Peru

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Abishira
[ash] Loreto Region, Lake Vacacocha, Napo river, Puerto Elvira. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abigira, Abiquira, Agouisiri, Auishiri, Avirxiri, Ixignor, Tequraca, Vacacocha Classification: Unclassified

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Achuar-Shiwiar
[acu] Northwest Loreto Region on the Ecuador border, between Morona and Tigre rivers. 3,000 in Peru. Population total all countries: 7,000. Majority are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Achual, Achuale, Achuar, Achuara, Jivaro, Maina Dialects: None known. Different from Shuar [jiv] (Jivaro) of Ecuador. Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro

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Aguano
[aga] Loreto Region, lower Huallaga and upper Samiria rivers, right bank tributary of Maranon river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 40 families in Santa Cruz de Huallaga. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aguanu, Awano, Santa Crucino, Uguano Classification: Unclassified Comments: Ruhlen (1987) says this is the same as Chamicuro [ccc]. Chamicuro say they were not the same, but the Aguano spoke Quechua (1987 M. Wise).

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Aguaruna
[agr] Amazonas, Loreto, Cajamarca, and San Martin regions; upper west Marañon river area; Potro, Mayo, and Cahuapanas rivers. 38,300 (2000 SIL), increasing. 0 monolinguals. Almost none. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Aguajún, Ahuajún, Awajún, Awajunt Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Huambisa [hub] and Achuar-Shiwiar [acu]. Classification: Jivaroan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ajyíninka Apurucayali
[cpc] Pasco, Ucayali, and Huanuco regions, Pachitea river, Apurucayali tributary. 4,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ajyéninka, Apurucayali Campa, Ashaninca, Ashéninca Apurucayali, “Axininka Campa” (pej.), “Campa” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with varieties of Ashéninka. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga

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Amahuaca
[amc] Southeast Amazon basin, Ucayali and Madre de Dios regions scattered on Sepahua, Curiuja, Curanja, Upper Ucayali, Inuya, Mapuya, Purus, Aguaytía, Yuruá, and Las Piedras rivers. 90 in Peru (2000 SIL), decreasing. Population total all countries: 310. 20 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500. 300 in Peru; 200 in Brazil; perhaps 50 not contacted in border areas. L2 users: A few women by reason of intermarriage with Amahuaca men use the language at home. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Amaguaco, Amawaka, Ameuhaque, Ipitineri, Sayaco Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kashinawa [cbs] and shipibo-Conibo [shp]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State, Amawaka Comments: Christian (Protestant), Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.

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Amarakaeri
[amr] Madre de Dios and Colorado rivers. 500 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,620 (Crevels 2007). Includes Huachipaeri [hug]. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Amaracaire, Amarakaire, “Mashco” (pej.) Dialects: Kisambaeri. Harakmbet languages not Arawakan. Classification: Harákmbut Comments: Ethnic subgroups: Kochimberi, Küpondirideri, Wíntaperi, Wakitaneri, Kareneri.

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Andoa
[anb] Loreto Region, Pastaza river. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 1993. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gae, Gaye, Semigae, Shimigae Dialects: None known. Distinct from Záparo [zro] (Kayapwe) of Ecuador. Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo, Arabela-Andoa

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Arabela
[arl] Loreto Region, Arabela river, tributary of Napo, 2 villages. 50 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2002 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chiripuno, Chiripunu Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo, Arabela-Andoa Comments: Pananuyuri is a division of the Arabela.

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Asháninka
[cni] Junin, Ayacucho, Cusco, Apurimac, and Ucayali regions; Apurimac, Ene, Perene, and Tambo rivers and tributaries. 26,000 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 26,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Asháninca, “Campa” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ashéninka varieties, Caquinte [cot] and Machiguenga [mcb]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa

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Ashéninka Pajonal
[cjo] Ucayali, Pasco, and Junin regions; central Gran Pajonal area. 12,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ashéninca, Atsiri, “Campa” (pej.), Pajonal Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga

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Ashéninka Perené
[prq] Junin Region, upper Perené river. 5,500 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ashéninca Perené, “Perené Campa” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka varieties. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga

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Ashéninka, Pichis
[cpu] Pasco, Ucayali, and Junin regions; Pichis and tributaries except Apurucayali. 12,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Pichis Ashéninca, “Pichis Campa” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka varieties. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga

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Ashéninka, South Ucayali
[cpy] South Ucayali Region, upper Ucayali river and tributaries. 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Pajonal Ashéninka [cjo]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga

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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa
[cpb] Ucayali and Huanuco regions; Ucayali river tributaries of Pachitea, Arruya, Shahuaya, Sheshea, Cohengua, Inuya; Yurúa river. 7,000 in Peru (2001 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,870. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ucayali Ashéninca Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka varieties. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga

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Aushiri
[avs] Loreto Region, Napo river right bank tributaries, Escuelacocha. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Auxira Classification: Language isolate Comments: Similar to Arabela [arl] (1987 M. Wise).

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] Puno, Moquegua, and Tacna regions, Lake Titicaca area. 442,000 in Peru (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Classification: Aymaran, Aymara Comments: Lupaca is the main literary dialect.

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Aymara, Southern
[ayc] Tacna, Moquegua, and Puno regions, from Lake Titicaca toward the ocean. 219,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Important verb forms and vocabulary differences from Central Aymara [ayr]. Dialect intelligibility needs investigation in Tacna and Moquegua (Landerman 1982). A member of macrolanguage Aymara [aym]. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara

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Bora
[boa] Loreto Region, northeast Yaguasyacu, Putumayo, Ampiyacu river area, 5 villages. 2,330 in Peru (2000). Population total all countries: 2,430. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Miraña Dialects: None known. Distinct from Bora Muinane [bmr] but related. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane

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Cahuarano
[cah] Loreto Region, Maynas province, Nanay river headwaters. No known L1 speakers (2012 SIL). Last speaker died in the late 1980s or early 1990s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Zaparoan, Iquito-Cahuarano

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Candoshi-Shapra
[cbu] Loreto Region, Morona, Pastaza, Huitoyacu, and Chapuli rivers. 1,120 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Candoshi, Candoxi, Kandoshi, Murato Dialects: Chapara (Shapra), Kandoashi. May be distantly related to Arawakan; probably not Jivaroan. Classification: Language isolate

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Capanahua
[kaq] Loreto Region, Tapiche-Buncuya rivers area. 50 (Crevels 2007). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 350 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kapanawa Dialects: Pahenbaquebo. Lexical similarity: 50%–60% with Shipibo [shp]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo Comments: “Capacho” is a pejorative term. Christian, traditional religion.

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Caquinte
[cot] Cusco and Junin regions; Poyeni, Mayapo, and Picha rivers, upper Poyeni river, which flows into Tambo Yori and Agueni rivers which become Mipaya river flowing into the Urubamba; a few on Sensa and Vitiricaya rivers, affluents of the Urubamba. 300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 300. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: “Cachomashiri” (pej.), Caquinte Campa, Poyenisati Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Asháninka [cni]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Machiguenga

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Cashibo-Cacataibo
[cbr] Ucayali, Loreto, and Huanuco regions; Aguaytía, San Alejandro, and Súngaro rivers. 1,150 (Crevels 2007). Some women over 50 monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Cachibo, Cacibo, Cahivo, Caxibo, Hagueti, Managua Dialects: Cacataibo de Mariscal, Cacataibo de Sinchi Roca, Cashibo. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Cashibo Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chamicuro
[ccc] Loreto Region, Pampa Hermosa, Huallaga tributary. 2 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 10 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chamicolo, Chamicura Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Western Comments: May be the same as Aguano [aga] (1987 M. Ruhlen). Chamicuro speakers say it is different (1987 M. Wise).

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Chayahuita
[cbt] Loreto and San Martin regions; Paranapura, Cahuapanas, Sillay, and Shanusi rivers. 7,870 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 12,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Balsapuertino, Cahuapa, Chawi, Chayabita, Chayawita, Chayhuita, Paranapura, Shawi, Shayabit, Tshaahui Dialects: Cahuapana, Chayahuita. Not intelligible with Jebero [jeb]. Classification: Cahuapanan

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Cholón
[cht] Huallaga river valley, Tingo María to Valle. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Seeptsa, Tinganeses Dialects: None known. Ruhlen classifies it as Andean; Adelaar as in Hibito-Cholon family. Classification: Cholonan

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Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Loreto Region, northeast lower Ucayali, lower Marañon, and Huallaga rivers area. 250 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cocama, Huallaga, Kokama, Pampadeque, Pandequebo, Ucayali, Xibitaoan Dialects: Cocama, Cocamilla. Reportedly most similar to Omagua [omg]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Culina
[cul] Ucayali Region, southeast, near Brazilian border, upper Purus and Santa Rosa rivers. 400 in Peru (2002 J. Boyer), increasing. Primarily monolingual. Ethnic population: 400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kollina, Kulina, Kulino, Kulyna, Kurina, Madihá, Madija Classification: Arauan Comments: Christian (Protestant).

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Ese Ejja
[ese] Madre de Dios region, Tambopata and Heath rivers, Maldonado area. 230 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 230 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Chama” (pej.), Ese Eja, Ese Exa, Ese’ejja, Huarayo, Tambopata-Guarayo, Tiatinagua Classification: Tacanan, Chama

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Hibito
[hib] Loreto Region, Bobonaje river, Jelache tributary, Huayabamba tributary entering Huallaga west. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Chibito, Ibito, Jibito, Xibita, Zibito Classification: Cholonan Comments: In 1851 there were 500.

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Huachipaeri
[hug] Cusco Region, upper Madre de Dios and Keros rivers. 310 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,620 (Crevels 2007). Includes Amarakaeri [amr]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huachipaire, “Mashco” (pej.), Wacipaire Dialects: Arasairi, Huachipaire, Sapiteri, Toyeri (Toyoeri, Tuyuneri). Reportedly similar to Amarakaeri [amr]. Sapiteri integrating with Amarakaeri. Toyeri is similar to Sapiteri. Some Kisambaeri (Amarakaeri dialect) integrated with the Toyeri and others with Sapiteri. Manuquiari may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Huachipaeri. Pukirieri may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Arasairi. Arasairi is distinct from Amarakaeri or Huachipaeri; similar to Sapiteri. Classification: Harákmbut

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Huambisa
[hub] North, Amazonas and Loreto regions; high jungle of the Andes along Morona and Santiago rivers. 9,330 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Huambiza, Wambisa, Wampis Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aguaruna [agr] and Achuar-Shiwiar [acu]. Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Huitoto, Murui
[huu] Loreto Region, Ampiyacu, Putumayo, and Napo rivers; north of Amazon river between Iquitos, Peru and Leticia, Colombia south, Caquetá river north. 1,000 in Peru (1995 SIL), decreasing. 1,130 Huitoto in Peru (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 7,800. Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Bue, Witoto Dialects: Mica. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai Comments: Traditional religion.

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Huitoto, Nüpode
[hux] Loreto Region. 100 (1991 SIL). 1,130 Huitoto in Peru (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Muinane Huitoto, Nipode Witoto Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto Comments: Previously mistakenly referred to as Muinane Huitoto [hux].

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Iñapari
[inp] Madre de Dios Region, Piedras River, mouth of Sabaluyo, near Puerto Maldonado. 4 (1999 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Inamari Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro

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Iquito
[iqu] Loreto Region, Pintoyacu, Nanay, and Chambira rivers; San Antonia and Atalaya. 35 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 1 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 230 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Amacacore, Hamacore, Ikito, Iquita, Puca-Uma, Quiturran Dialects: Pintuyacu. Reportedly similar to Cahuarano [cah]. Classification: Zaparoan, Iquito-Cahuarano Comments: In 1958–1966 there were 100 speakers on the verge of extinction and acculturation to Spanish-speaking society. Children understood but did not speak, adults were bilingual with Spanish, older people understood Spanish, but only spoke Iquito. Speakers died from measles, whooping cough, and pneumonia. The rubber boom and landowner (patron) system had devastating effects. Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Isconahua
[isc] Ucayali and Loreto regions; Callaria river. 82 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iscobaquebu Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Shipibo [shp]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State, Amawaka

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Jaqaru
[jqr] Lima Region, Yauyos province, Tupe and Cachuy villages; language area extends into Ica Region. 740 (Adelaar 2004). 730 Jaqaru, 11 Kawki. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aru, Haqaru, Haq’aru, Haqearu Dialects: Cauqui (Cachuy, Kawki). Cauqui dialect is more and more considered to be a separate language from Jaqaru (Crevels 2007). Lexical similarity: 73% with Aymara [ayr], 79% with Cauqui dialect and Aymara. Classification: Aymaran, Tupe

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Jebero
[jeb] Loreto Region, Alto Amazonas province, Jeberos district, between Marañon and Huallaga rivers. 2,500 (2006). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chebero, Shiwilu, Xebero, Xihuila Classification: Cahuapanan

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Kashinawa
[cbs] Ucayali Region, Curanja and Purus rivers. 750 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 1,150. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Cashinahua, Caxinawa, Caxinawá, Kashinahua, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa Dialects: None known. Possibly most similar to Sharanahua [mcd]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Machiguenga
[mcb] Cusco, Madre de Dios, and Ucayali regions; Urubamba, Camisea, Picha, Manu, Timpia, Tigompinia, Kompiroshiato, and Mishagua rivers. 5,910 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 13,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Mañaries, Matsiganga, Matsigenka Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Nomatsiguenga [not]. There are minor dialects. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Machiguenga

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Mashco Piro
[cuj] Madre de Dios Region, Purús province; Upper Purús Region. 60 (1976 SIL). 60 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cujareno, Cujareño, “Mashco” (pej.) Dialects: None known. About 60% inherent intelligibility of Yine [pib]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro Comments: Highly nomadic.

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Matsés
[mcf] Loreto Region, along lower Yaquerana river and tributaries; lower Yavari; along Chobayacu and Gálvez rivers. 1,400 in Peru (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 2,230. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Magirona, Majuruna, Matses-Mayoruna, Maxirona, Maxuruna, Mayiruna, Mayoruna, Mayuzuna Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés

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Muniche
[myr] Loreto Region, Paranapura river, Muniches town. 3 (1988 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Munichi, Munichino, Otanabe, Otanave Classification: Language isolate

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Nanti
[cox] Cusco Region, headwaters of Camisea and Timpia rivers. 250 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 250 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: “Cogapacori” (pej.), “Kogapakori” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Machiguenga [mcb], but have remained separate. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nomatsiguenga
[not] Junin Region, between Ene and Perené rivers; Anapati river system in the foothills. 6,500 (2003 SIL). 5,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Ethnic population about the same as the L1 population (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: “Nomatsiguenga Campa” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Machiguenga [mcb]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga Comments: Bilingual education program (Crevels 2007). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nonuya
[noj] Loreto Region, Maynas province, Putumayo district. 1 in Peru (2007 J. Echeverri). Ethnic population: 90. Ethnic population covers both Colombia and Peru. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Witotoan

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Ocaina
[oca] Northeast, Loreto Region, Yaguasyacu, Ampuyacu, and Putumayo rivers. 54 in Peru (2000). Population total all countries: 194. Ethnic population: 150 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Okaina Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina

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Omagua
[omg] Loreto Region, San Joaquín de Omaguas, San Salvador de Omaguas, El Porvenir, Grau, and other settlements on lower Marañón left bank, near Ucayali river mouth. No known L1 speakers in Peru. Ethnic population: 630 (1976). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambeeba, Cambela, Campeba, Canga-Peba, Compeva, Kambeba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Cocama-Cocamilla [cod]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama

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Omurano
[omu] Loreto Region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Humurana, Mayna, Numurana, Roamaina, Umurano Classification: Language isolate Comments: Extinct by 1958.

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Orejón
[ore] Loreto Region, Yanayacu, Sucusari, Algodón, and Putumayo rivers. 220 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 290 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coto, Koto, Mai Ja, Orechon, Oregon, Payagua, Tutapi Dialects: Nebaji. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Panobo
[pno] Ucayali river mixed with the Shetebo [shp] language group. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1991. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Huariapano, Manoa, Pana, Pano, Pelado, Wariapano Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Pano

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Peruvian Sign Language
[prl] Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Variation in different geographical regions and between generations. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Pisabo
[pig] Loreto Region, Matses territory, between Tapíche and Blanco rivers. 600 (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pisagua, Pisahua Classification: Panoan

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Quechua
[que] Population total all languages: 8,912,820. Comments: Includes: Ambo-Pasco Quechua [qva], Arequipa-La Uni??n Quechua [qxu], Ayacucho Quechua [quy], Cajamarca Quechua [qvc], Cajatambo North Lima Quechua [qvl], Calder??n Highland Quichua [qud] (Ecuador), Ca?ñar Highland Quichua [qxr] (Ecuador), Chachapoyas Quechua [quk], Chaupihuaranga Quechua [qur], Chilean Quechua [cqu] (Chile), Chimborazo Highland Quichua [qug] (Ecuador), Chincha Quechua [qxc], Chiqui?­n Ancash Quechua [qxa], Classical Quechua [qwc], Corongo Ancash Quechua [qwa], Cusco Quechua [quz], Eastern Apur??mac Quechua [qve], Huallaga Hu?­nuco Quechua [qub], Huamal??es-Dos de Mayo Hu?­nuco Quechua [qvh], Huaylas Ancash Quechua [qwh], Huaylla Wanca Quechua [qvw], Imbabura Highland Quichua [qvi] (Ecuador), Jauja Wanca Quechua [qxw], Lambayeque Quechua [quf], Loja Highland Quichua [qvj] (Ecuador), Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua [qvm], Napo Lowland Quechua [qvo], North Bolivian Quechua [qul] (Bolivia), North Jun??n Quechua [qvn], Northern Conchucos Ancash Quechua [qxn], Northern Pastaza Quichua [qvz] (Ecuador), Pacaraos Quechua [qvp], Panao Hu?­nuco Quechua [qxh], Puno Quechua [qxp], Salasaca Highland Quichua [qxl] (Ecuador), San Mart??n Quechua [qvs], Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco Quechua [qxt], Santiago del Estero Quichua [qus] (Argentina), Sihuas Ancash Quechua [qws], South Bolivian Quechua [quh] (Bolivia), Southern Conchucos Ancash Quechua [qxo], Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup], Tena Lowland Quichua [quw] (Ecuador), Yauyos Quechua [qux].

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Quechua, Ambo-Pasco
[qva] Pasco Region, Pasco province, Chaupimarca, Huachón, Huariaca, Ninacaca, Pallanchacra, San Francisco de Asís de Yarusyacán, Simón Bolívar, Ticlacayán, Tinyahuarca, Vicco, and Yanacancha districts; Huanuco Region, Ambo Province, Huacar, San Francisco de Mosca, and San Rafael districts; some in Lima Region. 90,000 (1998 SIL), decreasing. 18,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 90,000. L2 users: Used by very few as L2. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: San Rafael-Huariaca Quechua Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Pativilca Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Arequipa-La Unión
[qxu] Arequipa Region, La Unión province, Cotahuasi district, Apurímac department, Antabamba province; also, Ayacucho and Cusco regions. 18,600 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 32,000. L2 users: Used by some outsiders for communicating with monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Arequipa Quechua, Cotahuasi Quechua Dialects: Antabamba (Apurímac), Cotahuasi, Highland Arequipa, Northern Arequipa. Reportedly more similar linguistically to Cusco than to Ayacucho. Very similar to Eastern Apurímac [qve]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Ayacucho
[quy] Southwest, Ayacucho and Huancavelica regions; also areas of Apurimac, Junin, Arequipa, Cusco, Ica, and Lima regions. 900,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Chanka Dialects: Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Lexical similarity: 96% with Surcubamba, Puquio, and Cusco [quz]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Cajamarca
[qvc] Cajamarca Region, Chetilla and Los Baños districts; western dialect: Chetilla district, eastern dialect: Porcón and Cajamarca valley areas; small area of La Libertad Region, west bank of Rio Maranon. 30,000 (2000 D. Coombs). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Eastern Cajamarca, Western Cajamarca. Relatively minor dialect differences. Lexical similarity: 94% with Lambayeque [quf] (most similar), 92% with Pacaraos [qvp]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Yungay, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Cajatambo North Lima
[qvl] Northeast Lima Region, Copa, Cajatambo, Huancapón, and northern Manas districts; southeast Ancash Region, Pacllón, La Primavera, and Mangas (south of Llamac, east of Pativilca rivers) districts; also in Huanuco Region. 7,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,800 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. 74% intelligibility of Huamalíes Quechua [qvh]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Chachapoyas
[quk] Amazonas Region, Chachapoyas and Luya provinces. 7,000 (2003 SIL). 100 monolinguals (2003). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Amazonas Dialects: Grenada-Mendoza (East Chachapoyas), La Jalca (South Chachapoyas), Lamud (West Chachapoyas), Llakwash Chachapoyas. Reportedly most similar to San Martín Quechua [qvs]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Chaupihuaranga
[qur] West Pasco Region, Yanahuanca, Villcabamba, Tapoc, Chacayan, Paucar, San Pedro de Pillao, Goyllarisquizqa, and Chinche districts; sparsely populated high country, more densely populated valleys. 20,500 (1972 census), decreasing. 8,200 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Daniel Carrion, Yanahuanca Pasco Quechua Dialects: Many related Quechua dialects intersect here: Junín [qvn], Ambo-Pasco [qva], Santa Ana de Tusi [qxt], Cajatambo [qvl], and Huamalies-Dos de Mayo Huanuco [qvh]. Further intelligibility studies may be needed. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay

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Quechua, Chincha
[qxc] Ica Region, northeast Chincha province; Huancavelica Region, northwest Castrovirreyna province; Lima Region, southeast Yauyos province. 6,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay Comments: A highly differentiated linguistic area; many single village varieties. Separate identity from Wanka, Junin, and Ayacucho Quechua.

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Quechua, Chiquián Ancash
[qxa] Southeast Ancash Region, Bolognesi province, Chiquián district, western Bolognesi west of Pativilca river and north of Llamac river; east Ocros, Corpanqui valley border. Western Ocros may be included, but the dialect is a bit different. 10,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Possibly intelligible of Cajatambo Quechua [qvl]. Some contact of Cajatambo and very little with Huamalíes [qvh]. 73% intelligibility of Huamalíes. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay Comments: Different identity from Huamalíes and Huaylas. Christian.

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Quechua, Classical
[qwc] Central Peru. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua

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Quechua, Corongo Ancash
[qwa] North Ancash Region, Corongo province, Aco, Corongo, Cusca, La Pampa, and Yanac districts. Most in Aco and Cusca. 4,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 1,700 monolinguals (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Huaylas [qwh] and Sihuas [qws] Quechua. Some contact with Sihuas, Northern Conchucos [qxn], and Huaylas by road. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos Comments: Separate identity from Sihuas, Northern Conchucos, and Huaylas. Christian.

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Quechua, Cusco
[quz] Cusco, Arequipa, Apurimac, Madre de Dios, Puno, and Moquegua regions. 1,500,000 (1989 UBS). Total Quechua in Peru 3,500,000–4,400,000 including Quechua I 750,000, Quechua II 2,680,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Cuzco, Cuzco Quechua, Qheswa, Quechua Cusco, Quechua de Cusco-Collao, Quechua Qosqo-Qollaw, Runasimi Qusqu Qullaw Dialects: Caylloma Quechua, Eastern Apurímac Quechua, Puno Quechua. Some dialect differences, but not as distinct as elsewhere. Substantial phonological and morphological differences with Ayacucho Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant), traditional religion.

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Quechua, Eastern Apurímac
[qve] Apurimac Region, Abancay, Grau, Cotabambas, Antabamba Ayamaraes, and Andahuaylas provinces; Arequipa Region, La Unión province; Cusco and Ayacucho regions. 200,000 (2002 SIL). 80,000 monolinguals. 30% in towns, 60%–70% in remote areas, especially at high altitudes. Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Apurímac Quechua, Quechua del Este de Apurímac Dialects: Abancay, Antabamba, Cotabambas. Arequipa-La Unión Quechua [qxu] reportedly very similar to the Antabamba dialect. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua Comments: Different from Cusco Quechua [quz] and Ayacucho Quechua [quy]. Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant), Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Quechua, Huallaga Huánuco
[qub] Northeast Huanuco Region, Huánuco city; small area in Ucayali Region. 40,000 (1993 SIL). 26,400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah

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Quechua, Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco
[qvh] Northwest Huanuco Region; San Martin Region, Tocache province. 72,400 (2000). 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 80,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Huamalíes, Monzón, Northern Dos de Mayo. Lexical similarity: 96% with Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua [qvm]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Pativilca

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Quechua, Huaylas Ancash
[qwh] Central Ancash Region, Huaraz, Carhuaz, and Caraz provinces; Callejón de Huaylas. 336,000 (2000). 20,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huaraz Quechua Dialects: Huailas (Huaylas), Huaraz, Yungay. Not intelligible of Cusco [quz], Ayacucho [quy], Huaylla Wanca Quechua [qvw], Cajamarca [qvc], Chachapoyas Quechua [quk], or San Martín Quechua [qvs] (Parker 1976). A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Huaylla Wanca
[qvw] Huancayo and Concepción provinces, south Junin Region; also in Huancavelica and Lima regions. 250,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huanca Huaylla Quechua, Southern Huancayo Quechua Dialects: East Waylla, Waycha (Central Huancayo, Huaycha), West Waylla. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay

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Quechua, Jauja Wanca
[qxw] Central Junin Region, Jauja province; small area, Lima Region. 25,000 (1962 census). Ethnic population: 77,700 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huanca Jauja Quechua, Shausha Wanka Quechua Dialects: None known. Considerable phonological differences with North Junín [qvn]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay

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Quechua, Lambayeque
[quf] Lambayeque Region, Inkawasi, Kañaris, and Miracosta districts; Penachí and Santa Lucía communities; adjacent areas of Cajamarca and Piura. 20,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ferreñafe Dialects: Cañaris, Incahuasi. Lexical similarity: 94% with Cajamarca Quechua [qvc]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Yungay, Northern

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Quechua, Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha
[qvm] Southwest and south central Huanuco Region, Obas, Aparicio Pomares, Cahuac, Chavinillo, Chacabamba, Jacas Chico, Rondos, San Francisco de Asis, Jivia, Baños, Queropalca, Jesús, San Miguel de Cauri, Yarumayo, Margos, and San Pedro de Chaulán districts. 83,400 (1993 census). 14,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 114,000 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Panao [qxh], 85% with Corongo Ancash [qwa], Sihuas [qws], Monzón Ancash, North Junín [qvn], Ulcumayo Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Pativilca

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Quechua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Loreto Region, Napo river area, communities on the Putumayo; small enclave in eastern Madre de Dios Region. 10,000 in Peru (2009). Population total all countries: 24,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Kicho, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo, Napo Kichua, Napo Lowland Quichua, Quijo, Quixo, Runa Shimi, Santa Rosa Quechua, Santarrosino, Yumbo Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, North Junín
[qvn] North Junin Region, Junín, Carhuamayo, Ondores, and San Pedro de Cajas districts, southeast of Pasco; also in Pasco and Lima regions. 60,000 (1998). 7,000 monolinguals (1972 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Junín Quechua, Tarma-Junín Quechua Dialects: 2 dialects in Tarma Province which differ from Junín town variety. Lexical similarity: 97% with Cajatambo [qvl], 96% with Arequipa-La Unión Quechua [qxu]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay

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Quechua, Northern Conchucos Ancash
[qxn] East Ancash Region, Pomabamba to San Luis; northwest Huánuco department, Huarcrachuco; possibly north Marañon area. 250,000 (2002 SIL). 65,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Conchucos Quechua, Northern Conchucos Quechua Dialects: None known. Related to Southern Conchucos [qxo], Huamalíes [qvh], and Sihuas [qws]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Quechua, Pacaraos
[qvp] East central Lima Region, Pacaraos village. 250 (Adelaar 1992). Ethnic population: 900. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Divergent lexically, morphologically, and phonologically from other Quechua. By its archaic features it occupies an important position relative to the reconstruction of Proto-Quechua. Lexical similarity: 94% with Huarí, Cajatambo [qvl], North Junín [qvn], and Carás Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua

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Quechua, Panao Huánuco
[qxh] East central Huanuco Region; also in northern Pasco Region. 50,000 (2002 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Pachitea Quechua Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 98% with Arequipa-La Unión [qxu], 96% with Cajatambo Quechua [qvl]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Marañón

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Quechua, Puno
[qxp] Puno Region; Moquegua Region highland area; small areas also in Cusco and Arequipa regions. 500,000. 100,000 monolinguals (2002). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Quechua Collao, Quechua Qollaw Dialects: Cailloma Quechua, North Bolivian Quechua. Mutually intelligible of Cusco Quechua [quz] and North Bolivian Quechua [qul], possibly sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua Comments: Differs from Cusco Quechua [quz] in borrowing of lexicon and morphology from Aymara [ayr]. Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant), traditional religion.

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Quechua, San Martín
[qvs] San Martin Region, Sisa, Lamas, and other districts, and along Ucayali river, Lamas town is cultural center; into Amazonas Region, Roderigo de Menedez province; separate enclave, Loreto Region. 15,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 44,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Lama, Lamano, Lamista, Lamisto, Motilón, Ucayali Dialects: Several minor dialects. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant).

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Quechua, Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco
[qxt] Pasco and Huanuco regions. 10,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Probably dialect of Chaupihuaranga Quechua [qur]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay

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Quechua, Sihuas Ancash
[qws] Ancash Region, Sihuas province, districts west of Sihuas river; north of Rupac river, south Quiches, Alfonso Ugarte, Huayllabamba, Sihuas, and west Ragash. 6,500 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Northern Conchucos [qxn] and Corongo Quechua [qwa]. Initial intelligibility testing shows marginal intelligibility of Corongo Quechua [qwa]. Intelligibility of Northern Conchucos [qxn] appears lower. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos

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Quechua, Southern Conchucos Ancash
[qxo] East Ancash Region, Chavín to San Luis to Llamellín; northwest Huanuco Region, Huacaybamba, Huacrachuco, San Buenaventura, and Pinra districts; much of southern Marañon province. 250,000 (1994 census), increasing. 80,000 monolinguals. L2 users: Health workers and teachers. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Conchucos Quechua, Southern Conchucos Quechua Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.

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Quechua, Southern Pastaza
[qup] Loreto Region, Anatico lake, Pastaza and Huasaga rivers; Ñucuray River and Manchari. 1,550 (2000). 310 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Inga Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Distinct from Northern Pastaza Quechua [qvz] of Peru and Ecuador.

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Quechua, Yauyos
[qux] Lima Region, Yauyos province; Ica Region, north Chincha province; Huancavelica Region, northeast Castrovirreyna province. 6,500 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Apurí, Azángaro-Huangáscar-Chocos (Huangáscar), Cacra-Hongos, Huancaya-Vitis, Laraos, Madean-Viñac (Madeán), San Pedro de Huacarpana, Tana-Lincha (Lincha), Tomás-Alis (Alis). Not 1 language–a cover term for a highly differentiated linguistic area with many 1-village varieties. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay

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Quichua, Northern Pastaza
[qvz] Loreto Region, Alamos, Tigre river. 2,000 in Peru. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alama, Bobonaza, Tigre Quechua Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay Comments: Distinct from Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup].

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Remo
[rem] Ucayali Regon, between Tapiche and Calleria rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Rheno Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo Comments: The people who may have spoken this language may be in Brazil at Moa river headwaters but there is no evidence of this.

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Resígaro
[rgr] Northeast, Loreto Region, Bora and Ocaina villages. 14 (1976 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Resígero Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon

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Secoya
[sey] North, Loreto Region, Boca de Angusilla and Santa Marta, a small river off Napo river near Ecuador border. 680 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 680 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angotero, Encabellao Dialects: Angotero, Piojé. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje

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Sensi
[sni] Ucayali Region, Ucayali river right bank. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mananahua, Senti, Tenti Classification: Panoan Comments: In 1925 there were 100. Subgroups: Ynubu (Inubu), Runubu, and Casca.

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Sharanahua
[mcd] Ucayali and Madre de Dios regions; upper Purús river area. 450 in Peru (2000 SIL). 300 Mastanahua. Population total all countries: 453. 320 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Chandinahua, Marinahua (Marinawa), Mastanahua. Reportedly similar to Yaminahua [yaa] Chitonahua dialect and Yora [mts]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State Comments: Christian.

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Shipibo-Conibo
[shp] Loreto, Ucayali, and Huanuco regions; northeast middle Ucayali river area, Painaco, Requena, Sur Bolognesi, and Pisqui opposite Contamana. 26,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Conibo (Coniba), Pisquibo, Shetebo (Manoita, Setebo, Setibo, Xitibo), Shipibo (Alto Ucayali), Shipibo del Madre de Dios. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Spanish
[spa] 26,000,000 in Peru (2011). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali
[spq] Loreto and Ucayali river areas. 2,800 (2006). Some monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jungle Spanish Dialects: None known. Some have limited comprehension of colloquial standard Spanish [spa]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Taushiro
[trr] Loreto Region; off Tigre river; Aucayacu river and tributary. 1 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 20. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Pinche, Pinchi Dialects: None known. Possibly Zaparoan. Ruhlen says related to Candoshi-Shapra [cbu]. Classification: Language isolate

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Ticuna
[tca] Loreto Region, northeast Amazon river area, from Chimbote to San Antonio do Iça in Brazil. 8,000 in Peru (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tikuna, Tukuna Classification: Language isolate Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Urarina
[ura] Loreto Region, Urarinas district, Pucayacu, Chambira, and Urituyacu rivers. 3,000 (2002 SIL). Women are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Itucali, Shimacu, Simacu Dialects: Several dialects with minor differences. Ruhlen and others classify it as Andean. Classification: Language isolate

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Yagua
[yad] Northeast Amazon river area, Loreto Region, from Iquitos to Brazil border. 5,690 in Peru (2000). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Llagua, Nijyamïï Nikyejaada, Yahua, Yava, Yegua Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Yaguan Comments: Some go to urban centers like Iquitos for economic reasons, and occasionally to Brazil. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yameo
[yme] Loreto Region, Marañon and Amazon rivers from Tigre mouth to Nanay river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Yaguan

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Yaminahua
[yaa] Ucayali and Madre de Dios regions; Yuruá, Mapuya, and Mishagua. 750 in Peru (2003 SIL). 400 Yaminahua (1998 SIL), 150 Chitonahua. Population total all countries: 1,570. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jaminawá, Yamanawa, Yaminawa, Yuminahua Dialects: Chitonahua (Foredafa, Horudahua, Horunahua, Moronahua, Morunahua), Yaminahua. Reportedly most similar to Sharanahua [mcd]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State Comments: Subgroups: Masronahua (Masrodawa), Nishinahua (Nishidawa), Chitonahua (Chitodawa), Shaonahua (Shaodawa).

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Yanesha’
[ame] Central and east Pasco Region; Junin Region, western jungle, headwaters of Pachitea and Perené rivers. 9,830 (2000). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Amage, Amagues, Amaje, Amajo, Amoishe, Amueixa, Amuese, Amuesha, Amuetamo, Lorenzo, Omage Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Western Comments: Ethnic autonym: Yanesha.

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Yine
[pib] Ucayali, Junin, and Cusco regions; east central Urubamba river area, Ucayali river, Conatmana and Pucallpa. 4,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Chontaquiro, Contaquiro, Pira, “Piro” (pej.), Pirro, Simiranch, “Simirinche” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Machinere [mpd] in Brazil is different enough to need separate literature. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro Comments: Christian.

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Yora
[mts] Ucayali and Cusco regions, Sepahua on Urubamba river, Serjali on upper Mishagua; Madre de Dios Region, Manu national park, on Upper Manu, Lower Cashpajali, and Panagua rivers. 170 (Crevels 2007). Possibly another 400 uncontacted speakers on the Upper Piedras River (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Manu Park Panoan, Nahua, Parquenahua, Yoranahua, Yura Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yaminahua [yaa] and Sharanahua [mcd]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Unclassified Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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