa]) as is Bagheli in India. Hindu.

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Bahing
[bhj] Sagarmatha Zone, northeast Okhaldhunga district, Harkapur, Ragdip, Bigutar, Baruneswor, Okhaldhunga, Rumjatar, Barnalu, Mamkha, Ratmate, Serna, Diyale, and Bhadaure VDCs (Rumdali dialect); mid southeastern Okhaldhunga district, Ketuke, Moli, Waksa, and Ubu VDCs (Tolocha dialect); Solukhumbu district south tip, Necha Batase and Sallyan VDCs; Khotang district; Kathmandu. 12,600 (Lee et al. 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baying, Bayung, Kiranti-Bayung Dialects: Hangu, Moblocha, Nechali, Rumdali, Tolacha. 85% or above intelligibility among all dialects. Rumdali is best understood among all Bahing dialects (Lee et al 2005); Bahing is more homogeneous than most Kiranti languages. Related to Sunwar [suz]. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% with dialects, 48% with Sunwar [suz] (Lee et al 2005). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Bantawa
[bap] Koshi Zone, Morang, Dhankuta, Bhojpur, and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Khotang, Okhaldunga, and Udayapur districts; Mechi Zone, Ilam, Jhapa, Panchthar, and Taplejung districts. Amchoke dialect: Limbu area, especially Ilam district. Homeland is Eastern hills but many migrated to the Tarai. Also in Bhutan, India. 371,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Less than 5% monolinguals. Population total all countries: 404,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa Dialects: Amchoke (Western Bantawa), Dhankuta (Eastern Bantawa), Dilpali (Northern Bantawa), Hatuwali (Southern Bantawa). Dialects are reportedly mutually inherently intelligible. Rungchenbung and Yangma are subvarieties of Dilpali. Eastern dialect is most divergent. Lexical similarity: Bantawa dialects and closely related languages form a continuum. Differences are primarily in meaning shifts and usage. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baram
[brd] Gandaki Zone, Central and southern Gorkha district, Dandagaun and Mailung VDCs, Takhu village up the Doraundi Khola, east side above Chorgate, near Kumhali. About 7 villages. May be in Dhading district. 50 (2010 LEDBL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,380 (2001 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Baraamu, Baramu Dialects: Dandagaun, Mailung. Related to Thangmi [thf] (Grierson-Konow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Belhariya
[byw] Koshi Zone, Dhankuta district, Belhara village and hill west of Dhankuta Bajar. 3,500 (2002 UNESCO), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Athpagari, Athpahariya, Athpare, Athpariya, Belhare Dialects: Different from Athpariya [aph], although also called and closely related to it (Winter 1991). Not intelligible with Athpariya although Athpariya speakers claim full intelligibility (Bickel 1996:21). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Athpare refers to the ethnic group made up of Belhare and Athpariya which have close cultural ties, but who recognize their linguistic differences. They clarify by calling the Dhankuta people Noupagari and the Belhare people Athpagari (Bickel 1996). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Bengali
[ben] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Koshi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Saptari district. Some in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Patan, Birgunj, Bhairawa, Nepalguni, and Janakpur. 23,600 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bangala, Bangla, Bangla-Bhasa Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Classified as a cultural group (2001 census). Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

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Bhojpuri
[bho] Narayani Zone, Rautahat, Bara, Parsa, and Chitwan districts; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi and Rupandehi districts; Janakpur Zone, Sarlahi district. 1,710,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri Dialects: Banarsi Boli, Bangar Boli, Bhojpuri Tharu, Kashika, Mallika, Purbi Boli, Sheikh Boli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

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Bhujel
[byh] Gandaki Zone, Tanahun district, Kulmun, Arthumpka, Andimul, and Baniyatar; Gorkha district, Beltar; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, Dhodeni; Narayani Zone, Chitwan district, Chanaute. Separated from Chepang [cdm] language areaby Trisuli river. 3,900 (Regmi 2007), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,200 (Regmi 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Bujal, Bujhel, Bujheli, Bujhyal, “Gharti” (pej.), Pukhgyal Ngur, Western Chepang Dialects: Andimul, Arthumpka, Baniyatar, Beltar, Chanaute, Dhodeni, Kulmun. More than 80% intelligibility among all the dialects. Pronominal affix differences hinder intelligibility with Chepang [cdm]. Lexical similarity: Between 34% (2011 D. Regmi) and 98% (Caughley 2004) with Chepang [cdm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Chepang-Bhujel Comments: Similar culturally to Magar and Gurung living near the Bhujel. Gharti is a sub-caste name associated with former slavery. Bhujels reject the name, but outsiders often use it. Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Bote
[bmj] Along the rivers in Tanahun, Nawalparasi, and Chitwan districts, especially the Gandaki river. 2,820 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 7,970. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Bote-Majhi, Pakhe-Bote, Pani-Bote Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: 2 groups of Bote: Pani (water) Bote and Pakhe (land) Bote. Hindu.

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Byangsi
[bee] Mahakali Zone, Darchula district, Byas valley. 9 villages. Also in India. 1,730 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Almost no monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Population total all countries: 4,560. Ethnic population: 2,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Byangkho Lwo, Byanshi, Byansi, Byasi, Sauka, Shauka Dialects: Byansi, Pang Sungkhu Boli, Rang, Sauka, Yerjungkhu Boli. Dialects of Byangs, Chaudangs and Darma valleys are unintelligible to each other (Sharma 1994). Those in Kuti (India) and Tinkar (Nepal) are closely related and quite different from those in other Byangsi villages. Tinkar variety differs from Byangsi, Chaudangsi [cdn], and Darmiya [drd] in forms of agreement affixes and basic vocabulary. Minor dialect differences correspond to geographical divisions (Sharma 2001). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora

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Chamling
[rab] East, Sagarmatha Zone, mainly central Khotang district and northern Udayapur districts. Also in India. 12,100 in Nepal (2006), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Camling, Chamlinge Rai, Rodong Dialects: Balamtali, Halesi, Ratanchhali. Ratanchhali and Halesi dialects are similar to each other but Balamtali is very different. Most similar to Bantawa [bap] and Puma [pum] linguistically. Many speak a variety mixed with Nepali [npi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Many ethnic subgroups, but linguistically homogeneous. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Chantyal
[chx] Dhaulagiri Zone, Myagdi district, Kali Gandaki river valley. Ethnic Chantel in Baglung district. 2,000 (Noonan 1997), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,820 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Chantel, Chantel Kham, Chentel, Chhantel, Khamkura Dialects: Related to Gurung [ggn], Manangba [nmm], Tamang [tdg], and Thakali [ths] (Noonan 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Some believe Chantyal will be replaced soon. Outsiders often regard it as Magar, but they claim a Thakuri origin (de Sales 1993). Much lexical borrowing from Nepali. Sometimes called Khamkura as are Kham languages, which can have a general meaning of local non-Nepali dialect. (Watters 2002). Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Chepang
[cdm] Narayani Zone, Makwanpur, Chitwan districts; Bagmati Zone, southern Dhading district; Gandaki Zone, southern Gorkha district. 36,800 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Praja Bhasa, Tsepang Dialects: Eastern Chepang, Western Chepang. Bhujel [byj] is closely related to Western Chepang, but has difficult intelligibility with Chepang due to different pronominal suffix morphology. Dialects of Chepang differ in verb forms. Similar in morphology to Kirati languages. Lexical similarity: 98% with Bhujel [byh] (2004 R. Caughley, based on 100-item word list). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Chepang-Bhujel Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chhintang
[ctn] East, Koshi Zone, Dhankuta district, Chhintang and Aahale VDCs. 3,500 (2008 CPDP), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Chhintange, Chintang, Chintang Rûng, Teli Dialects: Mulgaun, Sambhugaon. Probably not intelligible with Bantawa [bap], but sometimes considered a dialect of it due to ethnic similarities. Only a few lexical items and grammatical markers are different between the two dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Chhulung
[cur] Koshi Zone, Dhankuta district, Ankhisalla VDC. 1,310 (2001 census), decreasing. L1 speakers dwindling (Van Driem 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Chhilling, Chholung, Chhûlûng Rûng, Chiling, Chulung, Chülüng Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chukwa
[cuw] Koshi Zone, Bhojpur district, Kulung VDC, Jimigau. 100 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Only 5 fluent speakers (2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Cukwa Ring, Pohing, Pohing Kha Dialects: A noticeable number of shared nouns with Northern Lohorung [lbr] (2011 J. Eppele). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Linguistically between Kulung-Nachering-Sangpang and Meohang-Saam (Hansson 1991), but there is no supporting data. The Chukwa claim a close linguistic and ethnic affiliation with Saam [raq]; they say that their language is very different from Kulung [kle], although Van Driem (2001) lists Chukwa as a subgroup of Kulung. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Danuwar
[dhw] Narayani Zone, Sindhuli, Kabhrepalanchok, Sindhupalchok, Makwanpur, and Lalitpur districts. 31,800 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005). Ethnic population: 53,200. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Danuwar Rai, Danwar, Denwar, Dhanvar, Dhanwar Dialects: Bakultar Danuwar, Dukuchhap Danuwar, Judigaon Danuwar, Kamala Khonch Danuwar, Panchkhal Danuwar, Sindhuli Danuwar. Danuwar Kachariya in Rautahat and elsewhere is probably distinct from Danuwar [dhw]. The dialects spoken in Bakultar, Panchkhal, Judigaon (Kabhrepalanchok) district are mutually intelligible, whereas the dialects spoken in Dukuchhap (Lalitpur district) and Sindhuli are different. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Darai
[dry] Narayani Zone, Chitwan district, Bharatpur municipality, Mangalpur, Kathar, Jagatpur, and Chainpur VDCs; Gandaki Zone, Tanahun district, Vyas municipality, Kyamin and Ramjakot VDCs. 10,200 (2001 census), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Dialects: Chitwan, Tanahun. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bote [bmj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Darai do not have social subdivisions found in most other Nepali groups. They do not organize communities into social, religious, economic, or political organizations (Bista 1996). Hindu, Christian.

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Dhimal
[dhi] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district, 24 villages; Koshi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts, 51 villages; eastern and western dialects are separated by Kankai river in Jhapa. Also in India. 17,300 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 17,750. Ethnic population: 19,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Dhemal Dialects: Eastern Dhimal, Western Dhimal. 75%–80% intelligibility between eastern and western dialect speakers. Lexical similarity: 80%–82% with dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Dhimalish Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Dolpo
[dre] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Barbung river valley, villages north and east of Kag; Tarap river valley, Lang village and north; beyond mountains west of upper Kali Gandaki river valley; confined by the Dhaulagiri Himal south and Tibet north; Suligag river valley, north of Rengi village and the lake area; headwaters of Karnali river; many small villages in Nangong, Panzang, Tarap, and Barbung river valleys. 8,000 (2010 K. Kopp). 6,000 monolinguals (2010 K. Kopp). Ethnic population: 8,000 (2010 K. Kopp). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Dolkha, Dolpa Tibetan, Dolpike, Phoke Dolpa Dialects: Phoksumdo Lake, Barbung River, and Charka areas are slightly different, but intelligibility is good. The central valleys of Nankong and Dho Tarap are well understood by other varieties. Lexical similarity: 78% with Loke [loy], 69% with Lhomi [lhm], 68% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Walungge [ola], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 67% with Nubri [kte], 66% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 62% with Jirel [jul] and Sherpa [xsr] (K. Kopp 2010). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Dotyali
[dty] Far west. Also in India. 250,000 in Nepal (2012 Tribhuvan University). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dotali, Doteli Dialects: Similar to Nepali [npi] and Kumaoni [kfy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari

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Dumi
[dus] Sagarmatha Zone, north Khotang district, Makpa, Jalapa, Baksila, Sapteshwor, and Kharmi VDCs. 2,500 (2009 Isilim magazine), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Dumi Bo’o, Dumi Bro, Hopupo Bro, Lsi Rai, Ro’do Bo’, Sotmali Dialects: Kharbari, Lamdija, Makpa. Most similar to Khaling [klr] and Koi [kkt]. Makpa dialect is markedly divergent. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Efforts have been made by some to preserve the language by creating written materials. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Dungmali
[raa] Koshi Zone; east Bhojpur district, Thulo Dungma, Sano Dungma, and Bastim VDCs, east border is Arun river. 220 (2001 census), decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Arthare, Arthare-Khesang, Dungmali Pûk, Dungmali-Bantawa, Khesange Dialects: Khesang (Khesange). 82% cognate with Bantawa [bap] but morphology and phonology differ (Winter 1991). Lexical similarity: 80% with Bantawa [bap], 65% with Puma [pum]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Local names which may not be dialects: Chhinamkhang, Chhichhangchha, Hangbang, Khandung, Pungwai, Roktulung, Tuncha, Waitpang. Traditional religion.

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Dura
[drq] Gandaki Zone, Lamjung district, Dura Danda. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,400 (2001 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish Comments: Tandrange may be a dialect of Dura. Hindu, Buddhist.

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Ghale, Northern
[ghh] Gandaki Zone, Gorkha district, Buri Gandaki valley. 4,440 (2006 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lila, Ril-Lila Dialects: Jagat, Khorla, Nyak, Philim, Uiya. Nyak is most diverse dialect. Philim has 94% intelligibility of Uiya. 75%–79% intelligibility of Barpak in Southern Ghale [ghe]. Dialect chain runs north and south. Lexical similarity: 73%–89% among dialects, 65%–81% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 45%–61% with Kuke [ght], 29%–37% with Western Tamang [tdg], 21%–27% with Nubri [kte], 22%–25% with Tsum [ttz], 19%–23% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 19%–21% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale Comments: Buddhist, Hindu, Christian.

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Ghale, Southern
[ghe] Gandaki Zone, Gorkha district, hills south of Macha Khola. 21,500 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galle Gurung, Lila, Ril-Lila Dialects: Barpak, Kyaura, Laprak. Some intelligibility between Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale. Dialect subgroup. Glover (1974:8–12) identifies a Ghale branch under Bodish intermediate between Tibetan and Gurung branches. Lexical similarity: 75%–78% among dialects, 65%–81% with Northern Ghale, 39%–49% with Kuke [ght], 27%–30% with Western Gurung [gvr], 31% with Western Tamang [tdg], 20% with Nubri [kte] and Tsum [ttz], 18% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Ghandruk Sign Language
[gds] Gandaki Zone, Kaski district, Ghandruk. 20 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Similar to Kathmandu and Pokhara dialects of Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Gurung, Eastern
[ggn] Gandaki Zone, Lamjung, Tanahu, and west Gorkha districts. Possibly Manang district. 227,000 (2007), decreasing. 23,000 monolinguals. 339,000 all Gurung languages in Nepal (2001 census). Ethnic population: 544,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Daduwa, Gurung, Tamu Kyi Dialects: Gorkha Gurung, Lamjung Gurung, Tamu Kyi. Eastern and Western Gurung [gvr] do not have adequate intelligibility to handle complex and abstract discourse. Daduwa town in Lamjung District seems central linguistically. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Buddhist, Hindu.

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Gurung, Western
[gvr] Gandaki Zone, Kaski and Syangja districts; Dhaulagiri Zone, Parbat district. Possibly in Myanmar. Also in Bhutan, India. 125,000 in Nepal (2007), increasing. 12,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 158,000. Ethnic population: 544,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gurung, Tamu Kyi Dialects: Northwestern Gurung (Kaski Gurung), Southern Gurung (Syangja Gurung). Dialect speakers may have enough mutual intelligibility to understand complex and abstract discourse, but not enough with Eastern Gurung [ggn]. Related to Thakali [ths]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Buddhist, Hindu, Christian.

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Helambu Sherpa
[scp] Bagmati Zone, northern Nuwakot and northwestern Sindhupalchok districts. 3,990 (2001 census). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Hyolmo, Yholmo, Yohlmu Tam, Yolmo Dialects: Eastern Helambu Sherpa, Lamjung Yohlmo, LangDang Yohlmo, Western Helambu Sherpa. Melamchi river divides dialects. Understand other dialects even for abstract and complex subjects, including possibly Tarke Ghyang, Kahng-Kharka, Pahndang, but not Kagate [syw]. Lexical similarity: 66% with Dolpo [dre] and Walungge [ola]; 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Jirel [jul], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 63% with Loke [loy] and Sherpa [xsr]; 61% with Nubri [kte]; 60% with Lhomi [lhm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: They go to northern India as laborers or resettle in Kathmandu or in India. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion, Christian.

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Hindi
[hin] South, Tarai region; Kathmandu valley. 106,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dakhini, Hindi-Urdu, Hindustani, Khariboli Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Buddhist.

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Humla
[hut] Seti Zone, Bajura district; Karnali Zone, Humla district, villages northwest from Simikot towards China border, villages slightly northeast of Simikot; Kathmandu. 4,000 (Sharma and Gautam 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dangali, “Humla Bhotia” (pej.), Humli Khyampa, Phoke Dialects: Humli Khyampa, La Yakba, Limi, Nyinba, Upper Humla. Nyinba is nearly unintelligible to other Humla Tibetans (Levine 1988:269, cited in Wilde 2001) but speakers report all dialects are mutually intelligible (Wilde 2001). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist.

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Jerung
[jee] Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli district, Bahadur Khola west bank villages, Sunkosi river south to Mohangar village; Sagarmatha Zone, Okhaldhunga district, Maulang Khola river area, north of Sunkosi river. 2,000 (Opgenort 2005). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Jero, Jero Mala, Jerum, Jerunge, Jherung, Zero, Zero Mala, Zerum Dialects: Balkhu-Sisneri, Madhavpur, Ratnawati (Sindhuli). Most similar to Wambule [wme]. Alternate dialect analysis: Northern dialect spoken in Okhaldhunga District, Southern dialect in Sindhuli District. (2004 J. Opgenort). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: ’Chaurasia’ is the name for the linguistic unit combining Jerung and Wambule [wme]. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Jhankot Sign Language
[jhs] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Jhankot village. Population is 10% of the village population. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Existence attested only by a single source (Taylor 1997).

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Jirel
[jul] Janakpur Zone, Dolakha district, Jiri (main area) and Sikri valleys, eastern hills; Chhyatrapa; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district; Bagmati Zone, Sindhupalchok district; Narayani Zone, Parsa district. 7,070 (2000), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Jiri, Jirial, Ziral Dialects: Accent differences, but not real dialects. Some comprehension of Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and some Tibetan dialects. Grammatically similar to Sherpa [xsr]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Sherpa [xsr], 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 62% with Dolpo [dre] and Loke [loy], 60% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 57% with Nubri [kte], Lhomi [lhm], and Walungge [ola], 54% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion, Christian.

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Jumla Sign Language
[jus] Karnali Zone, Jumla district, Jumla town. 8 (2005 INF). 100% monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 45%–49% with Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Deaf children in the Nepalese Sign Language school in Jumla come from 1 or 2 days walk away and do not know Jumla Sign Language.

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Jumli
[jml] Karnali Zone, Jumla, Humla, Kalikot, Mugu districts; Seti Zone, Bajura district, east Bajhang, Achham districts. 40,000 (2001 SIL). 19,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Nepali, Jumla, Jumleli, Khas Kura, Sijali, Singja, Sinjali Dialects: Asi, Chaudhabis, Paanchsai, Sinja. 73%–89% intelligible with standard Nepali [npi]. Not sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with standard Nepali [npi] (Bandhu 1971). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Kagate
[syw] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap district, a Likhu Khola ridge. 1,500 (2012 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kagate Bhote” (pej.), Shuuba, Shyuuba, Syuuba, Syuwa, Yholmo, Yholmoli, Yholmu Dialects: Differs from Helambu Sherpa [scp] by less use of the honorific system in verbs, which makes intelligibility more of a problem for the Kagate. It could be considered a dialect of Helambu Sherpa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Kaike
[kzq] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Shahartara VDC, Shahartara, Tupatara, Tarakot, and Belawa villages. 2,000 (2011 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2011 A. Regmi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tarali Kham Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish Comments: Kaike sometimes known as Tarali Kham, though quite different from Kham, a Himalayan language of western Nepal. (Bradley 1997:11). Kaike is both the ethnonym and the glossonym, as the fairy language (kai - fairy, ke - language). Buddhist, Hindu.

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Kayort
[kyv] Koshi Zone, Morang district, Dakuwa Danga, near Rajbanshi [rjs] language area. 22,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ostensibly related to Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: No known published or survey-based attestation for this as a separate language variety.

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Khaling
[klr] Sagarmatha Zone, Solukhumbu district, Kanku, Basa, Waku, Buksa, Jubing, and Phuleli villages; Khotang district, Buipa and Kharmi villages; Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Tungkhaling village; Sunsari district, Dharan; Mechi Zone, Ilam district, Pang, Sumbek, and Mai Pokhari villages. Also in India. 18,000 in Nepal (2002 UNESCO), decreasing. No monolinguals. 9,290 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Khaling Kura Dialects: Northern Khaling, Southern Khaling. Most similar to Dumi [dus] and Koi [kkt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Kham, Eastern Parbate
[kif] Dhaulagiri Zone, Baglung district. Nishel dialect: Nisi, Bhalkot, and Budhathok; Bhujel dialect: Kuku, Diza, Kang, Masbang, Musuri, and Sukurdung villages. 7,500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. No adult monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Parbate, Nisel, Nishel Kham, Nisi, Nisi Kham Dialects: Bhujel Kham, Nishel Kham. Partially intelligible with Western Parbate [kjl] dialects. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects, 71% with Western Parbate [kjl], 55% with Gamale [kgj], 44% with Sheshi [kip]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kham, Gamale
[kgj] Rapti Zone, Rolpa district, Gam Khola, western hills, Gam, Jhyalgung, Chalbang, Tamali, Dangadhara, Sheram, Ghusbang, Huiching, Guwakholagau, Maulabang, and Kuipadhara villages. 13,100 (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gamale Dialects: Ghusbanggi, Tamali. Only 30% intelligibility with Western Parbate [kjl] due to radical differences in verbal morphology. Lexical similarity: 71% with Western Parbate (most similar) [kjl], 55% with Eastern Parbate [kif] and Sheshi [kip], 45% with Bhujel [kif]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Kham, Sheshi
[kip] Rapti Zone, Rukum district, western hills, Jangkot, Kotgaon (Tapnang), Rimsek, Korcabang, Dangdung, Hwama, Dhangsi, Bhabang, and Ghapa villages. 20,000 (2003), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sheshi Dialects: Jangkoti, Tapnanggi. 30% intelligibility levels with Gamale Kham [kgj], and even less with Western Parbate [kjl]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Gamale Kham [kgj] (most similar), 51% with Western Parbate [kjl], 46% with Eastern Parbate [kif]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kham, Western Parbate
[kjl] Rapti Zone, Rukum and Rolpa districts. Taka-Shera is center. 24,500 (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kham-Magar, Takale, Takale Kham, Western Parbate Dialects: Lukumel, Mahatale, Maikoti, Takale, Thabangi, Wale. Greatest similarities between Eastern [kif] and Western Parbate [kjl]. Parbate, Sheshi, and Gamale groups are all inherently unintelligible. Position of Mahatale and Miruli within the Kham linguistic group is undecided. Lexical similarity: 71% with Gamale Kham [kgj] and Eastern Parbate [kif]; 58% with Bhujel Kham, 51% with Sheshi [kip]. 25% with Magar and Gurung, slightly below 25% with the Tibetan group, 15% with the Rai and Limbu groups. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Different from the Khams of eastern Tibet as spoken by the Khampa. Previously migrated in summer to the foot of glaciers on west end of Dhaulagiri massif, and in winter to Rolpa District southern hills. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Kharia
[khr] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district, India border. 1,580 in Nepal (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang

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Kisan
[sck] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district, Bahundangi, Dhaijan, Shantinagar, and Anarmani VDCs, Damak municipality. 490 in Nepal (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Sadri Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari

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Koi
[kkt] Sagarmatha Zone, northeast Khotang district, Sungdel VDC near Rawakhola headwaters, Sungdel and Dipsung. 2,640 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Kohi, Koyee, Koyi, Koyu Dialects: Behere, Sungdel. Most similar to Dumi [dus] and Khaling [klr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Ethnonym: Koi, live scattered in other language areas, speak only Nepali [npi]. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Kuke
[ght] Gandaki Zone, north Gorkha district, Bihi VDC, Dyang, Rana, Bihi, Ghap, Chak, Kwak, and Krak villages. 1,300 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhotte, Kutang, Kutang Ghale Dialects: Bihi, Chak, Rana. Varieties spoken in Chhak and Kwak villages are similar to each other and different from all other villages. Lexical similarity: 62%–76% among dialects, 39%–49% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 45%–61% with Northern Ghale [ghh], 18% with Western (Banspur) Gurung [gvr], 16%–23% with Tamang varieties, 13%–31% with Nubri [kte], 23%–27% with Tsum [ttz], 22%–27% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 19%–24% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale Comments: Referred to as thieves’ language, a mixture of nearby languages. Buddhist (Lamaist), Hindu, Christian.

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Kulung
[kle] Sagarmatha Zone, Solukhumbu district, in Hungu river valley, Bung, Pelmang, Chhemsing, Chheskam, Lucham, Chachalung, Satdi, Gudel, Namlung, Sotang, and Chekma villages; Koshi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Yaphu, and Seduwa VDCs; Bhojpur district, Phedi, Limkhim, Khartanga, and Wasepla VDCs. Also in India. 18,700 in Nepal (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Kulu Ring, Kulunge Dialects: Sotto Ring. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sotto Ring; only a few words pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Exogamous clan marriage. The high number of Kulung reflect the tendency of smaller groups to consider themselves Kulung, but are not Kulung by origin. The Kulung possibly absorb smaller groups. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu, Christian.

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Kumhali
[kra] Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, south of Darai [dry] language area; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki Zone, Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district. 6,530 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 99,400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Kumali, Kumbale, Kumhale, Kumkale Dialects: Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Palpa. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Hindu.

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Kurux, Nepali
[kxl] Koshi Zone, Sunsari district; Sagarmatha Zone, Siraha district; Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Narayani Zone, Parsa district. India border area, Parsa to Jhapa districts. 28,600 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 41,800 Dhagar (Jhagar). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dhangar, Jangad, Janghard, Jhangad, Jhanger, Oraon, Orau, Uraon, Uraw Dialects: Some differences from Kurux [kru] in India and Bangladesh, but mutually intelligible. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: The alternate names are used for the people. Hindu.

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Kusunda
[kgg] Gandaki Zone, Tanahu district, west hills, Satto Bhatti west of Chepetar, possibly the jungle south of Ambhu; Rapti Zone, Dang district, Ambapur and Deukhuri; Rolpa district, Tunibot; Lumbini Zone, Argakhachi district. 7 (2005 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. 87 reported in 2001 census, in Pyuthan, Dang and Tanahun. Ethnic population: 160. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Kusanda Dialects: Gorkha, Rolpa-Dang, Tanahun. The Kusunda speakers of Rolpa, Dang and possibly Arghakhanchi districts of Midwestern Nepal belong to the same family. For this reason, their historical dialects (created by generation and geographical separation) are mutually intelligible. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kyirong
[kgy] Bagmati Zone, Rasuwa district, Langtang region, Rasua Garbi, Birdim, Thangjet, Syabru, and Syabrubensi villages; many in Kathmandu. 4,790 in Nepal (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gyirong, Kyerung, Kyirung Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Lapcha
[lep] Mechi Zone, Ilam district. 2,830 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,660. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: “Lapche” (pej.), Lepcha, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa Dialects: Ilammu, Rengjongmu, Tamsangmu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Lepcha Comments: Linguistic position within Tibeto-Burman still under discussion. Buddhist, Christian.

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Lhomi
[lhm] Koshi Zone, north Sankhuwasabha district to the border, Chepuwa VDC, Chepuwa, Chyamtang, Gumba, Chhumusur, and Rukuma villages; Hatiya VDC, Hatiya, Hungung, Pharang, Syaksila, Simbung, Namase, and Shiprung villages; southernmost village is Seksum in Arun valley; some in Kathmandu. Also in China, India. 5,660 in Nepal (2002 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 7,980. Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: “Bho Te bhasha” (pej.), “Kar Bhote” (pej.), “Kath Bhote” (pej.), Lhoket Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Dolpo [dre], 68% with Loke [loy], 66% with Walungge [ola], 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 64% with Nubri [kte], 60% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 58% with Sherpa [xsr], 57% with Jirel [jul]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Limbu
[lif] Eastern hills, east of Arun river; Koshi Zone, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha, Terhathum, Dhankuta, and Morang districts; Mechi Zone, Taplejung, Panchthar, Ilam, and Jhapa districts. Also in Bhutan, India. 334,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Relatively few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 371,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Dialects: Chaubise (Charkhole), Chhatthare (Chatthare, Chhathar), Panthare, Phedappe, Tamorkhole (Taplejunge), Yanggrokke (Yanggruppe). Related to Lohorung [lbr] and Yakkha [ybh]. Yanggrokke, Chaubise and Charkhole are minor variants of the Panthare dialect; Phedappe and Tamorkhole are similar. Chattare is less well understood by other dialect speakers. The dialect spoken in Sikkim, India, is same as Panthare. Intelligibility among all varieties 84% and higher. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Priestly high language, known by some older people and priests, is called Mundumban. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lingkhim
[lii] Mechi Zone, Ilam district, Phikkal VDC. 97 (2001 census). Status: Unattested. Alternate Names: Limkhim, Lingkhim Kulung, Lingkhim Rai, Linkhim, Saam Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Little information exists to support Lingkhim’s identification as a distinct language. It may be a part of Saam [raq] (Hansson 1988:20–21; Hansson 1991:61, 85). The 2001 census reports 97 speakers of Lingkhim. Van Driem (2001:704) points out that Limkhim is a village in northern Bhojpur district, suggesting that this is an alternate name for Saam.

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Lohorung
[lbr] Koshi Zone, central Sankhuwasabha district, between middle Arun valley and the Sabhakhola, Pangma, Angala, Higuwa, Khorande, Bardeu, Gairiaula, Malta, Sitalpati, and Dhupu. 4,970 (2002 Sankhuwasabha District Development Committee). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Lohorong, Lohorung, Lohrung, Lohrung Khanawa, Lorung, Northern Lorung Dialects: Biksit (Bikshi). 44% intelligibility of Yamphu [ybi]. A Kirat Rai group. Related to Yamphu [ybi], Southern Yamphu [lrr], Eastern Mewahang [emg], Western Mewahang [raf], and Yakkha [ybh]. Lexical similarity: 88%–99% between dialects, 64%–67% with Yamphu [ybi], 65%–68% with Southern Yamphu [lrr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Hansson claims that the Biksit dialect is spoken in Dhupu VDC (Hansson 1991). Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Loke
[loy] Dhaulagiri Zone, Mustang district, north central upper Kali Gandaki river area; high valleys north of middle-range Thakali, Gurung and Magar areas. Bahragaun dialect: Kagbeni, Muktinath, and Dzong VDCs; Upper Mustang dialect: Ghimi, Tsarang, Lo Monthang, Surkhang, Chhosher, Chunnup VDCs, and Samar village in Chuksang VDC; Karnali Zone, Dolpa district. 7,500 (2001 census). 5,000 Upper Mustang and 2,500 Baragaunle. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Glo Skad, Lhopa, Lo Montang, Loba, Lopa, Lowa, Loyu, Mustangi Dialects: Baragaunle (Baragaon, Baragaun, Bhoti Gurung), Upper Mustang (Loke). Similar to Dolpo [dre]. High intelligibility between dialects reported. Lexical similarity: 79%–88% between dialects, 59%–71% with Dolpo [dre], 54%–57% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 58%–67% with Mugom [muk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Distinct from Lhoba in China and India, a Mirish language. Lo inhabitants are called Lopa or Lowa. Their capital is Manthang, called Mustang by outsiders. Manthang has 200 houses, many monasteries. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Lumba-Yakkha
[luu] Koshi Zone, North Dhankuta district, Arkhoule Jitpur and Marek Kathar VDCs. 1,200 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yakkhaba Cea Dialects: Related to Yakkha [ybh], Chhulung [cur], Chhintang [ctn], and Mugali [lmh] (Hansson 1991). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Magar, Eastern
[mgp] Gandaki Zone, Tanahu, south Gorkha, and north Nawalparasi districts, east of Bagmati river, central mountains; Kosi Zone scattered, Bhojpur, Terhathum, Dhankuta districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Okhaldhunga district; Mechi Zone, Taplejung, Ilam districts. Also in Bhutan, India. 462,000 in Nepal (2001), decreasing. Isolated enclaves of monolinguals are found in Nawalparasi and southern Tanahu districts. The identification of Magars is complicated by the fact that a number of other ethnic groups (Chantyal, Kham, Kaike, Kusunda, Raute, Raji) have claimed to be Magars to outsiders. Population total all countries: 533,700. Ethnic population: 1,620,000 ethnic Magar (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Magari, Manggar Dialects: Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Tanahu. Also long-extant migrant communities scattered throughout the Eastern Development Region speak a different variety from those west of Kathmandu. Reports of intelligibility between these varieties vary. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu, Christian.

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Magar, Western
[mrd] Lumbini Zone, Palpa district; Gandaki Zone, Syangja and Tanahu districts; isolated in Bheri Zone, Surkhet, Jajarkot, and Dailekh districts. 308,000 (2001 census), decreasing. Census statistics likely include non-ethnic Magars and many that do not speak Magar. Ethnic population: 1,620,000 ethnic Magar (2001 census) includes both Eastern and Western Magar. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Magar, Magari, Mangar, Mangari Dialects: Palpa, Syangja. Some differences between dialects, yet reportedly high intellligibility. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu, Christian.

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Maithili
[mai] Narayani Zone, Rautahat district; Janakpur Zone, Sarlahi, Mahottari, and Dhanusa districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Siraha and Saptari districts; Koshi Zone, Sunsari and Morang districts. 2,800,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Apabhramsa, Bihari, Dehati, Maitili, Maitli, Methli, Tirahutia, Tirhuti, Tirhutia Dialects: Bajjika, Bantar, Barei, Barmeli, Dehati, Kawar, Kyabrat, Makrana, Musar, Tati, Thenthi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Written variety considered standard. Hindi [hin] and its speakers considered close, culturally similar; Nepali [npi] accepted. Hindu, Muslim, Christian.

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Majhi
[mjz] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap district, Chisapani, Bhatauli, Pagarbas, Bhaluwajor, and Rakathum VDCs. Also in India. 21,800 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 42,200. Ethnic population: 72,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Manjhi Dialects: Manthali, Rajgaun, Sitkha. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Distinct from Majhi in Panjabi group or Bote [bmj]. Majhi, Bote, and Kushar all are used by hill peoples. Hindu, Christian.

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Manangba
[nmm] Gandaki Zone, Manang district, Upper Manang, Pisang, Dhukur Pokhari, Humde, Ghyaru, Ngawal, Braka, Manang, Tengki, and Khangsar villages; Kathmandu. 3,740 (Pohle 1988), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Manang, Manang Ke, “Manangbhot” (pej.), Manange, Manangi, Nyeshang, Nyeshangte, Nyishang Dialects: Manang, Pisang. Very high intelligibility of Manang dialect by Pisang residents. Very different from Eastern Gurung [ggn]. Lexical similarity: 94% or greater with all varieties of Manangba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Language has Tibetan influence. Most speakers have the surname Gurung or Ghale, but they do not claim to be a part of these distinct ethnolinguistic groups. Buddhist.

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Marwari
[rwr] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Koshi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Narayani Zone, Parsa district; Kathmandu and other urban areas. 22,600 in Nepal (2001 census). Ethnic population: 44,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Marwadi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu.

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Meche
[brx] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district. 3,300 in Nepal (2001 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,760 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Bara, Bodi, Bodo, Boro, Boroni, Mache, Mech, Mechi, Meci Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mewahang, Eastern
[emg] Koshi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Yaphu, and Choyang VDCs; upper Arun valley east of the river. Sunsari dialect: Sunsari district, Bhaludhunga and Bishnupaduka VDC; Dibum (Dibung) dialect: Mangtewa VDC; Mulgaon-Wangtang dialect: Yaphu VDC. Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Eastern Meohang, Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai Dialects: Dibum, Mulgaon-Wangtang, Sunsari. Structurally different from Western Mewahang [raf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: The language is regarded as a dialect of Western Mewahang [raf]. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mewahang, Western
[raf] Koshi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, upper Arun valley west of Arun river, Bala, Yamdang, Tamku, and Sisuwa. Bala dialect: Bala village, Sankhuwasabha VDC; Bumdemba dialect: Sishuwakhola VDC. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai, Western Meohang Dialects: Bala (Balali), Bumdemba. Structurally different from Eastern Mewahang [emg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mugali
[lmh] Koshi Zone, Dhankuta district, Arun river east bank, between Mugakhola and Sinuwakhola; Muga, Pakhribas and Phalate VDCs. 1,500 (2010 I. Rai), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Lambicchong, Lambichhong, Lambichong, Lambitshong, Phangduwali Mugali Dialects: Phangdhuwali. Similar to Chhulung [cur], Belhariya [byw], and Chhintang [ctn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mugom
[muk] Karnali Zone, Mugu district, Mugu, Mangri, Pulu, Kimri, and Dolphu VDCs; Jumla district, Jumla; Kathmandu. Also in India. 6,500 in Nepal (2006 SIL). 25% monolingual (UNESCO 02). Population total all countries: 7,000. Ethnic population: 6,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Mugali, Mugu, Mugum Dialects: Karmarong (Karani, Kar-ket, Karmai-kat), Mugom (Moe-ket, Mugali, Mugomba, Mumbai-kat). Intelligibility 89%–93% between dialect speakers (possibly higher). Definitely sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Similar to Humla [hut], Dolpo [dre], and Loke [loy]. Lexical similarity: more than 85% between dialects, 75% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Karanis want recognition as a separate ethnic group. Mugalis may not accept materials written in Karani, and vice versa. Mugom value Nepali and English as a way to higher education. Mugalis see themselves a bit higher than Karanis, and are more influential as they travel and trade more. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Mundari
[unr] Mechi Zone, southern Jhapa district; Koshi Zone, Morang district. 7,780 in Nepal (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari, Munda, Santhali, Satar Dialects: Hasada, Kera, Latar, Naguri, Santhai, Satar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Musasa
[smm] Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli, Dolakha, Mahotari, and Dhanusa districts; Koshi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Siraha and Saptari districts. 50,000 (2003). 20,000 Musasa and 30,000 Musasa Bantar. Ethnic population: 172,000 in Nepal. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Musahar, Rishaidep Dialects: Bantar. Similar to Kochila (Saptari) Tharu [thq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Dalit caste. It has been suggested but not documented that they may speak a sociolect of the larger language groups they live among: Maithili [mai], Bhojpuri [bho], Avadhi [awa], and Kochila Tharu [thq]. Not listed in the 2001 Nepal census. Hindu.

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Naaba
[nao] Koshi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Kimathanka VDC, Kimathanka village; Hatiya VDC, Dangok and Pharang villages; Piibu, Chumusur, and Ridak villages; Tsanga village, across the border in China. 770 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naapa, Naapaa, Naba, Nawa Sherpa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified Comments: The Lhomi [lhm] consider the Naaba people a distinct group. The Naaba have learned Lhomi as a language of wider communication, but are more culturally and linguistically similar to Sherpa [xsr] and Thudam [thw] than to Lhomi. Buddhist.

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Nachering
[ncd] Sagarmatha Zone, upper northeast Khotang district near Rawakhola calley, Lidim Khola river slopes area, headwaters and tributaries to Aiselukharke south, Rakha, Bangdel, Dipsun, Para, Badel, Patel, Bakacho, and Aiselukharka VDCs; Solukhumbu district, Waddu and Sotang VDCs. 3,550 (2001 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Bangdale, Bangdel Tûm, Bangdile, Mathsereng, Nacchhering, Nacering Ra, Nachering Tûm, Nachiring, Nasring Dialects: Bangdele (Achero, Hachero, Hangkula), Parali, Rakhali, Sotange. Related to Kulung [kle] and Sampang [rav]. High comprehension of Kulung among northern Nachering and Sampang among southern Nachering. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Different from Sampang, although sometimes called Sangpang or Sampang. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Nar Phu
[npa] Gandaki Zone, Manang district, Nar valley north of Manang valley, Nar (Nargaon, Chhuprung) and Phu (Phugaon, Nartwe) villages. 600 (2011 K. Hildebrandt). 200 Phu speakers, 400 Nar speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nar-Phu Dialects: Nar (Lower Nar, Nar-Mä), Phu (Nar-Tö, Upper Nar). Related to Chantyal [chx], Gurung, Manangba [nmm], Tamang and Thakali [ths]; in a dialect continuum with Manangba [nmm] and possibly intelligible with it. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: See themselves as separate from Manangba and Gurung. Used as a secret language to confound Manangis and Gurungs who might otherwise understand their conversation (2002 M. Noonan). Buddhist.

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Nepalese Sign Language
[nsp] Central and east. 5,740 (2001 census). Most are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nepali Sign Language Dialects: Developed from local and introduced signs. Related to Indian [ins] and Pakistan [pks] sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: The NFDH starts schools for the deaf in the larger towns. A few other smaller organizations also work with the deaf and have Nepali Sign Language classes for the hearing. Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian.

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Nepali
[nep] Population total all countries: 14,410,100. Comments: Member languages are: Dotyali [dty], Nepali [npi]

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Nepali
[npi] East and adjacent south central regions. Also in Bhutan, Brunei, India, United States. 11,100,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 14,160,100. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Interim Constitution, 2063, Article 5(2)). Alternate Names: Eastern Pahadi, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbate Dialects: Acchami, Baitadeli (Baitadi), Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Bheri, Dailekhi, Darchulali (Darjula), Darchuli (Darjula), Gandakeli, Humli, Purbeli, Soradi. Similar to Dotyali [dty]. Dialects listed may be quite distinct from standard Nepali. Intelligibility is also low among Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Christian.

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Newar
[new] Widespread. Kathmandu valley; many urban areas. Fewer far west. Also in India. 825,000 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Many women are monolingual. Population total all countries: 839,000. Ethnic population: 1,260,000 including 1,245,000 Newar plus 11,500 Pahari. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Nepal Bhasa, Newaah Bhaaye, Newal Bhaye, “Newari” (pej.) Dialects: Badikhel Pahari, Baglung, Balami, Bhaktapur, Citlang, Dolkhali (Dolakha), Gopali, Kathmandu-Patan-Kirtipur, Pyang Gaon, Sindhupalchok Pahri (Pahari, Pahri), Totali. The Dolakhae dialect of Dolakha has complex person-number verb agreement with residue reflex in the Pahari dialect of Badikhel. These two dialects are not fully intelligible to the speakers of Kathmandu Valley where the language has a simple conjunct-disjunct agreement. Kirtipur and Lalitpur are similar to Kathmandu. Bhaktapur people mostly understand Kathmandu despite some lexical differences. The Eastern Newar dialects, including at least Dolakha and Tauthali, are mutually unintelligible with the dialects of the Kathmandu Valley. The same may also be true of Pahri of Sindhupalchok and other varieties. Some vocabulary differences between Hindus and Buddhists. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Newar Comments: One of the principal languages of Nepal; historically an official language of the Newar Malla Kings of the three cities of Kathmandu Valley. Kathmandu is the prestige dialect with most published materials. English [eng] highly valued; mixed feelings about Hindi [hin]; Tibetan [bod] does not have high prestige. People learn whichever language will help them economically: Nepali [npi], English [eng], Hindi [hin], and others. Buddhist, Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Nubri
[kte] Gandaki Zone, North Gorkha district, upper Buri Gandaki river, from Namrung to Samdo and Prok. 2,000 (2001 census). 500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Kutang, Kutang Bhotia, Larkye Dialects: Lho, Namrung, Prok, Sama. Only moderately intelligible of Kyirong Tibetan [kgy] (74%). The most distinct variety reportedly spoken in Samdo village. Sama is somewhat divergent. Tsum [ttz] reportedly not intelligible with Nubri. The language spoken in the Kutang area is not intelligible with Nubri, although most who live in this area reportedly can speak and understand Nubri. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% among dialects. Prok is more distinct. 71%–78% with Tsum [ttz]; 66%–74% with Kyirong Tibetan [kgy]; 67% with Dolpo [dre]; 65% with Loke [loy]; 59%–64% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 64% with Olangchung Gola [ola] (Walungge) and Lhomi [lhm]; 61% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 57% with Jirel [jul]; 55% with Sherpa [xsr]; 21%–27% with Northern Ghale [ghh]; 20%–23% with Southern Ghale [ghe]; 14%–31% with Kuke [ght]; 14% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], Western Gurung [gvr], and Banspur Tamang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Nubri marry within their community and from the Kutang community. People trade in Gorkha District and also with Tibet. Ethnonym: Bhotia or Bhote, refers to people of Tibetan origin; in some contexts derogatory. Ethnic identity is closely affiliated between the Nubri and the Kuke [ght]. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Palpa
[plp] Lumbini Zone, Palpa town. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Pahari-Palpa Dialects: Palpa stands midway between Nepali [npi] (Eastern Pahari) and Kumaoni [kfy] (Central Pahari). Might be considered a dialect of Kumaoni or Nepali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: Pahari, of the hills, also refers to a dialect of Newar [new]. Existence of Palpa as a separate language has been questioned.

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Phangduwali
[phw] Koshi Zone, Dhankuta district, Pakhribas VDC, above Mugakhola headwaters. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai natonality. Alternate Names: Phangduvali, Phangduwali Poti Dialects: Linguistically between Yakkha [ybh] and Belhariya [byw]. The language spoken by the Phangduwali people is well-understood by Mugali [lmh] people and vice versa except for a few lexical items and accents. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Van Driem (2001) claims that the Phangduwali are actually Yakkha [ybh], whereas I.P. Rai (forthcoming) suggests these two languages are distinct. Both assert that Phangduwali and Mugali [lmh] are the same language. Traditional religion.

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Puma
[pum] Sagarmatha Zone, south Khotang district, Diplung, Chisapani, Devisthan, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward. 5,000 (2008 CPDP), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Rajbanshi
[rjs] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Koshi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts. 130,000 (2001 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Gangai, Koch, Koche, Rajbangsi, Rajbansi, Tajpuria Dialects: Central Rajbanshi, Eastern Rajbanshi, Western Rajbanshi. Intelligibility is fairly high throughout the area (Eppele and Grimes 2001). Lexical similarity: 77%–95% with all varieties in Nepal (Eppele and Grimes 2001). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Raji
[rji] Bheri Zone, Surkhet, Banke and Bardiya districts; Seti Zone, Kailali district; Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district. 2,410 (2001 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: Over 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Ban Raji, Janggali, Rajibar, Rawati, Rjya Dialects: Barh Bandale, Naukule, Purbiya. Similar to Rawat [jnl] and Raute [rau]. Speakers of Barh Bandale and Purbiya have difficulty in understanding the Naukule variety. Lexical similarity: From 84% and 86% between the three varieties; 55% with Raute [rau]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji Comments: The Raji were a nomadic group, but now settled. Sharma (1990) identifies Raji in India (perhaps Bodo Gadaba [gbj]) as a Munda language with borrowings from Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan. Barh Bandale dialect is the most prestigious. May be the same as Rawat [jnl] in India. Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Raute
[rau] Mahakali Zone, Dadeldhura district, Jogbudha and Sirsa VDCs, in Karnali and Mahakali (Kali) rivers watershed regions (800 settled). Bheri Zone, Surkhet district, former nomadic camp; midwest and far west forest regions (about 25 nomads). 830 (2006 J. Fortier), decreasing. All nomadic Raute are monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Boto boli, Khamchi, Raji, Rajwar, Rautya, Rautye Dialects: There are many similarities with Raji, but the relationship of Raute with and intelligibility between Rawat [jnl] and Raji [rji] needs further investigation. Lexical similarity: 80% with Rawat [jnl], 60% with Chepang [cdm], 25% with Kham. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ra’te. The name may be of Tibeto-Burman origin, from ra- meaning human plus a person marker, -to or -te. Other scholars suggest it derives from the Sanskrit Indo-Aryan word raut from Sanskrit, rajaputra, prince. Rautes deem their language sacred and are linguistically conservative toward adopting non-Raute words or grammatical features. Traditional religion.

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Saam
[raq] Koshi Zone, northern Bhojpur district, Dobhane and Khatamma (Khartangma) VDCs, straddling Irkhuwa river, in Dangmaya, Okharbote, Khartangma, and Dobhane settlements between Phedi and Irkhuwa rivers. 23 (2001 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Saam Rai, Saama Kha, Samakha Dialects: Bungla, Sambya. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Almost no study or documentation has been done on the languages spoken in northern Bhojpur district. Other groups called Saam may be Kulung [kle] or Lingkhim [lii]. Traditional religion.

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Sampang
[rav] Khotang dialect: Sagarmatha Zone, Khotang district, Tap Khola river upriver villages, Baspani, Khartamcha, Phedi, and Patheka; Koshi Zone, Bhojpur district, Lahure Khola river headwaters, Okharbote; Syam Khola area, Kimalung, Nigale, Talakharka, and Surke; Dingla bazaar area. Phali dialect: Koshi Zone, Bhojpur district, Sangpang, a few elderly speakers. 6,000 (1999 R. Huysmans), decreasing. No monolinguals. Phali dialect spoken by a few elderly speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Sampang Gun, Sampang Gung, Sampang Kha, Sampange Rai, Sangpang, Sangpang Gîn, Sangpang Gun, Sangpang Kha Dialects: Khotang, Phali. Mutual intelligibility between the Khartamcha variety and the Patheka variety of the Khotang dialect is high. Mutual intelligibility between the Khotang and Phali Sampang dialect is difficult to estimate but appears to be low. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Sanskrit
[san] Widely dispersed. No known L1 speakers in Nepal. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Deva Bhasha, Deva vani, Sanskrit bhasha Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Comments: Hindu, Buddhist.

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Santhali
[sat] Koshi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi Zone, Jhapa district. 40,300 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 42,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Har, Hor, Sainti, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Santhal, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Seke
[skj] Dhaulagiri Zone, Mustang district, Chuksang, Tsaile, Tangbe, Tetang, and Gyakar villages; Jomsom and Pokhara. 700 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Dialects: Chuksang, Tangbe, Tetang. Similarities with Thakali [ths] and Manangba [nmm]. Very different from Loke [loy]. Tangbe dialect speakers do not understand the Chuksang dialect very well, but the Chuksang understand Tangbe. Reportedly understand Gurung but Gurung do not understand Seke. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Seke villages are surrounded by Baragaunle [loy] speaking villages. Buddhist.

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Sherpa
[xsr] Sagarmatha Zone, Solu Khumbu district; Janakpur Zone, Dolakha and Ramechhap districts. Also in Bhutan, China, India, United States. 122,000 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals in remote villages (UNESCO). Population total all countries: 145,800. Ethnic population: 155,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Serwa, Sharpa, “Sharpa Bhotia” (pej.), Xiaerba Dialects: Central Sherpa (Solu, South Sherpa), East Sherpa (Dolakha, Ramechhap), North Sherpa (Khumbu), West Sherpa. 95% comprehension of Solu dialect by Western and Khumbu. Lexical similarity: 90% between Solu and Khumbu dialects; 67% with Jirel [jul]; 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 62% with Loke [loy] and Dolpo [dre]; 58% with Lhomi [lhm] and Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 57% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 55% with Nubri [kte] and Walungge [ola]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Tourism and increased wealth have given Sherpas the financial means to send their children to Kathmandu and abroad for education contributing to language shift. Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Sonha
[soi] Seti Zone, Kailali District, along Karnali River; Bheri Zone, Surkhet district along Bheri river; Bardia district, Daulatpur VDC, Murgawagaon; Mahakali Zone, along Mahakali river; Kanchanpur district, Bhimadatta VDC, Odaligaon, Mahendranagar tahsil. 14,700 (2000), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sonahaa, Sunah, Sunha Dialects: Similar to Dangaura Tharu [thl] with 80% intelligibility; similar to Avadhi [awa]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Rana Tharu [thr], 73% with Kathariya Tharu [tkt], 72% with Dangaura Tharu [thl]. Sonha and Kathoriya [tkt] form a lexical bridge with Rana and Dangaura varieties of Tharu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: ’Sonha’ is an occupational caste (gold panners). Hindu, Christian.

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Sunwar
[suz] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap, Dolakha districts, east hills; Sagarmatha Zone, northwest Okhaldhunga district. 26,611 (2001 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 95,300 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Bhujuwar, Kirati-Koits, Koits Lo, Mukhiya, Pirthwar, Sunuwar, Sunwari Dialects: Surel. Related to Bahing [bhj], distantly to Thulung [tdh], Wambule [wme], and Jerung [jee]. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with Surel. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian, Daoist.

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Tamang, Eastern
[taj] Kathmandu; Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli, Ramechhap, and Dolkha districts; Bagmati Zone, Kavre Palanchok district; west Sindhupalchowk, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, and east Nuwakot districts; Narayani Zone, Makwanpur and Chitwan districts. Also in Bhutan, India. 1,180,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. In some remote communities, particularly women, children and elderly people are monolingual. Population total all countries: 1,197,500. Ethnic population: 1,290,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: “Bhotia” (pej.), Ishang, Murmi, Sei Dialects: Central-Eastern Tamang (Temal Tamang), Outer-Eastern Tamang (Sailung Tamang), Southwestern Tamang. Central-Eastern most widely understood among all tested to date: 85% by both Trisuli and Rasuwa Western Tamang [tdg], 93%–98% by Outer-Eastern, 87% by Southwestern Tamang [tsf]. Comprehension of Outer-Eastern 58% by Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 64%–75% by Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 67%–54% by Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 88%–93% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], and 90%–98% among its own varieties. Southwestern Tamang [tsf] may be a bridge between Eastern and Western Tamang (Varenkamp 1996). Lexical similarity: 88%–99% with Outer Eastern varieties; 89%–100% with Central Eastern; 79%–93% with Outer Eastern and Central Eastern, 77%–82% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 86%–93% with Southwestern and Central-Eastern, 74%–80% with Eastern and Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 69%–81% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 72%–80% with Northwestern Dhading Tamang [tmk], 63%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge] (Varenkamp 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu, Christian.

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Tamang, Eastern Gorkha
[tge] Gandaki Zone, north Gorkha district, south and east of Jagat. 3,980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kasigaon, Kerounja. Lexical similarity: 89% with dialects, 76%–77% with Northwestern (Dhading) Tamang [tmk], 77%–79% with Western (Trisuli) Tamang [tdg], 72%-73% with Western (Rasuwa) Tamang [tdg], 70%–73% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 63%–73% with Eastern Tamang [taj] dialects (Varenkamp 1996), 50% with Western (Banspur) Gurung [gvr], 31%–37% with Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale [ghe], 18%–23% with Kuke [ght], 14%–16% with Nubri [kte], Tsum [ttz], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 12%–14% with Tibetan [bod] (1992 J. Webster). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Refer to themselves as Gurung, but recognize their language is different. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Tamang, Northwestern
[tmk] Bagmati Zone, Nuwakot district, central mountainous strip. 55,000 (1991 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Kath-Bhotiya, Lama Bhote, Murmi, Rongba, Sain, Tamang Gyoi, Tamang Lengmo, Tamang Tam Dialects: Dhading. All Western Tamang varieties have high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 94% with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 82%–83% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 76%–78% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 76%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 72%–80% with Eastern Tamang [taj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Tamang, Southwestern
[tsf] Bagmati Zone, southern Dhading district; Narayani Zone, Chitwan, northwest Makwanpur, Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat districts; west and northwest Kathmandu district area. 109,000 (1991 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Kath-Bhotiya, Lama Bhote, Murmi, Rongba, Sain, Tamang Gyoi, Tamang Lengmo, Tamang Tam Dialects: Preliminary results: 86% intelligibility of Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 87% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], 54%–67% by Outer-Eastern Tamang [taj]. Relationship within Tamang needs evaluation. Southwestern Tamang has 80% lexical similarity with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 76%–78% with Western Rasuwa dialect [tdg], 78% with Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 70%–73% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 77%–93% with Eastern Tamang [taj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion, Christian.

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Tamang, Western
[tdg] Bagmati Zone, west Nuwakot, Rasuwa, and Dhading districts; northeast Sindhupalchok district, Bhote Namlan, and Bhote Chaur, on Trishuli river west bank toward Budhi Gandaki river; Narayani Zone, northwest Makwanpur district, Phakel, Chakhel, Khulekhani, Markhu, Tistung, and Palung; north Kathmandu, Jhor, Thoka, and Gagal Phedi. 323,000 (2000), increasing. Mostly monolingual below school age or over 60 years of age. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Murmi, Sain Dialects: Northwestern dialect of Western Tamang (Dhading), Rasuwa, Southwestern dialect of Western Tamang, Trisuli (Nuwakot). Preliminary results showed 86% intelligibility of Rasuwa dialect, 81%–88% of Central-Eastern [taj], 78%–88% of Outer-Eastern [taj], 86% of Southwestern [tsf]; 80% of Rasuwa with Trisuli, up to 70% of Outer-Eastern [taj]. Lexical similarity: 94% between Trisuli dialect and Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 82%–83% with Rasuwa, 80% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 77%–79% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 82%–83% between Rasuwa and Northwestern [tmk], 78% with Southwestern [tsf], 72% with Eastern Gorkha [tge], 69%–81% between Western varieties and Eastern Tamang varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Murmi is the ethnonym used by the Lepcha and Kirati communities and Sain by the Newar. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Thakali
[ths] Dhaulagiri Zone, Mustang district, Thak Khola, mid Kali Gandaki valley, with Annapurna Himal on one side and Dhaulagiri Himal on the other, Tatopani village in the south to Jomsom north. Tukuche dialect: Tukuche to Thaksatsae, in 13 villages: Tukuche, Khanti, Kobang, Larjung, Dampu, Naurikot, Bhurjungkot, Nakung, Tithi, Kunjo, Taglung, Lete, Ghansa. Many live outside the area. 6,440 (2001 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,000 (2001 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Barhagaule, Panchgaunle, Thaksya Dialects: Marpha (Puntan Thakali), Syang (Yhulkasom), Tukuche (Tamhang Thakali, Thaksaatsaye, Thaksatsae). Thakali dialects have 91%–97% inherent intelligibility. Tukuche dialect most easily understood by others. Tukuche is cultural center and the most prestigeous dialect. Lexical similarity: 41%–46% with Gurung, 46%–51% with Tamang (1994 J. Webster). Thakali dialects in 4 villages have 75%–86% lexical similarity. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Marpha dialect is in an endogamous village. People of Marpha, Syang, Thini, Chhairo, and Chimang villages are sometimes collectively known as Panchgaunle (5 villages), the name used for both the ethnic group and language. Buddhist, Christian.

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Thangmi
[thf] Janakpur Zone, Dolakha district, villages north and west; Ramechhap district, villages on Sailung Khola; Bagmati zone, Sindhupalchok district, villages east; Kathmandu. Also in China, India. 24,200 in Nepal (Turin 2007), decreasing. 100 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Population total all countries: 25,000. Ethnic population: 35,000 (Turin 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Thami, Thangmi Kham, Thangmi Wakhe, Thani Dialects: Eastern Thangmi (Dolakha), Western Thangmi (Sindhupalchok). Related to Baram [brd] (Grierson-Konow). Some cognates with Dolakha dialect of Newar [new]. Dolakha and Sindhupalchok dialects are not mutually intelligible. Differ in phonology, nominal and verbal morphology and lexicon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Tharu, Chitwania
[the] Narayani Zone, Chitwan, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, and Makwanpur districts; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district. Also in India. 285,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. 60,100 Chitwan, 92,800 Nawalparasi, 41,000 Parsa, 63,300 Bara, 27,500 Rautahat (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Chitoniya Tharu, Chitwan Tharu, Chitwaniya Dialects: Nawalpuriya Tharu (Laulpuriya Tharu). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Tharu, Dangaura
[thl] Rapti Zone, Dang district; Bheri Zone, Bardiya, Banke, and Surkhet districts; Seti Zone, Kailali district; Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district; Lumbini Zone, Rupandehi and Kapilvastu districts. Also in India. 500,000 in Nepal (2003), increasing. 10%–15% monolingual. Population total all countries: 674,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Dangaha, Dangali, Dangauli, Dangora, Dangura Dialects: Dangaha (Dang). Closely related varieties: Deukhuri, Malhoriya, Desauriya. 68%–91% intelligibility of Rana Tharu [thr], 95% to 97% of Kathoriya [tkt]. Some intelligibility difficulty with speakers from India. Possibly Eastern Hindi Group. Lexical similarity: 85% with Deukhuri, 83% with Malhoriya, 72%–74% with Sonha [soi], 63%–72% with Rana Tharu [thr], 76% with Desauriya, 61%–67% with Chitwania [the], 70% with Kathariya [tkt], 58%–65% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Tharu, Kathariya
[tkt] Seti Zone, Kailali district, Hasuliya, Udasipur, Pahalmanpur, Lalbojhi, Thapapur, Joshipur, Munuwa, Durgauli, Patharaiya, and Chauha VDCs. Also in India. 106,000 in Nepal (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Kathariya, Kathoriya Tharu Dialects: Speech differences between Nepal and India dialects. Lexical similarity: 70%–76% with Dangaura [thl] and Rana [thr], 66% with Hindi [hin], 66%–69% with Buksa [tkb], 63% with Chitwania [the]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Tharu, Kochila
[thq] Koshi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Saptari, Udayapur, and Siraha districts; Janakpur Zone, Mahottari, Sarlahi and Dhanusa districts. Also in India. 258,000 in Nepal (2003), increasing. Mostly illiterate older women are monolingual. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,331,500 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Saptariya Tharu Dialects: Dhanusa, Mahottari, Morangiya, Saptari, Sarlahi, Siraha, Sunsari, Udayapur. Each district has a different variety. Dialect names refer to districts. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Tharu from each district usually take the district name as a more specific name or identity. Other Tharu in Siraha, Udayapur, and Saptari districts who call themselves Kochila but speak Sapatariya Tharu. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Tharu, Rana
[thr] Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district; Seti Zone, Kailali district. Also in India. 336,000 in Nepal (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 486,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Dialects: 96%–99% intelligibility among dialects, 90% of Kathariya [tkt], 51%–88% reported of Dangaura [thl]. Differences with dialects in India. Similar to Awadhi (Avadhi) [awa]. Lexical similarity: 83%–97% among dialects, 73%–79% with Buksa, 74%–79% with Kathariya [tkt], 70%–73% with Sonha [soi], 63%–71% with Dangaura [thl], 56%–60% with Chitwania [the], 68%–72% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Thudam
[thw] Koshi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Chepuwa VDC, Thudam village. 1,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: “Thudam Bhote” (pej.) Dialects: Reportedly similar to Walungge [ola] in Nepal and to the varieties spoken in the villages of Kudo and Sar in Tibet (Furer-Haimendorf 1988). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified Comments: Culturally akin to the Walungs. Buddhist, Christian.

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Thulung
[tdh] Sagarmatha Zone, southeast Solukhumbu district, Deusa, Lokhim, Mukli, Jubu, Tingla, Salyan, Panchan, and Necha VDCs; Khotang district, Salle, Jaleswori, and Maheswori VDCs; Okhaldhunga district, Tuintar VDC, 6 or 7 villages; Koshi Zone, Bhojpur district, 1 village; west of the slopes’ highest ridges to Dudhkosi, north of Nechedanda and Halesidanda ranges, east of upper Solu river, and south of the Kakukhola and the confluence of Ingkhukhola and Dudhkosi. Also in India. 30,000 in Nepal (2003). A few elderly monolinguals. Thulung communities also in Bhojpur and Sankhuwasabha districts, scattered in Udayapur, Morang, Panchthar, and Ilam districts. Migrants may not speak Thulung as L1. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Tholong Lo, Thulu Luwa, Thululoa, Thulung Jemu, Thulung La, Thulunge Rai, Toaku Lwa Dialects: Central Thulung (Mukli Lwa), Eastern Thulung (Jubu Lwa, Lokhim Lwa), Northern Thulung (Deusa Lwa), Southern Thulung (Necha Lwa). Related to Lingkhim [lii], Bahing [bhj], Wambule [wme], and Jerung [jee]. Many cognates with Khaling [klr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Interest in development among cultural associations (Thulung Rai Society). Traditional religion, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Tibetan
[bod] Mainly Kathmandu and Pokhara. Scattered refugee communities along China border. 5,280 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bhotia, Bod Skad, Central Tibetan, Phoke, Poke, Zang Wen Dialects: Diaspora Tibetan, Utsang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central Comments: Spoken as a trade language among Bodish groups in Nepal. Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Tichurong
[tcn] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Thuli Bheri river basin. 2,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ticherong Dialects: Similar to Dolpo [dre]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Culturally distinct from Dolpo. Buddhist.

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Tilung
[tij] Sagarmatha Zone, southern Khotang district, Chyasmitar VDC, on Halesi Range last ridge, on Sunkosi river bank. 310 (2001 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Tiling, Tilling, Tilung Blama Dialects: Choskule, Dorunkecha. Choskule and Dorungkecha dialects may be related languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Geographically isolated community. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tsum
[ttz] Gandaki Zone, north Gorkha district, Tsum valley, the region drained by the Shiar Khola north of Ganesh Himal. Chekampar (Chokong) is prestige village. 4,790 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tsumge Dialects: 71%–78% intelligibility of Nubri [kte], 66% of Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 60%–66% of Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 22%–25% of Northern Ghale [ghh], 14%–22% of Southern Ghale [ghe], 23%–27% of Kuke [ght]; 6% of Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 14% of Western Gurung [gvr], 15% of Banspur Tamang. Divided into upper region, Yarba, and lower region, Ushug. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Ethnonym: Tsumba, Glossonym: Tsumge by Tibetans in Kathmandu. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Urdu
[urd] Southeast districts: Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Saptari, Siraha, Dhanusa, Mahottari, Sarlahi, and Rautahat, on India border; some in Banke district west. 175,000 in Nepal (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Muslim.

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Waling
[wly] Koshi zone, Bhojpur district, Khairang panchayat. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Walung, Walüng Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern

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Walungge
[ola] Mechi Zone, Taplejung district, upper Tamar and Gunsa valleys. Also in China, India. 1,500 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. 1,200 in the original language area. High language loss among those who have left the language area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Halung, Halungge, Walongchung Gola, Walung, Walungchung Gola, Walunggi Keccya Dialects: Ghunsa River, Olangchung Gola (Upper Tamar River), Topke Gola (Mewa River). High intelligibility of Thudam [thw]. Similar to Tibetan dialect in Tingay District of Tibet. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 68% with Dolpo [dre], Loke [loy], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 66% with Lhomi [lhm] and Helambu Sherpa [scp], 64% with Nubri [kte], 57% with Jirel [jul], 55% with Sherpa [xsr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified Comments: Cut off from the Lhomi, with more links to Tibet. Some intermarriage with Lhomi and Tibetan. The people call themselves Sherpa. They do not have a specific language name which groups all varieties of the language together and distinguishes the language from other Tibetan languages. The word “Walungge” comes from a name of one of the main villages in the language area. Buddhist.

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Wambule
[wme] Sagarmatha Zone, south Okhaldhunga district, Wamdyal dialect: Rikdum, Lukuvapani, Wamdyal (Ubu), Huku, Sikapu, Tarkomdada, Salle, Dhepti, Dhaircaur, Khayapu, Lorphe, Thulacaur, Moli, Vaksa, Leva, Sinju, Gairigau, Dhemdalu, Kopsepu, Phasku, and Serankhu; Hilepane dialect: Pipale, Bhadare, Hilepani, Thakle, Mandhare, Sokma Tar, Dundunma, Jakma, Jerun, Ricuva, and Lambole; Udayapur dialect: Udayapur, Phedigau, Barasi, Ghiramdi, Simkaku, and Peku; west Khotang district, Jhappali dialect: Kurleghat, Majhkhani, Byanditar, Rupatar, Kharka, Cuvabot, Jhapa, Lurkhudada, Vaitar, Balui, Thumka, Pakauci, Goviar, Gurdum, Jayaram Gha, Bahuni Dada, Todke, Limlun, Damli, Vetagau, and Temtuku; Sagarmatha Zone, north Udaypur district and Janakpur Zone, northeast Sindhuli district, Hilepane dialect: Lekhani, Ghurmi, Salle, Sorun, Salleni, Pallo Salleni, Sindure, Majhkhani, Bhirpani, Kusumtar, and Jortighat. 4,470 (2001 census). A few elderly monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Ambule, Caurasia, Chaurasia, Chaurasya, Chourase, Chourasia, Ombule, Tsaurasya, Umbule, Vambucauras Raduyor, Vambule Dialects: Bonu, Hilepane, Jhappali, Udaipure, Wamdyal. Dialects appear adequately mutually inherently intelligible. Jerung [jee] and Wambule are mutually intelligible (Opgenort 2004). Lexical similarity: 93% with Jerung [jee] (Opgenort 2005). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Wayu
[vay] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap district, Mudajor and Sukajor villages; Sindhuli district, Manedihi village. Sun Koshi valley across Mahabharat range south. 1,740 (2001 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800 (2001 census) to 2,800 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Bayu, Hayu, Vayu, Wayo Dialects: Marin Khola, Sindhuli. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Strong Nepali [npi] influences in phonology, lexicon, and grammar (Matisoff 1991). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Yakkha
[ybh] Koshi Zone, south Sankhuwasabha and east Dhankuta districts, east to Arun river between Hinuwankhola north and Leguwakhola south. Northern Yakkha dialect: south Sankhuwasabha district and adjoining extreme north Dhankuta district; Southern Yakkha dialect: Dhankuta district; Eastern Yakkha dialect: Mechi Zone, Ilam and Panchthar districts. Also in India. 14,600 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 15,410. Ethnic population: 17,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C). Alternate Names: Dewansala, Yakha, Yakkhaba, Yakkhaba Cea, Yakkhaba Sala, Yakthomba Dialects: Eastern Yakkha (Ilam, Panchthar), Northern Yakkha (Sankhuwasabha), Southern Yakkha (Dhankuta). Dialects have minimal diversity. Related to Lumba-Yakkha [luu], Phangduwali [phw], Chhintang [ctn], Chhulung [cur], Belhariya [byw], Lohorung [lbr], Limbu [lif], and Athpahariya [aph]. Lexical similarity: with Athpariya [aph], Limbu [lif], and Yamphu [ybi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Considered by many a distinct group of Kirati not fitting neatly into either Rai or Limbu groups (Bista 1996:39); in terms of mythology and people’s own judgment, they seem closer to Limbu than to Rai groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yamphu
[ybi] Koshi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Hedangna, Num, Seduwa, Peppuwa, Mangsimma, Karmarang, Tungkhaling, Uwa, Ala, Uling, and Walung villages. Eastern hills, upper Arun valley, Matsayapokhari VDC, extreme north Lorung area, directly southwest of Jaljale Mountains; Koshi Zone, Bhojpur district. 1,720 (2001 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Yamphe, Yamphu Kha, Yamphu Rai Dialects: The Yamphu Rai are closely related to Lohorung Rai and Mewahang Rai. 61% intelligibility of Lohorung [lbr]. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% between dialects, 74%–84% with Southern Yamphu [lrr], 64%–67% with Lohorung [lbr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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Yamphu, Southern
[lrr] Koshi Zone, Dhankuta district, Bodhe, Mounabudhuk, Bhedetar, and Rajarani; north Sankhuwasabha district, Devitar and Matsya Pokhari. South of the Tamorkhola, between the Jaruwakhola east and the Raghuwkhola west. 2,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality. Alternate Names: Lohorong, Lohrung, Lohrung Khap, Lohrung Khate, Southern Lohorung, Southern Lorung, Yakkhaba Lorung, Yamphu Dialects: Gessa, Yamphe (Newahang Yamphe, Yakkhaba, Yakkhaba Khap, Yamphe Kha). 61% intelligibility of Lohorung [lbr], 43%–58% (depending on site) intelligibility of Yamphu [ybi]. A Rai group, most closely related to Yamphu [ybi], but distinct in grammar and phonology (Hansson 1991). Also related to Lohorung [lbr], Eastern Mewahang [emg], and Western Mewahang [raf]. Lexical similarity: 84%–89% between Southern Yamphu varieties, 74%–83% with Yamphu [ybi], 65%–68% with Lohorung [lbr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Speakers of the language identify themselves ethnically as ‘Yamphu’. Hansson (1991) described this group as two separate languages, “Yamphu” and “Southern Lorung” (cf. Ethnologue, 16th edition and earlier). Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.

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