[sab] Veraguas Province, from highlands to Caribbean coast; also in Ngobe Bugle Province, Kusapin, Muna, and Nurum districts. 18,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bobota, Bocota, Bofota, Bogota, Bokota, Bukueta, Murire, Nortenyo, Veraguas Sabanero Dialects: Bokotá, Sabanero. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Guaymiíc Comments: Those in Chiriquí live among the Guaymí, with whom they are often confused (Adelaar 2007).
[emp] East, in Darien (Chepigana district), Panama (Chiman and Chepos districts), and Emberá provinces; lowland jungle along rivers, Gulf San Miguel area. 22,500 in Panama (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 72,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atrato, Chocó, Cholo, Darien, Darien Emberá, Ebera Bedea, Empera, Panama Embera Dialects: Related languages in order of closeness: Emberá-Catíoc[cto], Emberá-Baudó [bdc], Emberá-Tadó [tdc], Epena [sja], Emberá-Chamí [cmi], and Wounmeu [noa]. Panama and Colombia dialects are inherently intelligible. Northern Embera of the Upper Baudó area and downriver Emberá-Baudó are inherently intelligible. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.
Kuna, San Blas
[cuk] East, San Blas Province; Panama Province, north Chepo district; Emberá Province, Cemarco and Sambu districts; Darien Province, San Miguel Gulf area; Colon Province, Santa Isabel districts. 57,100 (2000). 10,000 in Panama City, Colón, and on banana plantations (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuna, San Blas Cuna Dialects: Bayano (Alto Bayano, Maje), Chuana. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Cuna Comments: Christian.
[gym] Mainly Ngobe Bugle Province; western Veraguas Province; Bocas del Toro Province, Bocas del Toro and Changuinola districts; western districts, Chiriquí Province, Tole district in east. 169,000 in Panama (2000 census). Population total all countries: 174,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiriqui, Guaymí, Ngobere, Valiente Dialects: Eastern Guaymí (Chiriquí, Tolé), Valiente. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Guaymiíc Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ngäbe.
Panamanian Creole English
[jam] Colón (Colon district) and Bocas del Toro (Colon island) provinces; Panama Province, Rio Abajo in Panama City. 268,000 in Panama (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southwestern Caribbean Creole English Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western Comments: Ancestors came from Barbados and Jamaica in mid-19th century to work in fruit plantations, and later to build the railway and canal. Influences from both eastern and western Caribbean Creole English.
Panamanian Sign Language
[lsp] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de señas panameñas Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Deaf people in the Chiriqui province of Panama assert that their sign variety, Lengua de Señas de Chiriquí (LSCH, Chiriqui Sign Language), is distinct from Panamanian Sign Language as used predominantly in the Panama-Colon corridor. They are currently working on creating their own sign language dictionary.
San Miguel Creole French
[spa] Widespread. 2,550,000 in Panama (2014). L2 users: 463,000 in Panama (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1972, Constitution, Article 7). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian
[noa] Darien, Emberá, and Panama provinces, southeast lowlands along Panama Bay. 6,800 in Panama (Adelaar 2007). Many monolinguals (Adelaar 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chanco, Chocama, Noanama, Noenama, Nonama, Waumeo, Waun Meo, Waunana, Wounmeu Classification: Chocoan