Papua New Guinea

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Abadi
[kbt] Central province: Kairuku district, 5 main villages. 2,900 (Kassell and Potter 2011), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabadi, Kabadi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Toura [don], 47% with Lala [nrz] (Kassell and Potter 2011). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Gabadi.

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Abaga
[abg] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district. 5 (1994 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 150 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wagaba. Dialects: None known. Abaga borrows heavily from Kamano [kbq] and Benabena [bef]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon.

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Abau
[aau] Sandaun province: Green River district, Sepik and Green rivers. 7,270 (2000 census), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Green River. Dialects: Central Abau, Downriver Abau, Downriver border Abau, Upriver Abau. Classification: Sepik, Abau.

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Abom
[aob] Western province: Lewada, Mutam, and Tewara villages. 15 (2002 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 14% with Bitur [mcc], 12% with Baramu [bmz], 11% with Makayam [aup], 9% with Wara [tci], 4% with Idi [idi] and Agob [kit]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio.

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Abu
[ado] Madang and East Sepik provinces: between Angoram, Ramu, and Sepik rivers; northwest of Madang. 22 villages. 4,200 (2000 census). 820 Sabu, 3,380 Abu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adjora, Adjoria, Azao. Dialects: Abu, Auwa, Sabu. Intelligibility among dialects sufficient to understand each other’s complex and abstract discourse. Most closely related to Banaro [byz]. Sabu in northeast language region. Auwa may be a different language. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass. Comments: Christian.

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Adzera
[adz] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantan Rural LLG border area; Morobe province: Markham district and valley, Leron river to Markham-Ramu divide. 30,000 (2000 census). A few monolinguals, among the youngest and oldest. Ethnic population: 31,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Acira, Atsera, Atzera, Azera. Dialects: Yarus, Amari, Ngarowapum, Tsumanggorun, Guruf-Ngariawang (Ngariawan). Related to Sukurum [zsu], Sarasira [zsa], Wampur [waz], and Mari [hob] (all Upper Markham subfamily). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper.

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Aeka
[aez] Oro province: Sohe district, Tamata rural LLG. 3,400 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ajeka. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Orokaiva [okv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Orokaivan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aekyom
[awi] Western province: Kiunga area. 8,000 (1987 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aiwin, Akium, Awin, West Awin. Dialects: North Awin, South Awin, East Awin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Awin-Pare.

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Agarabi
[agd] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu district. 27,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agarabe, Bare. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gadsup [gaj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa.

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Agi
[aif] Sandaun province. 960 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Agob
[kit] Western province: Pahoturi river area and south coast. 2,440 (2000 census). 1,440 Agob, 540 Ende, 460 Kawam. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabu. Dialects: Agob, Ende, Kawam. One end of a chain of related varieties stretching to Idi [idi]. Distinct from, but related to, Idi (Tame). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Pahoturi. Comments: 3 government schools.

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Aighon
[aix] West New Britain province: Gasmata and Mosa rural LLGs, Akolet and Avau inland, between Avio and Amgen rivers, to north side of Whiteman range. 2,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aigon, Apsokok, Bao, Eighon, Psohoh. Dialects: Bao (Do), Apsokok (Psohoh, Psokhok, Psokok, Sokhok), Aighon. In the Kaulong [pss] (Pasismanua) dialect subgroup. Aighon considered a dialect of Kaulong [pss] (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lexical similarity: 83% with Aighon and Bao dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Comments: Different from Bau [bbd] in Madang Province. Christian, traditional religion.

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Aiklep
[mwg] West New Britain province: Ais, Analo, Asailo, and Yumielo villages on southwest coast; inland, Aviklo island near Kandrian. 3,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agerlep, Eklep, Kaul, Moewehafen. Dialects: None known. With Gimi [gip] and Ambul [apo] forms a group of closely related varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe.

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Aimele
[ail] Southern Highlands province: southwest corner, Mount Bosavi area; Western province: Lake Campbell area. Most moved to Western province: Wawoi falls area. 140 (2000), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kware. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi.

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Ainbai
[aic] Sandaun province: Vanimo district, south of Bewani station. 2 villages. 100 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Manem [jet], 25% with Pagi [pgi]. Classification: Border, Bewani.

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Aiome
[aki] Madang province: west of Madang town, scattered. 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayom. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ak
[akq] Sandaun province: Kwieftim village. 75 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Namia [nnm] and Awun [aww]. Classification: Sepik, Yellow River.

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Akolet
[akt] West New Britain province: south coast, and islands Awio bay area. 950 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Comments: 3 primary schools, provincial secondary school, vocational school.

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Akoye
[miw] Gulf province: Kaberofe district, valleys between Nabo range and Albert mountains, Lohiki river. Most in a Kerema settlement. 800 (1998 SIL), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akoinkake, Akoyi, Angoya, Lohiki, Mai-Hea-Ri, Maihiri, Obi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tainae [ago]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Akukem
[spm] Madang province: Bogia district, mountains east of lower Ramu river. 650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sepen. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew.

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Alamblak
[amp] East Sepik province: Angoram district. 9 villages on Middle Karawari and Wagupmeri rivers. Another dialect has 4 villages near Kuvanmas lake. 1,530 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kuvenmas, Karawari. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak. Comments: Karawari is distinct from Karawari [tzx] in the Pondo branch. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alekano
[gah] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district, Goroka town area. 25,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gafuku, Gahuku, Gahuku-Asaro, Gahuku-Gama. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Siane [snp], Tokano [zuh], Dano [aso], Yaweyuha [yby], and Benabena [bef]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena. Comments: Christian.

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Ama
[amm] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Ama (Wopolu I), Kauvia (Kawiya), Waniap creek, Wopolu II (Nokonufa), and Yonuwai villages; all on hills rising from the swamp south of Sepik river, south of Namia. 480 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sawiyanu. Dialects: Dialects have converged. Classification: Arai (Left May). Comments: Seminomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Amaimon
[ali] Madang province. 1,780 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Amaimon.

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Amal
[aad] East Sepik and Sandaun provinces: Wagana river, near confluence with Wanibe creek. 830 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alai. Classification: Sepik, Iwam.

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Amanab
[amn] Sandaun province: Amanab district. 4,420 (2003 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Amara
[aie] West New Britain province: northwest coast, Anepmate, Kaugo, Niuniuai, Siamatai, and Waramasalai villages. 230 (2011 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bibling, Longa. Dialects: None known. Related to Mouk-Aria [mwh] and Lamogai [lmg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Amara. Comments: Autie dialect no longer used. Christian.

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Ambakich
[aew] East Sepik province. 770 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,970 (2003 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aion, Porapora. Dialects: Northern Ambakich (Antanau), Southern Ambakich. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass. Comments: Christian.

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Ambrak
[aag] Sandaun province: Nuku district. 290 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Ambul
[apo] West New Britain province: Ambonge, Asepsep, Ayuvet, and Melenglo villages; south coast area islands between Andru and Johanna rivers. 1,200 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Apalik, Palik. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with neighboring villages; 64% with Aiklep [mwg] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe. Comments: Christian.

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Ambulas
[abt] East Sepik province: Maprik district. 44,000 (1991 SIL). 27,000 in Wosera, 9,000 in Maprik, 8,000 in Wingei (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abelam, Abulas. Dialects: Maprik, Wingei, Wosera-Kamu, Wosera-Mamu. Classification: Sepik, Ndu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Amele
[aey] Madang province: Madang district, hills up from Astrolabe bay, between Gum and Gogol rivers. 40 hamlets. 5,300 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amale. Dialects: Huar, Jagahala, Haija. Related to Gumalu [gmu], Sihan [snr], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum.

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Amio-Gelimi
[let] West New Britain and East New Britain provinces: east and Solomon sea coast. Kaskas island, Amio village (Amio dialect), Atui island and Poronga village (Gelimi dialect). 2,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amio, Atui, Gelimi, Lesing-Atui, Lesing-Gelimi, Poronga. Dialects: Gelimi, Amio. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Comments: Christian.

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Amol
[alx] Sandaun province: Nuku district. 270 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alatil, Aru, Eru, Mol, Oru. Dialects: Arang Mol, Alang Mol. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Amto
[amt] Sandaun province: Amanab and Rocky Peak districts, Amto, Amu and Habiyon villages south of Upper Sepik river, toward Left May river headwaters on Samaia river. 300 (2006 NTM). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Amto, Siawi. Classification: Amto-Musan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Anam
[pda] Madang province: Josephstaal area villages. 1,070 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pondoma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan.

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Anamgura
[imi] Madang province: northwest of Josephstaal. 1,250 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anamuxra, Ikundun, Mindivi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan.

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Andai
[afd] East Sepik province: Karawari rural district. Andambit, Awarem, Imboin, Kaiyam, Kupini, and Namata mountain villages; Arafundi and Wagupman rivers’ head. 400 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pundungum, Wangkai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58%–74% with Tapei [afp]. Classification: Arafundi.

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Andarum
[aod] Madang province. 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Kanggape [igm]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu.

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Andra-Hus
[anx] Manus province: Andra and Hus islands. 1,410 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahus, Ha’us. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Anem
[anz] West New Britain province: northwest coast and inland. 800 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Yele-West New Britain, West New Britain. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aneme Wake
[aby] Oro province: Afore district, both sides of Owen Stanley range; Central province: north from Ianu along Domara and Foasi creeks. 650 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abia, Abie. Dialects: Mori, Buniabura, Auwaka, Jari, Doma. Lexical similarity: 65%–73% with Moikodi [mkp] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban.

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Angaataha
[agm] Morobe province: Menyamya district. 2,100 (2003 BTA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angaatiha, Angaatiya, Angataha, Langimar. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Angaatiha.

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Angal
[age] Southern Highlands province: Mendi area, north into Mendi valley, west into Lai valley, east bank, west of Mount Giluwe. 18,600 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Angal, Mendi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa.

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Angal Enen
[aoe] Southern Highlands province: south of Nipa, north of Erave river, east of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai valley. 22,000 (1995 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nembi, South Angal Heneng, South Mendi. Dialects: Megi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa.

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Angal Heneng
[akh] Southern Highlands province: south of Kandep and Margarima, north of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai valley. 40,000 (1994 V. Schlatter). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agarar, Augu, Katinja, Wage, West Angal Heneng, West Mendi. Dialects: Waola (Wala), Augu, Nipa, Ota. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa.

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Angor
[agg] Sandaun province: Amanab district. 11 villages. 1,270 (1990 census). 840 in Nai, 430 in Samanai. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anggor, Senagi, Watapor. Dialects: Nai (Central Angor), Samanai (Southern Angor). Classification: Senagi.

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Angoram
[aog] East Sepik province: Angoram district, lower Sepik river area. 8,220 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olem, Pondo, Tjimundo. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Angoram.

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Anjam
[boj] Madang province: Astrolabe Bay district. 2,020 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bogadjim, Bogajim, Bogati, Bom, Lalok. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ankave
[aak] Gulf province: Kerema district, Mbwei and Swanson valleys’ rivers. 1,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angave. Dialects: Sawuve, Wiyagwa, Wunavai, Miyatnu, Ankai, Bu’u. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Anor
[anj] Madang province. 980 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu.

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Anuki
[aui] Milne Bay province: north coast, Cape Vogel. 890 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabobora. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49%–57% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Anuki.

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Ap Ma
[kbx] East Sepik province: Angoram district. 10,000 (2010 PBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ap Ma Botin, Botin, Kambot, Karaube. Dialects: Kambaramba. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Kambot.

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Apali
[ena] Madang province: Aiome district, upper Ramu river area. 980 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Apal, Emerum, Munga. Dialects: Aki, Aci. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Emuan.

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Arammba
[stk] Western province: Morehead subprovince, southwest of Suki. 970 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aramba, Serki, Serkisetavi, Upper Morehead. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda.

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Arapesh, Abu’
[aah] East Sepik province: Maprik district, Mablep Rural LLG, ward 8; Sandaun province: Aitape district, East Aitape Rural LLG, wards 23, 24, 25. 2,560 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abu’, Ua. Dialects: Matapau. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh.

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Arapesh, Bumbita
[aon] East Sepik province: Maprik district, Torricelli mountains, south of Wom. 13 villages. 4,340 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 8,680. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bambita Arapesh, But Arapesh, Weri. Dialects: Bonahoi, Timingir, Urita, Weril, Werir. Weril and Werir mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 30% with Bukiyip [ape]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh.

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Arawum
[awm] Madang province. 60 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Siroi [ssd], Pulabu [pup], Migum [klm], and Lemio [lei]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau.

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Are
[mwc] Milne Bay province: Cape Vogel tip. 1,230 (1973 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mukawa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gapapaiwa [pwg]. Lexical similarity: 47%–55% with Doga [dgg] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are.

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Ari
[aac] Western province: Ari and Serea villages; Aramia river area. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Serea. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala.

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Aribwatsa
[laz] Morobe province: lower Wamped river. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1997 (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lae, Lahe. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu.

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Aribwaung
[ylu] Morobe province: Yalu village; lower Markham valley. 500 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aribwaungg, Jaloc, Yalu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Musom [msu], Duwet [gve], Nafi [srf], and Wampar [lbq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu. Comments: Jaloc is the Yabem [jae] spelling of the village name.

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Arop-Lokep
[apr] Madang province: Saidor district, Long and Crown islands (Arop dialect); Morobe province: Siassi district, Tolokiwa island and northwest tip of Umboi island (Lokep dialect). Vitiaz Strait, Siassi chain, 4 islands.. 3,020 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arop-Lukep, Lukep, Moromiranga, Siasi, Siassi, Tolokiwa. Dialects: Arop (Poono), Lokep (Lokewe, Lukep). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap. Comments: Different from Arop-Sissano [aps] in Sandaun Province.

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Arop-Sissano
[aps] Sandaun province: Aitape district, Arop village. 1,150 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arop. Dialects: None known. Related to Sissano [sso], Malol [mbk], and Sera [sry]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau. Comments: 863 people killed in July 1998 tsunami.

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Aruamu
[msy] Madang province: Bogia district, between Ramu river and Bogia town. 8,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ariawiai, Makarub, Makarup, Mikarew, Mikarew-Ariaw, Mikarup. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew.

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Aruek
[aur] Sandaun province: north of Yessip Mission; East Sepik province. 740 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djang. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio.

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Aruop
[lsr] Sandaun province. 6 villages. 700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lauisaranga, Lau’u, Lawu Srenge, Srenge. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Asaro’o
[mtv] Madang province: Bagen, Baru, Somek, and Subura; some in Mur; possibly Kasu; southeast of Saidor. 1,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morafa. Dialects: Molet. Related to Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup. Comments: Morafa is a clan name. In Mur, the dialect is called Molet.

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Asas
[asd] Madang province. 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kow. Dialects: None known. Related to Sinsauru [snz], Sausi [ssj], Kesawai [xes], and Watiwa [wtf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia.

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Askopan
[eiv] Bougainville province: south central mountains. 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Eivo, Eivo 1. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Rapoisi [kyx]. Classification: North Bougainville, Rotokas.

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Atemble
[ate] Madang province: Ramu river, northwest of Aiome, upstream from Annaberg. 60 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Atemple, Atemple-Apris. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Atan.

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Au
[avt] Sandaun province: Lumi district, Torricelli mountain foothills. 19 villages. 8,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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’Auhelawa
[kud] Milne Bay province: Sehuleya district, Normanby island. 1,200 (1998 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kurada, Nuakata, Ulada, ’Urada. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Auwe
[smf] Sandaun province: Amanab district, Simog and Watape villages. 410 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simog. Classification: Border, Waris.

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Avau
[avb] West New Britain province: south coast and islands around Gasmata. 620 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awau. Dialects: Gasmata. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe.

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Awa
[awb] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu and Okapa districts. 2,050 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mobuta. Dialects: Tauna, Ilakia, Northeast Awa, South Awa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa.

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Awad Bing
[bcu] Madang province: Astrolabe Bay area, west of Saidor. 7 villages. 1,450 (2000 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Awad Gey, Biliau, Bing, Samang, Semang, Sengam. Dialects: Biliau, Yamai, Suit, Galeg, Yori. Distinct from, but reportedly similar to, Mindiri [mpn] and Wab [wab]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Awar
[aya] Madang province: Bogia district, Hansa bay coast. 3 villages. 900 (2013 PBT). Ethnic population: 1,200 (2013 PBT). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Awar, Nubia. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Bosmun-Awar.

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Awara
[awx] Morobe province: Lae district, near the Wantoat [wnc] language area. 1,900 (2011 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,950. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Some dialect variation. Wantoat [wnc], Wapu dialect of Wantoat, and Awara are part of a chain of related varieties, with Awara at the western end. Lexical similarity: 60%–70% with Wantoat [wnc] and Wapu dialect of Wantoat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat.

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Awiyaana
[auy] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu and Okapa districts. 15 villages. 11,100 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Auyana. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa.

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Awtuw
[kmn] Sandaun province. 510 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Autu, Kamnum. Dialects: None known. Related to Karawa [xrw] and Pouye [bye]. Classification: Sepik, Ram.

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Awun
[aww] Sandaun province: Yakeltim village east of Namia. 400 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awon. Dialects: None known. Related to Namia [nnm] and Ak [akq]. Classification: Sepik, Yellow River.

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Ayi
[ayq] Sandaun province: southeast corner, Wan Wan division. 3 villages. 430 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pasi [psq]. Classification: Sepik, Tama. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bagupi
[bpi] Madang province: Gogol river headwaters, west of Mabanob, northwest of Madang town. 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related languages: Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Mosimo [mqv], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Matepi [mqe], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Bahinemo
[bjh] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Hunstein range, south of Sepik river. 4 villages. 550 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bahenemo, Gahom, Inaru, Wogu, Yigai. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Baibai
[bbf] Sandaun province: Amanab district. 340 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Fas. Comments: The nearest school is a day’s walk away.

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Baimak
[bmx] Madang province: west of Madang city. 650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Gal [gap]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Baluan-Pam
[blq] Manus province: Baluan and Pam islands. 2,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pam-Baluan. Dialects: Baluan, Pam. Dialects are similar; Baluan is the larger. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bamu
[bcf] Gulf province: Turama river mouth south bank; Western province: Bamu river from mouth to confluence of Wawoi and Guavi rivers, lower Wawoi, Guavi and Gama rivers, Sagero creek to its mouth at Fly river. 6,310 (2000 census). 960 Gama. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamu Kiwai. Dialects: Gama, Lower Bamu, Sisiame, Upper Bamu (Middle Bamu), Nuhiro. Gama dialect may be a separate language. Closely related to Kiwai; less closely to Waboda [kmx]. Lexical similarity: less than 80% with Gama and Lower Bamu, the most similar other Bamu dialect. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian.

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Banaro
[byz] East Sepik and Madang provinces. 2,480 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banar, Banara, Waran. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bannoni
[bcm] Bougainville province: Empress Augusta Bay coast, between Aruma and Puriata rivers. 1,000 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Banoni, Tsunari. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni.

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Barai
[bbb] Central province: Rigo district, Rigo Inland RLLG, west of Moni river; Oro province: Afore district, Managalas plateau; Itokama, Madokoro, Naokanane, and Umuate villages (Birarie dialect). 800 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Birarie, Muguani. Lexical similarity: 50% with Ese [mcq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Baramu
[bmz] Western province: Baramura, Tapila, Tirio, and Tirio 2 villages; lower Fly river south bank. 850 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 33% with Bitur [mcc], 32% with Makayam [aup], 27% with Wara [tci]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio. Comments: Different from Bitur [mcc], Makayam [aup], and Wara [tci].

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Bargam
[mlp] Madang province: Madang district, North Coast road opposite Karkar island. 3,750 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mugil, Saker. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Mugil. Comments: Christian.

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Bariai
[bch] West New Britain province: east of Cape Gloucester, northwest coast. 1,380 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Kabana” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kove [kvc], 76% with Lusi [khl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai. Comments: ‘Kabana’ is acceptable to the 3 eastern villages but offensive to most of the population.

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Bariji
[bjc] Oro province: Bariji river south bank. 460 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aga Bereho. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49% with Moikodi [mkp]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban.

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Barikewa
[jbk] Gulf province: Omati river. 320 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Ikobi [meb]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kaser.

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Barok
[bjk] New Ireland province: south central, east and west coasts. 15 villages. 2,120 (1985). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kanalu, Kanapit, Kolube, Komalu, Kulubi. Dialects: Usen, Barok. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak.

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Baruga
[bjz] Oro province: Tufi district, west Musa and Bariji rivers flood plains; Gaina [gcn], Bariji [bjc], and Yareba [yrb] language areas on south and west borders, Dyke Ackland bay is north; Ewage-Notu (Okeina dialect) [nou], Ambe Tofo, Korafe-Mokorua, Miniafia-Arifama, Ubir [ubr], and Maisin [mbq] villages on the east. 2,230 (2003 SIL), increasing. 800 Tafota, 990 Bareji, 440 Mado. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Bareji, Baruga, Mado, Tafota Baruga. Lexical similarity: 56%–61% with Korafe-Yegha [kpr], Gaina [gcn] and Dogoro [dgx] (Dutton 1971), 43% with Ewage dialect of Ewage-Notu [nou]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Baruga. Comments: Work in Port Moresby and other towns but prefer to retire in Baruga territory. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bau
[bbd] Madang province. 3,150 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Sihan [snr], Gumalu [gmu], Isebe [igo], Amele [aey], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum. Comments: Different from Bao dialect of Aighon [aix] in New Britain, an Oceanic language.

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Bauwaki
[bwk] Oro province: south of Moni river; into Central province: Amau river. 520 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bawaki. Dialects: None known. Dutton (1971) says this is a bridge language between the Mailuan and Yareban families. Lexical similarity: 66% with Aneme Wake [aby] (most similar), 39% with Domu [dof]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan.

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Beami
[beo] Western province: east of Nomad; into Southern Highlands province. 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedamini, Bedamuni, Mougulu. Dialects: Komofio, North Beami. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi.

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Bebeli
[bek] West New Britain province: Stettin Bay, Cape Hoskins area. 1,050 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banaule, Beli, Benaule, Kapore, Yangura. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Comments: Different from Beli [bey] in Sandaun Province.

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Beli
[bey] Sandaun province: west of Mehek. 2,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akuwagel, Makarim, Mukili. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Beli. Comments: Different from Bebeli [bek] (Beli) in West New Britain.

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Benabena
[bef] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district. 45,000 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bena. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bepour
[bie] Madang province: Bogia district, south of lower Kumil river and Sikor. 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Mauwake [mhl] and Moere [mvq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan.

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Berinomo
[bit] East Sepik province: April river, Bitara and Kagiru villages. 350 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bitara. Dialects: Bitara, Kagiru (Apowasi). Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo.

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Biage
[bdf] Oro province: Sohe district, Kokoda RLLG, along Owen Stanley range foothills and mountains. 1,100 (2009 S. Cott). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric.

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Biangai
[big] Morobe province: Wau district, Bulolo river headwaters. 7 villages. 1,400 (1991 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ngowiye, Yongolei. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa.

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Biem
[bmc] East Sepik province: Bam, Blupblup, Kadovar, and Viai islands east of Wewak. 2,200 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam.

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Bikaru
[bic] East Sepik province: April river headwaters. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bugalu, Pikaru. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Comments: Nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Bilakura
[bql] Madang province: Madang district, headwaters of Gilagil river, due east of Kosilanta. 30 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Related languages: Usan [wnu], Yaben [ybm], Yarawata [yrw], Parawen [prw], and Ukuriguma [ukg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan.

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Bilbil
[brz] Madang province: coast just south of Madang town. 1,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bilibil. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern.

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Bimin
[bhl] Western province: large area west of Strickland river; Sandaun province: Telefomin district, Oksapmin RLLG; Southern Highlands province: small border area south of Umanapi. 2,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Bim, Nimtep Weng. Reportedly similar to Faiwol [fai]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain. Comments: Much intermarriage and cultural exchange with Oksapmin [opm].

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Bina
[bmn] Central province: north of Baibara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric.

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Binahari
[bxz] Central province: Cloudy Bay hills range inland. 630 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Neme (Nemea), Ma. Lexical similarity: 70% with Morawa [mze] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan.

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Binandere
[bhg] Oro province: along Eia, Gira, Kumusi, and Mamba rivers; between Iwaia and Sowara villages on coast; some in Morobe province. 7,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ioma Binandere. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50%–54% with Suena [sue] and Zia [zia]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, Binandere. Comments: No known dialects. Some mixing of English [eng] and Tok Pisin [tpi]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bine
[bon] Western province: Daru district, south of Fly river. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Oriomo, Pine. Dialects: Kunini, Boze-Giringarede, Sogal, Masingle, Tate, Irupi-Drageli, Sebe. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly.

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Binumarien
[bjr] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu district. 360 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binamarir, Binumaria. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora.

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Bipi
[biq] Manus province: west coast, Maso, Matahei, and Salapai villages, Bipi and Sisi islands. 1,380 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sisi-Bipi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Loniu [los]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West.

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Bisis
[bnw] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, between Lower Salumei river and Chambri lake, Hunstein range. 3 villages. 450 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yambiyambi. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bisorio
[bir] East Sepik province: Bisorio, Gadio, and Iniai villages; Karawari, Korosameri, and Wagupmeri rivers’ headwaters. 260 (2003 SIL). 50–100 Pikaru. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Iniai, Inyai-Gadio-Bisorio. Dialects: Pikaru (Bikaru). Lexical similarity: 70% with Nete [net]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga.

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Bitur
[mcc] Western province: Bisuaka, Kasimap, Petom, Tewara and Upiara villages; south bank and inland of Fly river. 860 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bituri, Dudi, Mutum, Paswam. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Makayam [aup], 35% with Wara [tci], 33% with Baramu [bmz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio.

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Biwat
[bwm] East Sepik province: lower and middle Yuat river. 3,040 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Munduguma, Mundugumor. Dialects: None known. Related to Kyenele [kql], Changriwa [cga], Mekmek [mvk], and Bun [buv]. Classification: Yuat.

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Biyom
[bpm] Madang province: southeast of Gende. 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sasime. Dialects: None known. Related to Isabi [isa], Tauya [tya], and Faita [faj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Biyom-Tauya.

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Blafe
[bfh] Western province: Indorodoro village is center; west of Nambo [ncm] language area. 670 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Indorodoro, Tonda. Dialects: Mblafe, Ránmo. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda.

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Bo
[bpw] Sandaun province: Bo, Kaumifi, Kobaru, and Nigyama Umarita villages; East Sepik province: Sandaun province border area, near Right May river. Heart of Western Range. 85 (1998 NTM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Po, Sorimi. Dialects: Kaboru, Nikiyama, Umuruta. Classification: Arai (Left May). Comments: Area seldom entered by outsiders. Unconfirmed as a separate language. Traditional religion.

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Bo-Ung
[mux] Western Highlands province: Hagen, Lower Kaugel, and Tambul districts. 40,900 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboung, Mbo-Ung, Tembalo. Dialects: Miyemu (Miyem), Mara-Gomu, Tembalo (Tembaglo), Ku Waru. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel.

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Bogaya
[boq] Southern Highlands province: Koroba Lake Kopiago district; Western province: large area east of Strickland river; North Fly district, Olsobip and Nomad RLLGs. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bogaia, Pogaya. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya.

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Boikin
[bzf] East Sepik province: Yangoru district. 31,300 (2003 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boiken, Nucum, Yangoru, Yengoru. Dialects: West Boikin, Central Boikin, East Boikin, Munji, Haripmor, Kwusaun, Kunai, Island Boikin. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Bola
[bnp] West New Britain province: Willaumez peninsula northeast coast, Harua east of Kimbe. 13,700 (2000 census). 2,250 Harua. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bakovi, Bola-Bakovi. Dialects: Harua (Garua, Karua, Mai, Xarua), Bola. Harua developed among people resettled on an oil palm plantation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez.

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Bongu
[bpu] Madang province: Astrolabe bay, Rai coast. 850 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim.

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Bonkiman
[bop] Madang and Morobe provinces. 180 (1991 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna.

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Borong
[ksr] Morobe province: Finschhafen district, central Huon peninsula between Kuat and Burum rivers. 5 villages and 5 hamlets, Lae and others. 2,200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kosorong, Naama. Dialects: Kosorong, Yangeborong. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern.

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Boselewa
[bwf] Milne Bay province: Fergusson island north shore. 610 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,530. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosalewa, Bosilewa, Mwani’u. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Galeya [gar] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau.

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Bosmun
[bqs] East Sepik province; Madang province: Bogia district, lower Ramu river. 5 villages. 1,700 (2013 PBT). L2 users: 25 (2013 PBT). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800 (2013 PBT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosman, Bosngun. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Bosmun-Awar. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bragat
[aof] Sandaun province: 4 villages. 460 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alauagat, Yauan. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Brem
[buq] Madang province: including Bunabun village. 1,190 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barem, Bububun, Bunabun, Bunubun. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud.

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Breri
[brq] Madang province: Middle Ramu district, lower Ramu valley. 1,100 (1986 PBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kuanga. Dialects: None known. Related to Kominimung [xoi], Igana [igg], and Inapang [mzu]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan.

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Buang, Mangga
[mmo] Morobe province: Mumeng district, Lae and Moresby, mid-upper Snake river area. 1,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaidemui, Manga Buang. Dialects: Lagis, Kwasang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Buang, Mapos
[bzh] Morobe province: Mumeng district, middle Snake river area. 10 villages. 10,500 (2000). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Buang, Mapos. Dialects: Wagau, Mambump, Buweyeu, Wins, Chimbuluk, Papakene, Mapos. Lexical similarity: 61% between Mambump dialect and Mangga Buang [mmo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Budibud
[btp] Milne Bay province: Lachlan islands, east of Woodlark island. 310 (2000). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Muyuw [myw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bugawac
[buk] Morobe province: Huon gulf coast. Central-Western dialect: Buhalu, Cape Arkona, Hec, Tikeleng, Wideru villages; Eastern dialect: Bukawasip, Ulugidu; South Western dialect: Asini, Busamang; Western dialect: Lae city villages. 12,000 (2011 W. Eckermann). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bukaua, Bukawa, Bukawac, Kawa, Kawac, Yom Gawac. Dialects: Eastern Bugawac, Central-Eastern Bugawac, Central Bugawac, Central-Western Bugawac, Western Bugawac, South-Western Bugawac. Reportedly similar to Yabem [jae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North.

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Buhutu
[bxh] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Sagarai valley, East tip of Papua. 1,350 (2003 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,350. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bohutu, Buhulu, Siasiada, Yaleba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Unubahe [unu] and Oye’oye [oyy]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Suau [swp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Comments: Christian.

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Bukiyip
[ape] East Sepik province: west Yangoru district, Torricelli mountains; Sandaun province: Attape Lumi district. 16,200 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bukiyúp, Mountain Arapesh. Dialects: Coastal Arapesh, Bukiyip (Mountain Arapesh). Lexical similarity: 60% with Mufian [aoj]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh.

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Bulgebi
[bmp] Madang province: Astrolabe bay inland on east end of south coast, on lower Nankina river. 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup.

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Bulu
[bjl] West New Britain province: Willaumez peninsula. 910 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez.

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Bun
[buv] East Sepik province. 480 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Changriwa [cga], Mekmek [mvk], Biwat [bwm], and Kyenele [kql]. Classification: Yuat.

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Buna
[bvn] East Sepik province: Angoram district. 750 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kasmin, Masan. Apparently 2 dialects: one in Kasmin, Boig, Waskurin, and Arapang villages and another in Masan, Mangan, and Garien villages. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg.

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Bunama
[bdd] Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, south Normanby island. 4,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kelelegeia. Dialects: Bunama, Barabara, Sawatupwa, Lomitawa, Sipupu, Weyoko, Meudana, Kerorogea, Kumalahu, Kasikasi, Sawabwala. Lexical similarity: 66% with Mwatebu [mwa], 75% with most Dobu [dob] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bungain
[but] East Sepik province: Yaugiba is 1 village. 3,600 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg.

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Burui
[bry] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Sepik plains south of Maprik, Burui village, north of Pagwi. 260 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Bwaidoka
[bwd] Milne Bay province: Bolubolu district, west Fergusson island, south tip of Goodenough island. 6,500 (2000 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwaidoga. Dialects: Mataitai, Wagifa, Kilia, Lauwela, Bwaidoga, Faiyava, Belebele I, Bebebele Ii, Kalauna, Kiliva. Lexical similarity: 72% with Iduna [viv] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Comments: Half of the children are in school.

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Bwanabwana
[tte] Milne Bay province: Bwanabwana district, southeast Basilaki island, Engineer islands, Kitai island, Laseinie islands, Ware island. 2,400 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tubetube. Dialects: Wale (Ware, Wari), Kwalaiwa, Kitai, Naluwaluwali, Tewatewa, Koyagaugau, Ole, Anagusa. Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Comments: Christian.

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Chambri
[can] East Sepik province: marsh dwellers east and north of Sepik Hill area, southeast shore and Chambri lake island. 4 villages. 1,700 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tchambuli, Tshamberi. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Chambri. Comments: Income comes from fishing. Traditional religion.

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Changriwa
[cga] East Sepik province. 690 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related languages: Mekmek [mvk], Kyenele [kql], Biwat [bwm], and Bun [buv]. Classification: Yuat.

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Chenapian
[cjn] East Sepik province: Sepik river west of Wogamusin. 1 village. 180 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chenap, Tsenap, Zenap. Classification: Sepik, Wogamusin-Chenapian.

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Chini
[afi] Madang province: Middle Ramu district. 2 villages. 75 (2013 J. Brooks). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akrukay. Dialects: Akrukay, Andamang. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan.

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Chuave
[cjv] Chimbu province: Chuave district, Elimbari LLG; Eastern Highlands province: Lufa district, Lufa Station. 23,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tjuave. Dialects: Elimbari, Kebai, Gomia, Chuave, Sua. Kebai dialect is distinct but intelligible. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu.

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Daantanai’
[lni] Bougainville province: Kieta district, Piruneu’ and Warana villages; Crown Prince range east slope, Kreiowo and Tavatava rivers’ headwaters, east-south-east of Koromira Point. 600 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lantanai. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi. Comments: Language was different from others in Nasioi group but may have converged to be more like Koromira [kqj] or Naasioi [nas].

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Dadibi
[mps] Chimbu province: Karimui district, Tua river system; Southern Highlands province: Kagua-Erave district, southeast corner, 28 villages; Western Highlands province: southern extremity, South Waghi LLG. 10,000 (1988 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daribi, Karimui. Dialects: Erave. Villages in Karimui and Negabo areas have minor dialect differences from standard Dadibi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Daga
[dgz] Central province: Abau district; Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district; Oro province: some southeast. 9,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimuga, Nawp. Dialects: Upper Daga, Lower Daga. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan.

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Dambi
[dac] Morobe province: Mumeng district. 350 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility of Kumalu [ksl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng.

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Danaru
[dnr] Madang province. 260 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Sop [urw], Urigina [urg], and Sumau [six]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka.

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Dano
[aso] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district. 30,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asaro, Upper Asaro. Dialects: Upper Asaro, Lunube Mado, Bohena, Amaizuho, Kongi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena.

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Daonda
[dnd] Sandaun province: Amanab district near Imonda. 170 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Border, Waris.

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Dawawa
[dww] Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district, west and inland from Wedau. 2,500 (1994 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dawana. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Kakabai [kqf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai.

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Dedua
[ded] Morobe province: Sialum district, Masaweng and Tewae rivers’ headwaters, south of Mount Besenona. 19 villages. 6,500 (2000 census), increasing. No monolinguals above age 20. Ethnic population: 8,910. Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Dzeigoc, Fanic. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern.

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Degenan
[dge] Madang province. 790 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dingana. Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup.

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Dera
[kbv] Sandaun province: Amanab district, Faringi river area. 690 in Papua New Guinea. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dra, Kamberataro, Kamberatoro, Komberatoro, Mangguar. Dialects: North Kamberataro, South Kamberataro, Mengau, Lihen, Duka-Ekor. Classification: Senagi.

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Dia
[dia] Sandaun province. 1,840 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alu, Galu, Metru. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Dibiyaso
[dby] Western province: Bamustu, Makapa, and Pikiwa villages. 1,950 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bainapi, Dibiasu, Pikiwa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Turumsa [tqm], 15% with Doso [dol]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dima
[jma] Milne Bay province: east of Moi bay coast almost to Posaposa Harbor; Ruaba river area. 750 (2001 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dimadima, Jimajima. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Daga [dgz] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dobu
[dob] Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, Dobu, parts of Fergusson, Normanby, and Sanaroa islands. 500 villages. 10,000 (1998 SIL). L2 users: 100,000 (1987 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Lingua franca in D’Entrecasteaux Islands. Alternate Names: Dobuan. Dialects: Galubwa, Sanaroa, Ubuia, Central Dobu, Loboda (Dawada-Siausi, Roboda). Lexical similarity: 56% with Molima [mox] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Comments: Many schools.

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Doga
[dgg] Milne Bay province: Cape Vogel north coast. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 330. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Magabara. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 47%–55% with Are [mwc] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are.

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Doghoro
[dgx] Oro province: Tufi district, Bendorode and Sebagha villages on Bariji and Musa river flood plains. 270 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogoro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Baruga. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dom
[doa] Chimbu province: mainly south of Wahgi river from Kundiawa west. 12,000 (1994 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Era. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu.

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Domu
[dof] Central province: coast east of Cape Rodney and inland. 950 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dom. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Bauwaki [bwk] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan.

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Domung
[dev] Madang province: Rai Coast district, Aunon, Ayengket, Bobongat, Dirit, Gabutamon, Kian, Kosit, Maramung, Maum, Sibgou, Swantan, Tapen, and Wokopop villages. 2,330 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna.

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Doromu-Koki
[kqc] Central province: Inland Rigo district, south of Mount Obree, west of Mount Brown. 1,500 (2006 SIL). Half in language area and half in Port Moresby. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dorom, Doromu, Koki. Dialects: Koki, Kokila, ’Origo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maria [mds] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Manubaran. Comments: Christian.

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Doso
[dol] Western province: Aramia river and Wawoi falls areas, near Kamula [xla] language area. 700 (Shaw 1973). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Unclassified.

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Duau
[dva] Milne Bay province: Normanby and Sawabwala islands. 3,550 (1991 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Mwalukwasia, Somwadina, Guleguleu (Guragureu), Dawada, Siausi. Diverse dialects. No central or dominant dialect. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bunama [bdd], 52% with Mwatebu [mwa], Auhelawa [kud], and Bwanabwana [tte]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dumun
[dui] Madang province: Astrolabe bay south coast, Gowar river mouth, west of Dein, and its lower course. 35 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bai. Dialects: None known. Related to Yabong [ybo], Ganglau [ggl], and Saep [spd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon.

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Duna
[duc] Southern Highlands province: Koroba and Lake Kopiago districts, east from Strickland river; Enga province: Paiela-Hewa RLLG. 11,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yuna. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya.

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Duwet
[gve] Morobe province: Busu river area. 400 (2011 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 450. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guwet, Guwot, Waing. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu.

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Edolo
[etr] Southern Highlands province: Tari district; Western province: Nomad district, southwest of Mount Sisa. 16 villages. 1,670 (2000 census). No monolinguals (2015 A. Grosh). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Edolo Ado, Etolo, Etoro. Dialects: Eastern Edolo, Western Edolo. Lexical similarity: 38% with Beami [beo]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi. Comments: Christian.

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Eitiep
[eit] East Sepik province: southwest of Kombio; Sandaun province: across Bongos river. 500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kombio [xbi]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio.

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Elepi
[ele] East Sepik province: Samap coast area. 330 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samap. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg.

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Elkei
[elk] Sandaun province. 1,640 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olkoi. Dialects: At least 3 dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Elu
[elu] Manus province: Manus island north coast. 600 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Enga
[enq] East Sepik province: Angoram district; Enga province: eastern 2 thirds; Southern Highlands province: border area near Winja; Western Highlands province: Mul-Baiyer Station district, Baiyer LLG. 230,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Sau (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caga, Tchaga, Tsaga. Dialects: Kandepe, Layapo, Tayato, Mae (Mai, Wabag), Maramuni (Malamuni), Kaina, Kapona, Sau (Sau Enga, Wapi), Yandapo, Lapalama 1, Lapalama 2, Laiagam, Sari. Mae is standard dialect; all understand it. Layapo is between Mae and Kyaka [kyc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga. Comments: Maramuni are nomadic in lower central range.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 150,000 in Papua New Guinea (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 3,000,000 in Papua New Guinea (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Erave
[kjy] Southern Highlands province. 10,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kewa South, Pole, South Kewa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa.

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Ere
[twp] Manus province: Drabitou, Hatwara, Loi, Lohe, Londru, Metawari, Pau, Piterait, and Taui-Undrau villages on south coast. 1,400 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Londru, Nane. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Ese
[mcq] Oro province: Popondetta district, Kawawoki Mission area. 10,000 (2000 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Managalasi” (pej.), “Managulasi” (pej.). Dialects: Muaturaina, Chimona, Dea, Akabafa, Nami, Mesari, Averi, Afore, Minjori, Oko, Wakue, Numba, Jimuni, Karira. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic. Comments: Hiri Motu [hmo] use diminishing. Traditional religion.

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Ewage-Notu
[nou] Oro province: Popondetta district, coast between Bakumbari and Pongani. 12,900 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Ewage” (pej.), “Notu” (pej.). Dialects: Ewage-Notu, Yega (Gona, Okeina, Okena). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Notu. Comments: Also spoken by Soverapa people. ‘Ewage’ considered pejorative in Oro Bay, Dongani, and Ako areas. ‘Notu’ considered pejorative in Buna and Gona areas.

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Faita
[faj] Madang province: upper Ramu river, near Usino. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Biyom [bpm], Isabi [isa], and Tauya [tya]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Faita.

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Faiwol
[fai] Western province: Tabubil district, Fly and Palmer rivers’ headwaters; Sandaun province: Telefomin district, Yapsie RLLG. 4,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angkiyakmin, Faiwolmin, Fegolmin, Wokeimin. Dialects: Angkiyakmin, Faiwolmin, Wopkeimin. Many dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain.

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Fanamaket
[bjp] New Ireland province: Namatanai Rural LLG, Muliama, Sena, and Warangansau villages. 1,080 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maket, Tangga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Fas
[fqs] Sandaun province: Amanab and Aitape districts, Fas, Fugumui, Kilifas, Utai, and Wara Mayu villages. 2,500 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bembi, Momu. Dialects: Eastern Fas, Western Fas. Small dialect differences. Classification: Fas.

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Fasu
[faa] Southern Highlands province: Nipa district; Gulf province; Western province: Kikori river. 1,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 750 Fasu, 300 Namuni, 150 Some. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Namome. Dialects: Some, Kaibu (Kaipu), Namome (Namumi, Namuni). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West Kutubu. Comments: Some and Namuni may be separate languages (Wurm and Hattori 1981).

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Fembe
[agl] Western province: Upper Strickland river. 350 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agala, Sinale. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Odoodee [kkc] and Konai [kxw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland. Comments: Bogaia [boq] moved into Fembe [agl] territory, dividing them into 2 geographical areas. Language shift reported towards Konai [kxw], Duna [duc], and Kubo [jko], breaking linguistic identity in 3 directions. Oil company work also impacting language shift.

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Finongan
[fag] Morobe province. 1,300 (2002 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,350. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Finungwa, Finungwan. Dialects: Mamaa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap. Comments: Christian.

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Fiwaga
[fiw] Southern Highlands province: northeast of Tama. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fimaga, Fiwage. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Kutubu.

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Foi
[foi] Southern Highlands province: east and south of Lake Kutubu and Mubi river. 2,800 (1980 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foe, Mubi River. Dialects: Ifigi, Kafa, Kutubu, Mubi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Kutubu.

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Foia Foia
[ffi] Western province: Middle Fly district, Bibisa village; Gulf province: Kikori district, Turama river, Moka village. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Foiafoia, Foyafoya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Minanibai [mcv], 52% with Mubami [tsx], 59% with Hoyahoya [hhy], 54% with Hoia Hoia [hhi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai.

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Folopa
[ppo] Gulf province: Baimuru district, Kerabi valley; Southern Highlands province. 20 villages. 3,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foraba, Podoba, Podopa, Polopa. Dialects: Ro (Keai, Worugl), Bara (Harahu, Harahui), Sesa (Ibukairu, Mamisa, Songu), Kewah, Tebera, Aurei, Waraga, Pupitau, Boro, Suri, Siligi, Sopese, Keba-Wopasali. Reportedly most similar to Dadibi [mps]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan.

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Forak
[frq] Madang province: Saidor district, Mamgak village, west and inland from Seure on the coast. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup.

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Fore
[for] Eastern Highlands province: Okapa district. 17,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Pamusa (South Fore), North Central Fore. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Fore.

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Fuyug
[fuy] Central province: Goilala district, Owen Stanley range; Oro province: Kokoda Rural LLG. 14,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fuyuge, Fuyughe, Mafulu. Dialects: Central Udab, Northeast Fuyug, North-South Udab, West Fuyug. Lexical similarity: 35% with Biangai [big], 33% with Kunimaipa [kup], 29% with Weri [wer], 27% with Tauade [ttd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Fuyug. Comments: Christian.

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Gadsup
[gaj] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu district; Morobe province: Markham district, west of district headquarters Mutzing town. 22,100 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Oyana (Oiyana), Gadsup. Related to Ontenu [ont]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Comments: Christian.

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Gaikundi
[gbf] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Sepik Plains south of Maprik, east of Pagwi. 1,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gaikunti. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Gaina
[gcn] Oro province: Ijivitari district, Iwuji village area, inland from Solomon sea. 1,410 (Dutton 1971). 1,000 in Bareji, 130 in Gaina. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bareji (Baredji), Gaina. Lexical similarity: 61% with Doghoro [dgx] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Gaena-Korafe.

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Gal
[gap] Madang province: Gogol river. 340 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baimak, Weim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Galeya
[gar] Milne Bay province: Fergusson island, Esa’ala district, Duduna, Gameta, Lau’oya, Momo’awa, Sebutuya, and Ulua wards. 2,620 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garea. Dialects: Wadalei, Gameta, Urua, Basima, Sebutuia, Garea (Galeya). Lexical similarity: 61% with Boselewa [bwf] (most similar), 80% with Garea and Basima dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Comments: Less than half of children are in school. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ganglau
[ggl] Madang province. 470 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Yabong [ybo], Dumun [dui], and Saep [spd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon.

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Gants
[gao] Madang province. 1,880 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaj, Ganj. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon.

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Gapapaiwa
[pwg] Milne Bay province: Makamaka district, Cape Vogel south coast, inland on Ruaba river. 3,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Manape. Dialects: Gapa, Paiwa. The Gapa dialect is spoken in the eastern part of the language area and the Paiwa dialect is spoken in the western part. They are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 73% with Ghayavi [bmk] (Boyanai dialect most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. Comments: A number of well-educated people.

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Garus
[gyb] Madang province: Astrolabe bay. 2,650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ate, Em, Kurupi. Dialects: None known. Related to Bagupi [bpi], Matepi [mqe], Mosimo [mqv], Murupi [mqw], Rapting [rpt], Samosa [swm], and Silopi [xsp]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Gavak
[dmc] Madang province: Madang district, Basken, Dawo, Dindareng, Malan, Pagin, and Segar villages. 3,820 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosiken, Boskien, Dimir. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud. Comments: Dimir is the name of a tree.

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Gedaged
[gdd] Madang province: Bagabag, Karkar, Sek, and Yabob islands, Astrolabe bay, Madang coastal villages area. 6,950 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bel, Graged, Mitebog, Ragetta, Rio, Sek, Siar, Siar-Ragetta, Szeak-Bagili, Tiara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern.

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Gende
[gaf] Madang province: Usino Bundi district, near Bundi. 8,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bundi, Gendeka, Gene. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gende. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ghayavi
[bmk] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Weraura LLG, north coast Goodenough bay, Uga west to Wadobuna east, including Rabaraba. 2,810 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boanai, Boanaki, Boianaki, Boinaki, Galavi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar), 46% with Wedau [wed]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are.

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Gimi
[gip] West New Britain province: southwest coast and inland, Anu to Johanna rivers. 3,700 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loko. Dialects: Dialect continuum with Aiklep [mwg] and Ambul [apo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe. Comments: Different from Gimi [gim] in Eastern Highlands Province.

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Gimi
[gim] Chimbu province: border area; Eastern Highlands province: Okapa district. 22,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Labogai. Dialects: East Gimi, West Gimi (Gouno). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Fore. Comments: Different from Gimi [gip] in West New Britain Province. Traditional religion.

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Ginuman
[gnm] Central province: Abau district, Amazon RLLG; Milne Bay province: Mount Simpson to Naraka coast, Goodenough bay. 1,440 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dime. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kanasi (Dombosaina village) [soq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan.

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Girawa
[bbr] Madang province: Upper Ramu district. 4,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagasin, Begasin, Begesin. Dialects: None known. Related to Munit [mtc] and Kein [bmh]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon.

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Gitua
[ggt] Morobe province: Huon peninsula north coast. 760 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,090. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gitoa, Kelana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam.

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Gizrra
[tof] Western province: South Fly area, Barnap, Kulalae, Kupere, Ngomtono, and Waidoro villages northeast of Torres Strait, Saibai island. 1,050 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gizra. Dialects: Western Gizra, Waidoro. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gnau
[gnu] Sandaun province: Namblo census division, northwest of Maimai. 1,330 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Gobasi
[goi] Western province. 900 (Knauft 2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gebusi, Nomad. Dialects: Gobasi (Bibo), Honibo, Oibae (Oiba). Related to Samo [smq] and Kubo [jko]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland.

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Gogodala
[ggw] Western province: Fly River north bank, Aramia river. 301 villages. 22,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gogodara. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ari [aac]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala.

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Golin
[gvf] Chimbu province: Gumine district. 51,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gollum, Gumine. Dialects: Yuri, Kia (Kiari), Keri, Marigl. Reportedly similar to Dom [doa]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu.

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Goodenough, West
[ddi] Milne Bay province: Goodenough island west coast. 2,180 (2000). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diodio. Dialects: Iauiaula, Utalo, Awale, Central Diodio, Molata, Giwau, Miyalabi. Lexical similarity: 66% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga.

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Gorakor
[goc] Morobe province: Mumeng district, including Yanta. 2,740 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Yanta. Part of Mumeng group of related varieties. Some intelligibility with Patep [ptp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng.

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Gorovu
[grq] East Sepik province: Angoram district, Ramu river, Bangapela village; Madang province: Bogia district, Iabu RLLG. 15 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gorova, Yerani. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Grass.

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Guhu-Samane
[ghs] Oro province: Sohe district, Kanoma and Sidema villages north; Morobe province: Lae district; Waria river headwaters. 13,000 (2000 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 13,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bia, Mid-Waria, Muri, Paiawa, Tahari. Dialects: Sekare. Lexical similarity: 18% with Suena [sue] and Zia [zia] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Guhu-Samane.

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Gumalu
[gmu] Madang province. 580 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Sihan [snr], Amele [aey], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum.

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Gumawana
[gvs] Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, Amphlett Islands, about 25 islands north of Fergusson. 7 villages. 470 (2000 census), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Domdom, Gumasi, Gumasila. Dialects: Kotoita, Nubogeta, Gumawana. Lexical similarity: 48% with Galeya [gar], 47% with Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Gumawana. Comments: Christian.

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Guntai
[gnt] Western province: Morehead district. 350 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda.

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Guramalum
[grz] New Ireland province. No known L1 speakers (2010 J. Brownie). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Guriaso
[grx] Sandaun province: Amanab district. 160 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Kwomtari, Guriaso.

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Guya
[gka] Madang province: 20 km west of Seure. 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guiarak, Guyarak. Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup. Comments: Guiarak is a village name.

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Gwahatike
[dah] Madang province: Saidor district, several villages south of Saidor. 1,570 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dahating, Gwatike. Dialects: Gwahatike, Gwahamere, Gora, Gwapti. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Muratayak [asx], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Gweda
[grw] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Maramatana local council area, Garuwahi village. 26 (2001 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Garuwahi. Dialects: Naura dialect and Gweda [grw] users agree that Gweda is most similar to Haigwai. Lexical similarity: 71% with Wa’ema [wag], 69% with Taupota [tpa], 68% with Naura dialect of Haigwai [hgw], 67% with Kapulika dialect of Haigwai, 64% with Topura dialect of Wedau [wed], 63% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Wedau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota.

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Hahon
[hah] Bougainville province: northwest. 1,300 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hanon. Dialects: Kurur, Ratsua, Aravia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz.

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Haigwai
[hgw] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Huhu local government area, inland from Milne Bay head between Hagita and Waigani estates and mountains west. 1,060 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garaghwaghi, Kapulika, Naura. Dialects: Naura, Kapulika. Naura dialect and Gweda [grw] users agree that Gweda is most similar to Haigwai. Lexical similarity: 68% between the Naura dialect and Gweda, 65% between Kapulika dialect and Taupota [tpa], 52% with Wedau [wed], 48% with Maiwala [mum]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota.

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Hakö
[hao] Bougainville province: North Bougainville district, northeast Buka island. 5,000 (1982 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Haku. Dialects: Lontes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia. Comments: Christian.

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Halia
[hla] Bougainville province: North Bougainville district, Buka island east coast; Selau peninsula, Cartaret Islands. 20,000 (1994 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Tasi. Dialects: Hanahan, Hangan, Touloun (Tulon, Tulun), Selau. Tryon (1990) says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) and Luangiua (Ontong Java [ojv]) in Solomon Islands. Users have contact with Luangiua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia. Comments: Distinct from Tulu dialect of Tulu-Bohuai [rak] in Manus Province. Christian.

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Hamtai
[hmt] Gulf province: Kukipi district, Tauri river inland east to Ladedamu river; Morobe province: Lae district, Kodama range into Bulolo-Watut divide, to Mount Grosse and north to Mount Taylor. 45,000 (1998 T. Palmer). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hamday, Kamea, Kapau, “Kukukuku” (pej.), Watut. Dialects: Wenta, Howi, Pmasa’a, Hamtai, Kaintiba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan. Comments: ‘Kamea’ is used in Gulf Province.

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Hanga Hundi
[wos] East Sepik province: Pagwi district. 16 villages. 7,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwasengen, West Wosera. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ambulas [abt]. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Haruai
[tmd] Madang province: southwest Mid-Ramu district, west Schrader range, west of the Kobon [kpw] language area. 2,000 (2000 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Harway, Taman, Waibuk, Wiyau, Wiyaw, Wovan. Dialects: North Waibuk (Hamil), Central Waibuk (Mambar), South Waibuk (Arama). Word taboo practiced, but does not seem to impede intelligibility among related language varieties. Lexical similarity: 37% with Pinai-Hagahai [pnn], 35% with Kobon [kpw]. Classification: Piawi. Comments: Some similarities to Kalam languages due to borrowing (Comrie 1988). More loanwords from Kobon used in the northern area.

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Hermit
[llf] Western Manus province: Hermit Islands, Luf and Maron islands. 10 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Agomes, Luf, Maron. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West.

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Hewa
[ham] Enga province: Lagaip district; Sandaun province: Telefomin district; Southern Highlands province: Koroba district; Lagaip river area, mountains north of Duna [duc] and Ipili [ipi] language areas; south of Lagaip river northward to Central range high peaks (boundary between Sepik region and the highlands). 2,150 (1986 SIL). 290 in Yoliapi (1982 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sisimin, Yoliapi. Dialects: Upper Lagaip, Central Lagaip, Lower Lagaip, North Hewa. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Heyo
[auk] East Sepik province: Aumbunti Dreikker district; Sandaun province: Nuku district. 2,710 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arima, Arinua, Arinwa, Lolopani, Ruruhip, Wan Wan, Wanib. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Yahang [rhp]. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper. Comments: Yahang [rhp] is also called Ruruhip. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hoia Hoia
[hhi] Western province: Middle Fly district, Ukusi-Koparamio village. 80 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hoiahoia, Ukusi-Koparamio Hoyahoya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Minanibai [mcv], 47% with Mubami [tsx], 54% with Foia Foia [ffi], 71% with Hoyahoya [hhy]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai.

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Hote
[hot] Morobe province: Lae district, Francisco river area. 2,300 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,350. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hotec, Ho’tei, Malê, Malei. Dialects: Hote, Misim (Musim, Ombalei). Lexical similarity: 90% between Hote and Misim dialects; 70% with Yamap [ymp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote.

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Hoyahoya
[hhy] Western province: Middle Fly district, Matakaia village. 95 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hoiahoia, Hoya Hoya, Matakaia Hoyahoya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Minanibai [mcv], 52% with Mubami [tsx], 59% with Foia Foia [ffi], 71% with Hoia Hoia [hhi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai.

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Hula
[hul] Central province: Hood peninsula. 3,240 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vula’a. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara.

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Huli
[hui] Enga province: south fringe; Southern Highlands province: Tari area. 150,000 (2011 ECP), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Huli-Hulidana, Huri. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Huli. Comments: Christian.

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Humene
[huf] Central province: lower Sogeri plateau; plain between Gaire and Kapakapa villages. Manugoro is principal village. 940 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lagume (Lakume, Manukolu), Humene. Lexical similarity: 65%–74% with Kwale [ksj] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean.

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Hunjara-Kaina Ke
[hkk] Oro province: Kokoda RLLG. 8,770 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Hunjara, Kaina Ke. Reportedly similar to Orokaiva [okv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Orokaivan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iamalele
[yml] Milne Bay province: Bwaidoka district, west Fergusson island. 2,800 (1987 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yamalele. Dialects: Didigavu, Gwabegwabe, Masimasi, Central Yamalele, Southern Yamalele. Lexical similarity: 64% with Koluwawa [klx] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga.

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Iatmul
[ian] East Sepik province: Ambunti and Angoram districts, Sepik river, Tambunum to Japandai, Kundungay area villages. 8,440 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Big Sepik, Gepma Kwudi, Gepma Kwundi, Ngepma Kwundi. Dialects: Nyaura, Palimbei. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Idi
[idi] Western province: northwest of Agob [kit], east of Nambo [ncm] language areas. 1,610 (2000 census). 780 Idi, 800 Tame. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diblaeg, Dimisi, Dimsisi, Tame. Dialects: Tame, Idi. End of a dialect subgroup stretching to Agob [kit]. Distinct from but reportedly similar to Agob. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Pahoturi. Comments: Primary schools.

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Iduna
[viv] Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, north coast, Goodenough island. 6,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vivigana, Vivigani. Dialects: Waibula, Ufaufa, Idakamenai, Belebele, Kalauna, Goiala, Ufufu, Central Vivigani. Lexical similarity: 72% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Comments: Three-quarters of the children are in school.

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Igana
[igg] Madang province: west of Josephstaal. 200 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Romkun [rmk], Breri [brq], Kominimung [xoi], Chini [afi], and Inapang [mzu]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan.

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Ikobi
[meb] Gulf province: south of Kibirowi island, upper Omati and Middle Turama rivers’ areas. 1,570 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikobi Kairi, Ikobi-Mena, Kasere, Kopo-Monia, Meni, Wailemi. Dialects: Pimuru, Gorau, Utabi, Upper Turama-Kaser, Upper Kikori Kaser, Dukemi, Mena. Barikewa [jbk] and Mouwase [jmw] reportedly most similar. Mena variety may be a separate language (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kaser.

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Imbongu
[imo] Southern Highlands province: Ialibu district. 42,500 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Au, Aua, Awa, Ibo Ugu, Imbo Ungo, Imbo Ungu, Imbonggo. Dialects: Awa (Au, Aua). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel. Comments: Christian.

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Imonda
[imn] Sandaun province: Amanab district, near Imonda airstrip. 250 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Border, Waris.

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Inapang
[mzu] East Sepik province; Madang province: Josephstaal subdistrict. 1,830 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Midsivindi. Dialects: Itutang, Inapang. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan.

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Inoke-Yate
[ino] Eastern Highlands province: Okapa district. 10,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Inoke, Jate, Yate. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria.

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Ipiko
[ipo] Gulf province: Ipiko and Pahemuba villages on Pie river beyond Baimuru. 345 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Epai, Higa, Ipikoi. Dialects: Eva, Ibigo. Related to Minanibai [mcv] and Mubami [tsx]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Ipiko. Comments: Semi-nomadic.

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Ipili
[ipi] Enga province: Porgera patrol–post area. 26,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ipili-Paiela, Ipili-Payala. Dialects: Porgera, Paiela, Tipinini. Paiela and Pogera have minor lexical differences; Tipinini is reportedly similar to Enga [enq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Isabi
[isa] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district, Goroka Urban LLG; Madang province: Usino Bundi district, Bundi LLG. 280 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maruhia. Dialects: None known. Related languages: Biyom [bpm], Tauya [tya], and Faita [faj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Isabi.

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Isaka
[ksi] Sandaun province: near coast. 420 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krisa. Dialects: None known. Related to Rawo [rwa], Puare [pux], and Warapu [wra]. Classification: Skou, I’saka.

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Isebe
[igo] Madang province: Madang district, Gum river north bank, west of Madang town. 910 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balahaim. Dialects: Isebe, Urukun, Mirkuk. Related to Sihan [snr], Gumalu [gmu], Amele [aey], Bau [bbd], and Panim [pnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iteri
[itr] East Sepik province: northwest Ambunti Dreikikir district; Sandaun province: Rocky Peak mountains. 480 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Alowiemino, Iyo, Laro, Rocky Peak, Yinibu. Classification: Arai (Left May). Comments: Area seldom entered by outsiders.

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Iwal
[kbm] Morobe province: Lae district, between Salamaua and Wau. 2,100 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaiwa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yabem [jae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Kaiwa.

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Iwam
[iwm] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Sepik river, Iyomempwi and Mowi villages; May river villages and surrounding lakes and tributaries to Premai village. 3,000 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: May River. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Amal [aad] and Sepik Iwam [iws]. Classification: Sepik, Iwam. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Iwam, Sepik
[iws] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Sepik river villages, lagoons north and south, Iniok village downstream to Leonard Schultze river. 2,500 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yawenian. Classification: Sepik, Iwam.

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Iyo
[nca] Madang province: Finisterre mountains’ south slopes along Nahu and Bure rivers; north slopes along Kipuro and Kasang rivers; Morobe province: northwest Markham district. 6,900 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bure, Nabu, Naho, Nahu, Ndo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Rawa [rwo]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot.

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Jilim
[jil] Madang province. 650 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Waube [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Uyajitaya [duk], Rerau [rea], and Yangulam [ynl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru.

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Juwal
[mwb] East Sepik province: south southeast of Wewak. 1,440 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambe, Muniwara, Tumara, Tumaru. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg.

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Kaiep
[kbw] East Sepik province: Kep and Taul coast area. 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Samap, Sumup. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru.

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Kairak
[ckr] East New Britain province: Ivere and Malabunga villages on Gazelle peninsula. 900 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: East New Britain, Baining. Comments: 1 primary school.

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Kairiru
[kxa] East Sepik province: Wewak district, Kairiru, Karesau, and Yuo islands; mainland coastal villages between Cape Karawop and Cape Samein; north and west Mushu island. 3,200 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kaiep [kbw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru.

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Kakabai
[kqf] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Suau and Weraura LLGs, inland villages, Papua eastern tip. 900 (2003 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Igora. Dialects: North Kakabai, South Kakabai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai. Comments: Kakabai serves as marker of group identity.

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Kaki Ae
[tbd] Gulf province: Auri, Kupiano, Kupla, Lou, Ovorio, and Uriri villages southeast of Kerema. 630 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,280. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lorabada, Lou, Raepa Tati, Tate, Tati. Dialects: None known. Different from Torricelli [tei] (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Lou [loj] in Manus Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Tate.

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Kala
[kcl] Morobe province: Alẽso, Apoze, Kamiali, Kui, Lambu, and Manidala villages. 2,200 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apoze, Gela, Kela, Kelana, Laukanu. Dialects: Manidala, Lambu, Apoze, Kamiali-Alẽso-Kui. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North.

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Kalam
[kmh] Madang province: Ramu district; Western Highlands province: Hagen district, Jimi river north side into Kaironk valley. 15,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aforo, Karam. Dialects: None known. Related to Gants [gao]and Kobon [kpw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon.

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Kalou
[ywa] Sandaun province: Sepik Iwam area, northwest of Hauna. 1,370 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yawa. Classification: Sepik, Tama.

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Kaluli
[bco] Southern Highlands province: Muluma sub-district; Western province: Mount Bosavi northern and western slopes. 3,100 (2015 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bosavi. Dialects: Ologo, Kaluli, Walulu, Kugenesi. Dialect differences are not great. Reportedly similar to but different from Kasua [khs]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kamano
[kbq] Eastern Highlands province: Henganofi and Kainantu districts. 63,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamano-Kafe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria.

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Kamasa
[klp] Morobe province: Katsiong census unit area. 7 (2003 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan.

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Kamasau
[kms] East Sepik province: Wewak district. Ghini dialect: Wandomi, Wobu and Yibab; Hagi dialect: Kenyari; Segi dialect: Kamasau, Tring, and Wau villages. 960 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wand Tuan. Dialects: Hagi, Segi, Ghini. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg.

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Kambaira
[kyy] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu district. 140 (Wurm 1971). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Kambaira.

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Kamula
[xla] Western province: Wawoi Falls area, Kamiyami village; Aramia river area, Keseki and Somokopa. 800 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wawoi. Dialects: None known. Pare [ppt] is most similar (Reesink 1976). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kamula.

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Kanasi
[soq] Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district, from Mount Thomson, main range river valleys. 2,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sona. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Ginuman [gnm] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan.

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Kandas
[kqw] New Ireland province: Danop, Kait, King, Palangot, Semalu, and Watpi villages on southwest coast. 1,400 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,460 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kadas, King. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Comments: Christian.

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Kandawo
[gam] Chimbu province: isolated border areas; Madang province: Usino-Bundi district, Bundi LLG; Western Highlands province: Hagen district, upper Jimi headwaters, Mount Wilhelm slopes. 4,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Narake. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi.

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Kanggape
[igm] Madang province: Bogia district, west of Tanggu. 1,080 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Igom. Dialects: None known. Related to Andarum [aod], Tanggu [tgu], and Tanguat [tbs]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu.

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Kaniet
[ktk] Manus province: Anchorite and Kaniet islands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western.

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Kaningra
[knr] East Sepik province: Blackwater river south of Kuvanmas lake. 2 villages. 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 750. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaningara. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak.

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Kaninuwa
[wat] Milne Bay province: Sivesive village and 1 other; 2 villages north of Goodenough island. 360 (2001). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 510. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaokao, Wataluma. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Iduna [viv] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are.

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Kanite
[kmu] Eastern Highlands province: Okapa district. 8,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Keyagana [kyg] and Inoke-Yate [ino]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria.

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Kap
[ykm] Sandaun province: between Paup and Yakamul coast; Ali, Angel, and Seleo islands. 3,460 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ali. Dialects: Ali, Yakamul, Yigel. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau.

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Kapin
[tbx] Morobe province: Bulolo and Mumeng districts; hills southwest of Mumeng, 5 villages; Lae and Wau settlements. 2,350 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katumene, Sambio, Taiak, Tayek. Dialects: Kapin, Garawa (Gawawa). May be part of the Mumeng group of related varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kapriman
[dju] East Sepik province: Blackwater and Korosameri rivers. 6 villages. 1,640 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mugumute, Wasare. Dialects: Kapriman, Karambit. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo.

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Kara
[leu] New Ireland province: north New Ireland district. 5,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lemakot, Lemusmus. Dialects: East Kara, West Kara, Lauan-Nonopai, Ngavalus-Lossuk, Luburua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik.

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Karami
[xar] Gulf province; Western province: border area northeast of Tao-Suamoto. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai. Comments: Extinct since the 1950s (Wurm 2007).

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Karawa
[xrw] Sandaun province: Lumi district, Pulwa village. 63 (2003 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bulawa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Pouye [bye]. Classification: Sepik, Ram.

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Kare
[kmf] Madang province. 380 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kare.

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Karkar-Yuri
[yuj] Sandaun province: Amanab district, Papua, Indonesia border area. 1,140 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karkar, Yuri. Dialects: North Central Yuri, Auia-Tarauwi, Usari. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern.

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Karnai
[bbv] Morobe province: 4 mainland villages near Wasu, 3 on southwest Umboi island. 920 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Barim” (pej.). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap.

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Karore
[xkx] West New Britain province: Kandrian district, between Andru and Johanna rivers. 550 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. In a chain of related varieties with Kaulong [pss]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua.

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Kasua
[khs] Gulf province: West Kikori RLLG, 6 villages; Southern Highlands province: east and south of Mount Bosavi; Western province: Olosobip RLLG. 600 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Grammatical structures reportedly very similar with Fasu [faa] despite being classified in different families. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi.

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Kâte
[kmg] Morobe province: Finschhafen district. 20,000 (2011 M. Muhujupe). L2 users: 80,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Established as a church language by the Lutherans in the early 1900s. Alternate Names: Kai, Kâte Dong. Dialects: Magobineng (Bamota), Wamora (Wamola), Wemo, Parec, Wana. Dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern. Comments: Christian.

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Kaulong
[pss] West New Britain province: Kandrian district, southwest. 4,000 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowlong, Pasismanua. Dialects: Kaulong, East Inland Kaulong. Miu [mpo], Aighon [aix], and Senseng [ssz] may be dialects (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua.

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Kawacha
[kcb] Morobe province: Katsiong census unit east of Ampale. 12 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 40. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kawatsa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan.

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Kayan
[kct] Madang province: Bogia district, Kayan village; coast east of Ramu river. 740 (2013 PBT). L2 users: 40 (2013 PBT). Ethnic population: 790 (2013 PBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaian, Kayan Na Yon. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Watam. Comments: Christian.

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Keak
[keh] East Sepik province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwaruwikwundi, Sepik Plains, Tshuosh, Tshwosh. Dialects: None known. Related to Gaikundi [gbf]. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Keapara
[khz] Central province: coast east of Hood peninsula to Lalaura west of Cape Rodney. 3 villages. 19,400 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Keopara, Kerepunu. Dialects: Babaga, Kalo, Keapara (Keopara), Aroma (Aloma, Arona, Galoma), Maopa, Wanigela, Kapari, Lalaura. In a chain of related varieties extending to Hula [hul]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara.

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Kein
[bmh] Madang province: Trans-Gogol district. 1,750 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bemal. Dialects: Sigau, Sog, Kibam. Related to Girawa [bbr] and Munit [mtc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kele
[sbc] Manus province: Buyang, Droia, Kawaliap, Koruniat, and Tingau on south coast inland. 1,460 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gele’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kenati
[gat] Eastern Highlands province: Wonenara district, Wonenara area. 3 villages. 950 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aziana, Ganati, Kenathi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Keoru-Ahia
[xeu] Gulf province: Purari river mouth east to Bairu river west of Kerema. 5,970 (2000 census). Keoru: 5070, Ahia: 710, Pairi: 190. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahia, Ahiave, Haura, Haura Haela, Horo, Houro, Hovoiroro, Hovoyo, Ke’oru, Keuro, Keuru, Kouri, Lavau, Lower Ahia, O’o Moko, Pairi, Velepa. Dialects: Keoru, Pairi, Ahia (Aheave). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western.

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Kerewo
[kxz] Gulf province: Omati river west bank, east and inland to Samoa village. 1,090 (2011 SIL). Population represents speakers living in their language area. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kerewa, Kerewa-Goari. Dialects: Gibario (Goaribari). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian.

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Kesawai
[xes] Madang province. 770 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kesawi, Koromu, Namuya. Dialects: None known. Related to Sinsauru [snz], Asas [asd], Sausi [ssj], and Watiwa [wtf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia.

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Kewa, East
[kjs] Southern Highlands province: Ialibu and Kagua districts. 45,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa.

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Kewa, West
[kew] Southern Highlands province: Kagua and Mendi districts. 45,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pasuma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa.

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Keyagana
[kyg] Eastern Highlands province: Henganofi and Okapa districts. 12,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Keiagana, Keigana, Ke’yagana. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria.

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Khehek
[tlx] Manus province: Soparibeu district, Bucho, Levei and Ndrehet villages. 1,620 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Levei-Drehet, Levei-Ndrehet. Dialects: Levei (Lebei, Lebej), Drehet (Chechek, Chehek, Khehek), Bucho. In Levei a dialect closely related to Bucho south dialect is spoken. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West.

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Kibiri
[prm] Gulf province: Kikori district, Babaguina, Doibo, Ero, Paile, Tipeowo, and Wowa villages near Aird Hills, Kikori river tributaries. 1,180 (2011 SIL). 900 Porome, 280 Kibiri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gibiri, Polome, Porome. Dialects: Aird Hills (Kibiri), Porome. Unrelated to other Gulf Province languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian. Comments: Different from Rumu [klq], which is also called Kibiri.

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Kilivila
[kij] Milne Bay province: Trobriand Islands. 20,000 (2000 D. Tryon). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiriwina. Dialects: Kitava, Vakuta, Sinaketa. Lexical similarity: 68% with Muyuw [myw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila. Comments: Many schools. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kilmeri
[kih] Sandaun province: Vanimo district near Ossima. 15 villages. 1,970 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,800 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kilmera. Dialects: Western Kilmeri (Isi), Eastern Kilmeri (Ossima). Classification: Border, Bewani.

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Kinalakna
[kco] Morobe province. 305 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 330. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western.

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Kire
[geb] Madang province: Bogia district, lower Ramu, Garati village area. 2,420 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gire, Giri, Kire-Puire. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Mikarew.

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Kis
[kis] East Sepik province: south southeast of Samap, inland from the coast. 220 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam.

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Kiunum
[wei] Western province: Dewara village. 490 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Were, Weredai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio.

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Kiwai, Northeast
[kiw] Gulf province. 6,000 (2011 W. Foley). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gibaio, Urama-Kope. Dialects: Gibaio, Kope (Era River, Gope), Urama, Arigibi (Anigibi). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian. Comments: Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat Arigibi dialect as a separate language.

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Kiwai, Southern
[kjd] Western province: Fly river delta, Fly river north bank. 9,700 (Wurm 1975). 3,800 in Coast, 1,000 in Daru, 4,500 in Island Kiwai, 400 in Doumori. Several sources estimate current population now in excess of 20,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiwai. Dialects: Coast Kiwai, Island Kiwai (Bamu Kiwai). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian. Comments: All dialect speakers agree the language and cultural center is on Kiwai Island.

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Kobol
[kgu] Madang province. 720 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koguman. Dialects: None known. Related to Pal [abw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Omosan.

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Kobon
[kpw] Madang province: Middle Ramu district; Western Highlands province: Kaironk river, lower Jimi river area north of Mount Hagen. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon.

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Koiali, Mountain
[kpx] Central province: Kairuku-Hiri district, Hiri RLLG; National Capital District, Barai, and Efogi, and Koiari villages north of Koita. 4,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mountain Koiari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50%–57% with Grass Koiari [kbk] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric.

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Koiari, Grass
[kbk] Central province: east of Port Moresby to coast, Sinnuma reservoir area; National Capital District, eastern portion. 1,700 (Wurm 2000). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koiari. Dialects: Hogeri, Lahada, Omani. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Koitabu [kqi] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric.

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Koitabu
[kqi] Central province: Kairuku-Hiri district, Hiri and Kairuku RLLGs; National Capital District, Port Moresby and north, west and southeast. 2,700 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koita. Dialects: West Koita, East Koita. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Grass Koiari [kbk] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Koiaric.

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Koiwat
[kxt] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Kamangaui, Koiwat, Paiambit, and Seraba villages between Munguma and Nagam rivers. 800 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Kol
[kol] East New Britain province: Pomio district, Open bay inland to Waterfall bay coast. Most on island’s south side. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kola, Kole. Dialects: Sui, Kol (Nakgaktai). Classification: Language isolate.

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Koluwawa
[klx] Milne Bay province: Fergusson island northwest tip. 900 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kalokalo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Iamalele [yml] (most similar), and then Bwaidoka [bwd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Comments: Use of other languages and bilingualism is mainly due to intermarriage. Husbands or wives from other language groups live at Kalokalo with their Koluwawa spouse. Christian.

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Komba
[kpf] Morobe province: Kabwum district. Selepet [spl] language area is northwest, Timbe [tim] language area is west, Saruwaged mountains south, and Cromwell mountains east. 15,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Neng Den. Dialects: East Komba, Central Komba, West Central Komba, Border Komba, West Komba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western. Comments: Christian.

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Kombio
[xbi] East Sepik province: Dreikikir district, Torricelli mountains. 31 villages. 2,970 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Small groups in West New Britain, Vanimo and Lae areas; a few elsewhere. About 2,400 live in Kombio area. Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akwun, Endangen. Dialects: North Kombio (Mwi), West-Central Kombio (Wampukuamp), South Kombio (Yanimoi), East Kombio (Wampurun). Mwi dialect is more distinct from the others and users have some difficulty in comprehension between dialects. 7–8 central villages each have unique idiolect versions. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio.

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Kominimung
[xoi] Madang province. 320 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Romkun [rmk], Breri [brq], Igana [igg], Chini [afi], and Inapang [mzu]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan.

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Konai
[kxw] Western province: Upper Strickland river west side. 600 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mirapmin. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Odoodee [kkc] and Fembe [agl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland.

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Konomala
[koa] New Ireland province: southeast coast. 8 villages. 800 (1985 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Laket, Konomala. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Kopar
[xop] East Sepik province. 540 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Murik [mtf]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Nor.

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Korafe-Yegha
[kpr] Oro province: Tufi district, Cape Nelson headlands. 3,630 (2003 SIL). A very few old women are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kailikaili, Kaire, Korafe, Korafi, Korape, Kwarafe. Dialects: Korafe, Yegha (Mokorua, Yega). Yegha dialect is distinct from Yega dialect of Ewage-Notu [nou]. Gaina [gcn] may also be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 43% with Baruga [bjz], 61% with Ewage dialect of Ewage Notu [nou] (2007 SIL). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Coastal Binanderean, Gaena-Korafe.

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Korak
[koz] Madang province. 510 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Kowan.

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Koro
[kxr] Manus province. 810 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to, and possibly intelligible of, Papitalai [pat]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Koromira
[kqj] Bougainville province: Kieta district, central mountains and southeast coast, between Metong and Luluai rivers. 2,500 (2007 SIL). 2,300 Koromira and 200 Koianu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Koromira, Koianu. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi.

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Kosena
[kze] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu and Okapa districts. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa.

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Kovai
[kqb] Morobe province: Siassi district, Umboi and Rooke islands. 13 villages. 6,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,300. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alngubin, Kobai, Kowai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Kovai. Comments: All but 2 villages situated in an ancient caldera on this volcanic island. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kove
[kvc] West New Britain province: northwest coast. 24 villages, most on small coastal islands. 6,750 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai. Comments: Separate from Lusi [khl]. Many highly educated people.

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Kowaki
[xow] Madang province: south of Kumil river, about 10 km from the coast, south of Sikor and Malala harbor. 25 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran.

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Kuanua
[ksd] East New Britain province: Rabaul district, Gazelle peninsula. 61,000 (1991 SIL). L2 users: 20,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a church language widely in New Ireland and East New Britain provinces within the United Church. It is not used beyond the church domain in most of the language groups that use it for church. Alternate Names: Blanche Bay, Gunantuna, New Britain Language, Tinata Tuna, Tolai, Tuna. Dialects: Vunadidir, Rapitok, Raluana, Vanumami, Livuan, Matupit, Kokopo, Kabakada, Nodup, Kininanggunan, Rakunei, Rebar, Watom, Masawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Kube
[kgf] Morobe province: Dindiu district, east Mongi river headwaters, lower Kua river valley east slopes, Foris river valley. 7,500 (2000 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hube, Mongi. Dialects: Kurungtufu, Yoangen (Yoanggeng). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern.

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Kubo
[jko] Western province: Lake Murray district, north half Upper Strickland census district, east of Strickland river, north of the Samo [smq] language area. 1000 Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Related to Samo [smq] and Gobasi [goi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland.

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Kumalu
[ksl] Morobe province: Mumeng district. 2,580 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumara. Dialects: None known. In Mumeng group of related varieties. Some intelligibility with Dambi [dac]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng.

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Kuman
[kue] Chimbu province: northern third; Eastern Highlands province: Daulo, Lufa and Unggai-Benna Lufa districts. 115,000 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Major area language used as a trade language for all the other Chimbu languages. Alternate Names: Chimbu, Simbu. Dialects: Kuman, Nagane (Genagane, Genogane), Yongomugl. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kumukio
[kuo] Morobe province. 1,050 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumokio. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western.

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Kuni
[kse] Central province: Kairuku and southwest Goilala districts, toward Port Moresby, south of Mekeo. 2,400 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Lala [nrz], 47% with Mekeo [mek], 40% with Waima [rro], the most similar varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear.

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Kuni-Boazi
[kvg] Western province: Lake Murray district. 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boadji, Boazi, Bwadji, Kuini, Kuni. Dialects: Kuni, Wamak, Khoamak, Sengeze, Ingias, Aewa. Related to Zimakani [zik] and Marind [mrz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Boazi. Comments: Speakers of different dialects do not share a common language name. Few use Kuni-Boazi as L2.

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Kunimaipa
[kup] Central province: north Goilala district; Morobe province: Wau district; Oro province: extreme northwest. 8,200 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Karuama, Kâte (Hate), Gajili (Gajila, Gazili, Hazili). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kunja
[pep] Western province: extreme southwest. 290 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Morehead, Peremka, Thundai-Kanza. Dialects: Gambadi, Semariji, Kánchá, Kámá. Related to Kanum, Arammba [stk], Rema [bow], Wara [tci], Guntai [gnt], and Blafe [bfh], aided by extensive intermarriage networks and Nambo subfamily languages. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda.

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Kuot
[kto] New Ireland province: northwest coast. 9 villages. 2,400 (2002 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kuat, Panaras. Classification: Language isolate.

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Kurti
[ktm] Manus province: north central coast. 3,000 (2002 SIL). About 400 outside the language area. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kuruti, Kuruti-Pare, Ndrugul. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Comments: Christian.

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Kutong
[skm] Morobe province: Kamdaran, Makwa, Sakam, and Tamunat villages. 1,300 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dinangat, Kutong gin, Sakam. Dialects: Akwawin, Iyot, Sakam, Kamdaran. Most divergent Uruwa language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa.

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Kwanga
[kwj] East Sepik province: Maprik district, beyond west boundary; Makru-Klaplei division, Nuku district; Sandaun province: east of Mehek. 40 villages. 10,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gawanga, Kawanga. Dialects: Apos, Bongos (Bongomaise, Bongomamsi, Nambi), Tau (Kubiwat), Wasambu, Yubanakor (Daina). 2 main dialects, 5 subdialects. Classification: Sepik, Nukuma.

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Kwoma
[kmo] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Sepik and Sanchi river areas. 12 villages. 3,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Washkuk. Dialects: Kwoma (Washkuk), Nukuma. Classification: Sepik, Nukuma.

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Kwomtari
[kwo] Sandaun province: Amanab district, north of Namia. 6 villages. 600 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Western Kwomtari, Central Kwomtari, Eastern Kwomtari. Classification: Kwomtari, Nuclear Kwomtari. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kyaka
[kyc] Enga province: Wapenamanda district; Western Highlands province: Baiyer-Mul district. 15,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baiyer, Enga-Kyaka, Kyaka Enga. Dialects: Yaramanda. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga.

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Kyenele
[kql] East Sepik province: Giling village on Yuat river. 1,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulang, Keñele, Kenen Birang, Kenying, Keyele, Kyenying-Barang, Miyak. Classification: Yuat.

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Label
[lbb] New Ireland province: southwest coast, Nasko village. 150 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 160 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Labu
[lbu] Morobe province: Labu-Butu, Labu-Miti, and Labu-Tali, Markham river coast area. Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hapa, Labo, Labu’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Labu. Comments: School attenders learn English [eng]. Yabem [jae] was church language, and there were schools in Yabem. Strong economy.

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Laeko-Libuat
[lkl] Sandaun province: Torricelli mountains, west of Mehek. 720 (2003 SIL). 520 in area; 200 outside. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laeko, Laeko-Limbuat. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Laeko-Libuat.

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Lala
[nrz] Central province: between Kuni and Waima, inland from the coast, south of Yule Island. 3,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ala’ala, Nala, Nara, Pokau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 57% with Toura [don], 47% with Abadi [kbt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear.

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Lamogai
[lmg] West New Britain province: northwest interior, 2 regions on south coast. 3,650 (Johnston 1980). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akiuru, Mulakaino. Dialects: Ibanga (Ivanga), Pulie-Rauto (Rauto, Roto), Lomogai, Musen, Paret. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Langam
[lnm] East Sepik province. 420 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Mongol-Langam.

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Laua
[luf] Central province: north and west of Laua. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Labu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan.

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Lavatbura-Lamusong
[lbv] New Ireland province: central. 1,310 (Beaumont 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamasong. Dialects: Ugana, Kontu, Lavatbura, Lamusong (Lamasong). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak.

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Lawunuia
[tgi] Bougainville province: Piva river. 550 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nagarege, Nagarige, Naghareghe, Piva. Dialects: Amun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni.

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Leipon
[lek] Manus province: Lolo village, Hauwai, Ndrilo, and Pityilu islands. 1,320 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pitilu, Pityilu. Dialects: Pafulu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Lele
[lle] Manus province: Manus island. 3,400 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Elu-Kara, Hai, Lele Hai, Manus, Moanus, Usiai. Dialects: Sabon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Lembena
[leq] Enga province: northeast; Sepik province: Eleme, Isataele, Itopeno, Madawesa, Mokosele, Pipitesa, Saut Mosope, and Yambaitoko villages. 1,760 (2000 census), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lembena Pii, Nanimba Pii, Uyalipa Pii, Wapi Pii. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga. Comments: Christian.

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Lemio
[lei] Madang province: several coastal villages near Saidor. 270 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau.

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Lenkau
[ler] Manus province: southwest Rambutyo island. 1 village. 380 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands.

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Lihir
[lih] New Ireland province: Lihir and 3 smaller islands. 12,600 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Likum
[lib] Manus province: west Manus island. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West.

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Lilau
[lll] Madang province: Bogia district. 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngaimbom. Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo.

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Loniu
[los] Manus province: Lolak and Loniu villages on Los Negros island south coast. 780 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 660. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lonio, Ndroku. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bipi [biq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu.

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Lote
[uvl] East New Britain province: Pomio district, southeast coast and inland near Cape Dampier. 5,500 (2004 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Uvol. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen. Comments: People who marry into Lote group are encouraged to learn it.

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Lou
[loj] Manus province: Lou island. 1,230 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baluan-Lou-Pam. Dialects: Rei. Dialects are very similar. Rei is dominant. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands. Comments: Different from Torricelli [tei] (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Kaki Ae (Lou) [tbd] in Gulf Province.

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Lungalunga
[vmg] East New Britain province: Ataliklikun bay, Lungalunga and Vunamarita villages on Gazelle peninsula. 600 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Minigir, Tavue, Vinitiri. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava. Comments: Although the language name, Lungalunga, was derived from Tok Pisin [tpi] ‘longlong’ meaning ‘crazy’, there is unanimous agreement within the community that this is the widely recognized language name, even though they prefer the name Tavue, meaning ‘brother’.

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Lusi
[khl] West New Britain province: northwest coast. 2,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaliai, Kaliai-Kove. Dialects: Kaliai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai.

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Ma
[mjn] Madang province: Mibu and Tariknan villages, area hamlets southwest of Saidor. 570 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mawam, Mebu. Dialects: Mina. Related to Nankina [nnk] (Jerung). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ma Manda
[skc] Morobe province. 1,500 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sauk. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Madak
[mmx] New Ireland province: Central New Ireland district. 3,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lelet, Mandak. Dialects: Danu, Katingan, Lelet, Mesi, Malom. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak.

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Madi
[grg] Madang province. 380 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gira. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot.

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Magiyi
[gmg] Madang province: Middle Ramu district, Vguvindi village. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan.

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Magori
[zgr] Central province: Table bay east end, Bailebo-Tavenei river lower reaches. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Suau [swp]. Vocabulary heavily influenced by Mailu [mgu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric.

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Maia
[sks] Madang province: Bogia district, mainland south of Manam island. 4,350 (2000 census). 3,720 in main dialect, 630 in southern dialect. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banar, Maya, Pila, Saki, Suaro, Turutap, Yakiba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran.

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Maiadomu
[mzz] Milne Bay province: Bwaidoka district, east Fergusson island. 900 (2000 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maiadom. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with Iamalele [yml], 35% with Boselewa [bwf], 32% with Gameta dialect of Galeya [gar], 20% with Dobu [dob]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga.

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Maiani
[tnh] Madang province: Bogia district. 3,040 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banara, Miani South, Tani, Wagimuda. Dialects: None known. Different from Mala [ped] (Banara). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran.

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Mailu
[mgu] Central province: south coast, near Gadaisu to Baramata, Table bay and Toulon island; Milne Bay province: small area on south coast. 8,500 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Magi. Dialects: Domara, Darava, Asiaoro, Derebai, Geagea, Borebo, Ilai, Baibara, Island Mailu. Related to Laua [luf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan. Comments: Above average education level.

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Maisin
[mbq] Oro province: Ijivitari district, Collingwood bay and Kosirava swamp coast villages. 2,610 (2000 census). 600 in Kosirava dialect. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maisan. Dialects: Kosirava, Maisin. No closely related languages. Lexical similarity: 73% among dialects, but little interaction between users. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Maisin.

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Maiwa
[mti] Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district, Meneao range area; Moi Biri bay coast; into Oro province. 1,400 (1998 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Maiwa, Oren, Manigara, Gairen, Gwareta. Lexical similarity: 41% with Mapena [mnm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan. Comments: Christian.

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Maiwala
[mum] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Huhu LGA, Milne bay head. 2,450 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Maiwala. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tawala [tbo] at Diwala village (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota.

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Makayam
[aup] Western province: Adulu, Fly estuary, Lewada, Suame, and Sumogi island villages. Janor village (Giribam dialect). 1,300 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adulu, Atura, Aturu, Makaeyam, Tirio. Dialects: Giribam. Lexical similarity: 79% with Giribam dialect, 52% with Bitur [mcc], 47% with Wara [tci], 32% with Baramu [bmz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tirio.

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Makolkol
[zmh] East New Britain province: Gazelle peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: East New Britain, Baining.

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Mala
[ped] Madang province: Bogia district. 1,390 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alam, Banara, Dagoi, Dagui, Hatzfeldhafen, Malala, Pai, Pay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran. Comments: Distinct from Maiani [tnh] (Banara), and from Pei [ppq] (Pai) in Walio group.

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Malalamai
[mmt] Madang province: Bonga, Malalamai, and Yara villages; Rai coast east of Saidor. 900 (2011 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bonga, Garpunei. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai. Comments: People say Malalamai and Bonga names were given by the Australian administration. Bonga village is called Garingei by residents. Malalamai village residents call their village and language Garpunei. No residents could provide an agreed upon language name, though they agree it is the same language.

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Malas
[mkr] Madang province: Tokain area. 650 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Isumrud.

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Male
[mdc] Madang province: coast south of Bom. 970 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koliku. Dialects: None known. Related to Bongu [bpu] and Anjam [boj]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim.

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Maleu-Kilenge
[mgl] West New Britain province: Talasea district west tip. 5,200 (1983 census). 1,560 Kilenge. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idne. Dialects: Maleu, Kilenge (Kaitarolea). Lexical similarity: 93% between Maleu and Kilenge dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Kilenge-Maleu. Comments: Maleu and Kilenge dialects may be separate languages (Wurm and Hattori 1981) (Ross 1988).

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Mali
[gcc] East New Britain province: east Gazelle peninsula. 2,200 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaktai. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: East New Britain, Baining. Comments: Several primary schools. Distinct within Baining ethnic group.

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Malol
[mbk] Sandaun province: Malol village area. 3330 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malolo, Malon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau.

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Mamaa
[mhf] Morobe province: Mama village. North-northwest of Uri [uvh] and west of Finongan [fag] language areas. 200 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Doloman, Mama. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Mamusi
[kdf] East New Britain province: southeast coast and inland on Melkoi and Torlu rivers. 6,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kakuna. Dialects: Mamusi, Melkoi, Kakuna. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen. Comments: Scattered village schools.

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Manam
[mva] Madang province: Bogia district, Boesa and Manam islands, Sepa and Wanami on adjacent mainland. 7,950 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Manum. Dialects: Wanami. Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], and Medebur [mjm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam. Comments: Distinct from Manem [jet].

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Manambu
[mle] East Sepik province: Ambunti subprovince, Sepik river area. 3 villages. 2,110 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sepik, Ndu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mandara
[tbf] New Ireland province: Simberi, Tabar, Tatau. 4,000 (2000 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Madara, Tabar. Dialects: Simberi, Tatau, Tabar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik.

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Manem
[jet] Sandaun province: Skotiau. 500 in Papua New Guinea (1993 SIL). Total users in all countries: 900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Waris [wrs]. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Different from Manam [mva].

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Mangseng
[mbh] East New Britain province: Montagu harbor south coast to Fulleborn harbor west; West New Britain province: north coast, south of Commodore bay. 2,500 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mangsing, Masegi, Maseki. Dialects: Umua, Marapu. Linguistic isolate, most closely related to Solong [aaw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe.

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Mape
[mlh] Morobe province: Mape river area. 1,700 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Naga, Mape, Nigac, Fukac. Reportedly similar to Kâte [kmg], the lingua franca. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern.

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Mapena
[mnm] Milne Bay province: Mount Gwoira area. 270 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Daga [dgz] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan.

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Maramba
[myd] East Sepik province. 840 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Yuat.

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Marangis
[wax] East Sepik province: Angoram district, Watam village; Madang province: Bogia district, Marangis village. 590 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2013 PBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Watam. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Watam. Comments: Christian.

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Mari
[hob] Madang province: upper Ramu river, 4 villages; Morobe province: extreme northwest. 810 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hop. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain. Comments: Different from Mari [mbx] of East Sepik Province and Namo (Mari) [mxw] of Western Province.

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Mari
[mbx] East Sepik province: near Mari lake and on Salumei river. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Comments: Different from Mari [hob] of Madang Province and Namo (Mari) [mxw] of Western Province.

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Maria
[mds] Central province: Abau and Rigo districts, Marshall lagoon to northwest; Oro province: Mount Brown area. 1,350 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manubara. Dialects: Didigaru, Maria, Gebi, Oibu, Amota, Imila, Uderi. Lexical similarity: 63% with Doromu-Koki [kqc] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Manubaran.

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Marik
[dad] Madang province: Madang district, Gogol river area inland. 10 villages. 3,500 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dami, Ham. Dialects: Northern Marik, Western Marik, Southern Marik. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Southern.

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Maring
[mbw] Madang province: Bismarck range; Western Highlands province: Hagen district. 18 villages. 11,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mareng, Yoadabe-Watoare. Dialects: Central Maring, Eastern Maring, Timbunki, Tsuwenki, Karamba, Kambegl. Central dialect understood by all other dialect speakers. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi.

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Matepi
[mqe] Madang province. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Mosimo [mqv], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Mato
[met] Morobe province: Huon peninsula north coast, near Morobe-Madang provincial border, Uruwa river plain west of Wasu, north of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor. 580 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nenaya, Nengaya, Nineia. Dialects: Ramuk, Tabares. Lexical similarity: 54% with Ronji [roe], 29% with Sio [xsi] and Pano [mqz], 28% with Karnai [bbv], 23% with Arop-Lokep [apr] and Mutu [tuc], 19% with Gitua [ggt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Matukar
[mjk] Madang province: north of Madang town, Matukar area. 430 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern.

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Mauwake
[mhl] Madang province: Bogia district. 2,390 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mawake, Ulingan. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mawak
[mjj] Madang province: south of upper Kumil river, southwest of Malala and Sikor harbor. 25 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran.

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Mawan
[mcz] Madang province: Gogol river area. 470 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Mbore
[gai] Madang province: Bogia district, Ramu river area and east. 8 villages. 2,090 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borei, Gamai, Gamei, Mborei, Mborena Kam. Dialects: Boroi, Borewar, Botbot. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Ottilien, Borei.

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Mbula
[mna] Morobe province: Siassi district, east Umboi island, 6 villages; Sakar island, 1 village. 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kaimanga, Mangaaba, Mangaava, Mangaawa, Mangap, Mangap-Mbula. Dialects: Mbula (Central Mbula), Northern Mbula, Gauru, Sakar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mangap-Mbula. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Medebur
[mjm] Madang province: coast just north of Sikor at Medebur. 510 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 510. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], and Manam [mva]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam.

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Mehek
[nux] Sandaun province: Nuku district, Makru-Klaplei area, Torricelli mountains lower foothills, southeast of Siliput. 9 large villages. 6,300 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Driafleisuma, Indinogosima, Me’ek, Nuku. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Pahi [lgt] (most similar). Classification: Sepik, Tama.

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Mekeo
[mek] Central province: Kaiyuku district, inland, west boundary is Waima, east are Kuni [kse] and Kunimaipa [kup] language areas; into Gulf province. 19,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mekeo-Kovio. Dialects: East Mekeo, West Mekeo, North Mekeo, Northwest Mekeo (Kovio), Ninikani. Dialects mutually unintelligible, except North and West Mekeo, but most Mekeo are reportedly familiar with neighboring dialects. Kovio not contiguous and is peripheral to other dialects. Lexical similarity: 81% between Kovio dialect and West Mekeo and North Mekeo dialects, 79% with East Mekeo, 87% between East and West Mekeo dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear. Comments: Above average education level.

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Mekmek
[mvk] East Sepik province. 1,400 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Yuat.

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Melpa
[med] Western Highlands province: Hagen district. 130,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hagen, Medlpa. Dialects: Tembagla (Temboka). Only slight dialect differences. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Melpa. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mende
[sim] Sandaun province: Nuku district, Torricelli range hills sloping south toward Sepik river plains. 15 villages east of Mehek. 5,700 (2003 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Seim. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49% with nearest Kwanga [kwj] village. Classification: Sepik, Nukuma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mengen
[mee] East New Britain province: Pomio district, Jacquinot bay and inland, 20 villages; West New Britain province: Talasea district, coast, Bismark Sea. 8,400 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Poeng. Dialects: North Coast Mengen (Maeng, Maenge, Orford), South Coast Mengen (Poeng), Bush Mengen (Inland Mengen, Longueinga). Some linguists separate Poeng (South Coast Mengen and Bush Mengen) and Maeng (North Coast Mengen) into 2 languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen.

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Menya
[mcr] Gulf province: Karema district, Naniwe area; Morobe province: Menyamya district, north Tauri river area and tributaries. 20,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Menyama, Menye. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan.

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Meramera
[mxm] East New Britain province: Lolobau island, coast east to Cape Torkoro; West New Britain province: Bialla district, northwest coast to Toriu river and inland. 2,000 (1995 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Melamela, Ubili. Dialects: Lolobao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez. Comments: Christian.

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Mesem
[mci] Morobe province: Lae district, Boana subdistrict, interior north of Lae. 14 villages. 4,000 (1997 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mese, “Momalili” (pej.), “Momolili” (pej.). Dialects: West-Central Mese, East Mese, Momolili, Zezagi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western. Comments: Community schools at Hobu and Samanzing. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mian
[mpt] East Sepik province: Ambunti-Dreikikir district, upper May river, Blimo, Nenebil, Suganga, and Wagarabai; Sandaun province: Telefomin district, north Aki and Fak river valleys, August river headwaters. 1,400 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mianmin. Dialects: Upper August River, Usage, Mianmin. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% among dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain.

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Miani
[pla] Madang province: Bogia district, inland. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bonaputa-Mopu, Miani North, Tani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kaukombaran.

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Migabac
[mpp] Morobe province: Masaweng river area. 5 villages divided among 3 dialects: Ago; Butengka and Kapawa; Hudewa and Waringai. 2,600 (2010 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Migaba’. Dialects: North Migabac, Central Migabac, South Migabac. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern.

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Migum
[klm] Madang province. 470 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Minanibai
[mcv] Gulf province: Goaribari and Ikobi Kairi census districts, near Omati river mouth, Moka and Pepeha villages. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eme-Eme, Hei, Pepeha. Dialects: None known. Related to Mubami [tsx]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai.

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Minaveha
[mvn] Milne Bay province: Bolubolu district, southwest Fergusson island near Mapamoiwa station. 2,300 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kukuya, Minavega. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Iamalele [yml] (most similar), Koluwawa [klx], and Bwaidoka [bwd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. Comments: Kukuya, a prominent village name, used by others as glossonym. Little arable land, and population increase endangers the future of agriculture. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mindiri
[mpn] Madang province: Rai Coast area west of Saidor. 1 village. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Awad Bing [bcu] and Wab [wab]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe.

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Miniafia Oyan
[aai] Oro province: Tufi district, Cape Nelson and Collingwood Bay, 4 coastal locations. 20 to 25 villages. 3,470 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arifama-Miniafia, Miniafia-Arifama. Dialects: Arifama, Miniafia. Lexical similarity: 39% with Ubir [ubr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are.

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Minidien
[wii] Sandaun province: north of Beli, Laeko-Libuat. 100 (2004 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,190 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Miniden, Wiakei, Wiaki. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Wiaki.

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Minigir
[bxf] East New Britain province: Gazelle peninsula, southeast of Cape Gazelle. 12 villages. 4,180 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bilur, Birar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic.

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Misima-Panaeati
[mpx] Milne Bay province: Misima district, Calvados chain, Misima island, and Panaieti islands. 32 villages. 18,000 (2002 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Misiman, Misima-Paneati, Panaeati, Panaieti, Panayeti, Paneate, Paneyate. Dialects: Nasikwabw (Tokunu), Tewatewa. Lexical similarity: 33% with Rifao [nmw] and Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Misima.

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Miu
[mpo] West New Britain province: Gimi Rauto district, southwest interior. 395 (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 1,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Myu. Dialects: Miu treated as a dialect of Kaulong [pss] by Wurm and Hattori. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Comments: People live in hamlets of 1 or 2 families. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Moere
[mvq] Madang province: south of Kumil river, Malala harbour, and Sikor. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Kumilan.

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Moikodi
[mkp] Oro province: Owen Stanley Range north slopes, Mount Brown to Moni river. 570 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doriri. Dialects: Several dialects. Lexical similarity: 65%–73% with Aneme Wake [aby] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban.

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Mokerang
[mft] Manus province: north Los Negros island, Ndrilo island. 300 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mokareng, Mokoreng. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu.

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Molima
[mox] Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, Ebadidi, Ni’ubuo, and Salakahadi area inland villages on west Fergusson island; central west coast, Fagululu; central south coast, Molima. 4,010 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ebadidi, Fagululu, Morima, Salakahadi. Dialects: Tola’ai, Ai’alu, Tosila’ai. Tola’ai most prominent; Ai’alu mainly spoken in Fagululu; Tosila’ai is from remote mountains and is shifting to Tola’ai. Lexical similarity: 56% with Dobu [dob]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Comments: Molima refers to the south coast, but sometimes to the whole area; Ebadidi, Salakahadi, Ni’ubuo and Fagululu refer to local areas. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Momare
[msz] Morobe province: north of Masaweng river. 10. Ethnic population: 800. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Momale, Momole, Mumare. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern.

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Mondropolon
[npn] Manus province: north central coast, Manus island. 530 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West.

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Mongol
[mgt] East Sepik province. 340 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Langam [lnm] and Yaul [yla]. Classification: Mongol-Langam.

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Monumbo
[mxk] Madang province: Bogia District. 410 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo.

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Morawa
[mze] Central province: south coast around Cloudy bay. 1,100 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Binahari [bxz] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Mailuan.

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Moresada
[msx] Madang province. 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Murisapa, Murusapa-Sarewa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Pomoikan.

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Morigi
[mdb] Gulf province: lower Turama census division. 700 (Wurm 1975). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dabura, Morigi Island, Turama River Kiwai, Wariadai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: with Kerewo [kxz] and Bamu [bcf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian.

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Mosimo
[mqv] Madang province: about 30 km inland from the east coast, north of Alexishafen, due west of Garu and Yoidik settlements. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Rapting [rpt], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Murupi [mqw], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Motu
[meu] Central province: Port Moresby area, coastal villages from Galley Reach and Manumanu to GabaGaba. 39,000 (2008 A. Taylor). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pure Motu, True Motu. Dialects: Western Motu, Eastern Motu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara. Comments: Government schools in all villages.

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Motu, Hiri
[hmo] Central and Gulf provinces: concentrated in Port Moresby area; widely scattered elsewhere: Oro, Milne Bay and Western provinces. Very few L1 speakers (1992 T. Dutton). L2 users: 120,000 (1989 J. Holm). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1975, Constitution, Articles 67 and 68). Used long before European contact by participants in the Hiri trade cycle between the Motu people and their neighbors on the south east coast of the island of New Guinea. Since about 1970 the use of Hiri Motu as a lingua franca has been declining in favor of English [eng] and Tok Pisin [tpi]; speakers are mostly older adults and concentrated in Central Province and Gulf Province. Alternate Names: Hiri, Pidgin Motu, Police Motu. Dialects: Austronesian Hiri Motu, Papuan Hiri Motu. Linguistically a pidginization of Motu [meu]. Influenced by English [eng], Tok Pisin [tpi], and Polynesian languages. Speakers cannot understand Motu due to phonological and grammatical differences. Lexical similarity: 90% with Motu [meu]. Classification: Pidgin, Motu based. Comments: The Papuan dialect was adopted as the standard for official publications.

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Mouk-Aria
[mwh] West New Britain province: Kandrian district southeast coast to northwest coast. 630 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aria-Mouk. Dialects: Mouk (Mok), Tourai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling.

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Mouwase
[jmw] Gulf province: Omati river. 450 (2011 SIL). Speakers of other languages live at some of the Mouwase villages, especially Omati, and this may have skewed population figures. Speakers are widely scattered in bush villages, hamlets and squatter settlements. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Ikobi [meb]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kaser.

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Mubami
[tsx] Western province: middle and lower Wawoi river; Diwami, Kubeai, Parieme, Paueme, Sogae, Ugu, and Waliho villages on Guavi and Aramia rivers. 1,730 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dausame, Dausuami Mubami, Ta, Tao-Suamato, Tao-Suame. Dialects: None known. Limited mutual intelligibility of Foia Foia [ffi] and Hoyahoya [hhi]. Lexical similarity: 42% with Minanibai [mcv] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mufian
[aoj] East Sepik province: Maprik district, Torricelli mountains, west of Maprik. 36 villages. 11,000 (1998 SIL). 6,000 Filifita (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Muhian, Muhiang, Southern Arapesh. Dialects: Balif, Filifita (Ilahita), Iwam-Nagalemb, Nagipaem, Supari. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh.

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Mulaha
[mfw] Central province: southeast of Gaile on the coast. No known L1 speakers. Extinct since the 1950s (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Mulaha, Iaibu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean.

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Mum
[kqa] Madang province. 3,290 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Katiati. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan.

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Mungkip
[mpv] Morobe province: Kasuka and Mungkip villages. 12 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 670 (2006 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Munkip. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Uri [uvh]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Munit
[mtc] Madang province: Trans-Gogol district. 910 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Girawa [bbr] and Kein [bmh]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Kokon.

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Mur Pano
[tkv] Madang province: Mur village. 1,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pano. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 63% with Karnai [bbv], 63% with Pano [mqz (Singorokai dialect), 59% with Pano (Malasanga dialect), 58% with Arop-Lokep [apr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap. Comments: Different from Pano [mqz].

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Muratayak
[asx] Madang province: Rai Coast district, east of Saidor. 810 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asat, Murataik. Dialects: None known. Related to Asaro’o [mtv], Bulgebi [bmp], Degenan [dge], Forak [frq], Guya [gka], Gwahatike [dah], and Yagomi [ygm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup.

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Murik
[mtf] East Sepik province: Angoram district, coast west of Sepik river mouth. 1,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nor, Nor-Murik Lakes. Dialects: None known. Related to Kopar [xop]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Nor.

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Murupi
[mqw] Madang province. 300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Musak
[mmq] Madang province: Ramu river west of Astrolabe bay. 360 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Emuan.

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Musar
[mmi] Madang province: inland, west of Tokain. 680 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aregerek. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran.

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Musom
[msu] Morobe province: Busu river tributary. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 620. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Misatik. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu.

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Mussau-Emira
[emi] New Ireland province: Emira, Mussau, and Saint Matthias Islands northwest of Kavieng; Goroka, Kavieng, Lae, Madang, and Port Moresby. 6,000 (2015 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 6,000 (2015 SIL). Includes 3,500 in the traditional area (2015 J. Brownie). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Emira-Mussau, Musao, Musau-Emira, Mussau. Dialects: Emira, Western Mussau, Southern Mussau, Eastern Mussau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias. Comments: Christian.

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Mutu
[tuc] Morobe province: south of Umboi island, Aramot, Aronai, Malai, Mandok, Mutu Malau, Siassi islands, and Tuam; Yaga village on Umboi Island. 3,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. Only older adults are monolingual. Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Saveeng, Sisi, Tuam, Tuam-Mutu, Tuom. Dialects: Oov/Mutu, Tuam, Malai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Muyuw
[myw] Milne Bay province: Losuia district, Woodlark island. 6,000 (1998). 1,000–1,200 Iwa. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egum, Murua, Murua Dukwayasi, Murua Kaulae, Muruwa, Muyu, Muyua, Muyuwa. Dialects: Yanaba, Lougaw (Gawa), Wamwan, Nawyem, Iwa. Iwa dialect is halfway between Muyuw [myw] and Kilivila [kij]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kilivila [kij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila.

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Mwatebu
[mwa] Milne Bay province: Normanby island, north central coast. 1 village. 120 (Wurm 2000). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49% with Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau.

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Naasioi
[nas] Bougainville province: Kieta district, central mountains and southeast coast. 20,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Kieta, Nasioi. Dialects: Pirung (Naasioi), Kongara, Orami (Guava), Pakia-Sideronsi. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nabak
[naf] Morobe province: Lae district, Busu river east headwaters. 52 villages, 30 settlements. 16,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Naba, Napa, Wain. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nabi
[mty] Sandaun province. 3 villages. 620 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Metan, Mitang, Nambieb. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. Comments: Speakers in 2 villages prefer Nabi as the language name; Metan is preferred in 1 village.

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Nafi
[srf] Morobe province: Busu river. 160 (Holzknecht 1988). May be less than 100 speakers (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 250. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sirak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu.

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Nai
[bio] Sandaun province: Amanab district, southeast of Angor [agg] language area. 3 large villages. 750 (2010 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Biaka. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 20% with nearby Kwomtari [kwo] based on 100 basic words; grammar vastly different in major features such as medial verbs and relative clauses. Classification: Kwomtari, Nuclear Kwomtari.

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Nakame
[nib] Morobe province: west and northwest of Boana Saruwaged Range south side. 6 villages. 980 (1980 census). Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nakama. Dialects: North Nakame, South Nakame. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Nakanai
[nak] East New Britain province: small area in Pomio district, Mamusi-West Pomio RLLG; West New Britain province: Talasea district, especially Hoskins RLLG, and northwest coast, Biala RLLG, 42 villages. 13,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nakonai. Dialects: Losa (Auka, Loso), Bileki (Lakalai, Mamuga, Muku), Vere (Tarobi, Vele), Ubae (Babata), Maututu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez. Comments: Major language of the Nakanai family. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nake
[nbk] Madang province: northwest of Madang. 170 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ale. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Nakwi
[nax] East Sepik province: Augot, Nakwi-Amasu, Tiki, and Uwau villages south of Ama [amm] language area. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Nimo [niw]. Classification: Arai (Left May). Comments: Village locations change frequently. Acculturation slight. Traditional religion.

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Nali
[nss] Manus province: southeast Manus island; southwest coast, northwest of Titan. 2,900 (2000 census). 200 Okro (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 4,500. In Okro. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yiru. Dialects: Okro. Tryon (2001) makes Okro (200) and Nali (1,800) separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Nalik
[nal] New Ireland province: north central, Kavieng, on the east coast, 14 villages; west coast, 3 villages. Some in urban areas. 5,140 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fesoa, Fessoa, Lugagon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik.

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Nama
[nmx] Western province: Morehead district, Daraia, Mata, and Ngaraita villages. 1,200 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu.

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Namat
[nkm] Western province: Morehead district, Mibini village south of Morehead. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu.

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Nambo
[ncm] Western province: Morehead district, Arufe, Bebdeben, Derideri, Gubam, and Pongariki villages bordering Idi [idi] and Nen [nqn] language areas. 710 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arufe, Nambu, Namna. Dialects: Nambo, Namna (Nama). Namna dialect, in Pongariki and Derideri, being replaced by Nambo dialect. Children in Derideri learn only Nambo. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu.

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Namia
[nnm] East Sepik province: Ameni, Edwaki, Iwane, Lawo, Pabei, Panewai village, and Wiyari areas; Sandaun province: Yellow River district, 19 villages. 6,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Edawapi, Lujere, Namie, Nemia, Yellow River. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ak [akq] and Awun [aww]. Lexical similarity: 13% with Abau [aau], 12% with May River Iwam [iwm]. Classification: Sepik, Yellow River.

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Namiae
[nvm] Oro province: Afore district, inland, Kokoro, Kuae, Sorefuna, Tahama, and Ubuvara villages; Managalas plateau. 1,200 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Namiai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Namo
[mxw] Western province: Morehead district, Mari and Tais villages south coast and inland. 380 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dorro, Mari. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu. Comments: Different from Mari [mbx] of East Sepik Province and Mari [hob] of Madang Province.

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Nankina
[nnk] Madang province: Saidor district, upper Nankina river valley. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nanubae
[afk] East Sepik province: Karawari rural district, Imanmeri, Wambrumas and Yamandim villages. 1,270 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunda, Kapagmai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61%–74% with Tapei [afp]. Classification: Arafundi.

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Narak
[nac] Madang province: Usino-Bundi district; Western Highlands province: Hagen district, middle Jimi river valley near Tabibuga. 6,220 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ganja. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maring [mbw], North Wahgi [whg], and Kandawo [gam]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Jimi. Comments: Christian.

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Nauna
[ncn] Manus province: Nauna island. 1 village. 420 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Naune. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands.

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Nawaru
[nwr] Oro province: Ijivitari district, upper Musa river valley area near Sibia. 190 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sirio. Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Yareba [yrb]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban.

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Nehan
[nsn] Bougainville province: Nissan islands. 7,000 (Glennon 2014), increasing. 5,000 Uanuleik, 1,000 Sirouatan, and 1,000 Pinipel (Glennon 2014). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Nihan, Nissan. Dialects: Uanuleik, Pinipel (Pinipin), Sirouatan. Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity: 83% between the main dialects (Glennon 2014). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Nehan. Comments: Little acculturation. Christian.

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Nek
[nif] Morobe province: Nawaeb district, Saruwaged range south side, rugged terrain north of Boana. 5 villages. 2,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: East Nek, West Nek. Lexical similarity: 65% with Nuk [noc], less than 60% with Nakame [nib]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap. Comments: Christian.

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Nekgini
[nkg] Madang province: west of Mot river. 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Neko
[nej] Madang province: coast near Biliau. 640 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yarete. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Comments: Tok Pisin [tpi] is used with outsiders. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nema
[gsn] Morobe province. 800 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 850. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gusan. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Neme
[nex] Western province: Morehead district, Keru and Mitere villages northeast of Morehead. 300 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu.

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Nen
[nqn] Western province: Morehead district, Bimadeben village, between Nambo [ncm] and Idi [idi] language areas. 250 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Nambu.

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Nend
[anh] Madang province: Pasinkap village area between Ramu and Sogeram rivers. 2,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angaua, Nent. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Atan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nete
[net] East Sepik and Enga provinces: next to Hewa [ham] language area. 3 villages. 750 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iniai, Malamauda, Malaumanda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bisorio [bir] of East Sepik. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Enga.

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Ngaing
[nnf] Madang province: southwest of Saidor, foothills from coast to Finisterre Range. 15 villages. 2,020 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,060. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mailang, Sor. Dialects: Eastern Ngaing, Central Ngaing, Western Ngaing. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngala
[nud] East Sepik province: Ambunti district. 1 village. 180 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kara, Sogap, Swagup. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Ngalum
[szb] Sandaun province. 8,000 in Papua New Guinea (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum.

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Nii
[nii] Western Highlands province: Hagen district. 12,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ek Nii. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi.

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Niksek
[gbe] East Sepik and Sandaun provinces: upper Niksek and east branch of Leonhard Schultze rivers’ headwaters; Sumwari. 930 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meiyari, Sumwari. Dialects: Gabiano (Kabiano), Meiyari (“Paka” (pej.)), Setiali. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Comments: Limited comprehension of oral or written Tok Pisin [tpi].

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Nimi
[nis] Morobe province: upper Erap river, south of Saruwaged range. 1,700 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Nimo
[niw] East Sepik province: Arakau, Binuto, Didipas, Fowiom, Nimo, Uburu, Uwawi, Wamwiu, Wasuai, and Yuwaitri villages. Southeast of Ama [amm] language area. 350 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nimo-Wasawai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Nakwi [nax]. Classification: Arai (Left May). Comments: Village locations change frequently. Acculturation slight.

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Ningera
[nby] Sandaun province: Vanimo district, east of Vanimo, north of Bewani and Ossima. 150 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nagira, Negira, Ninggera. Classification: Border, Bewani.

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Ninggerum
[nxr] Western province: between Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers, east of Ok Tedi to main road linking Kiunga and Tabubil, and north to the main mountain range. 5,150 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 6,150. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Ningerum, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Niyium, Obgwo, Tedi, Tidi. Dialects: Kasuwa, Daupka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland. Comments: About half the population died 1950–1975 from western diseases. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ningil
[niz] Sandaun province. 950 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Niwer Mil
[hrc] New Ireland province: Tangga islands. 6,300 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tanga, Tangga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Comments: Christian.

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Nobonob
[gaw] Madang province: Madang district. 5,000 (2005 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Butelkud-Guntabak, Garuh, Nobanob, Nobnob. Dialects: Ari (A’i, Ati). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Nomane
[nof] Chimbu province: Karimui-Nomane district, Karimui LLG; Eastern Highlands province: Lufa district, Lufa RLLG. 6,700 (2000 census). 3,140 Kewo-Meba, 2,290 Meine, 1,250 Siarha, and 20 Gomla (all men 35 and older). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kiari. Dialects: Kiari, Kewo-Meba (Nomane), Meine, Gomla, Siarha (Kiari, Siar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu.

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Nomu
[noh] Morobe province: Huon peninsula north coast. 400 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western.

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Notsi
[ncf] New Ireland province: Central New Ireland district, east coast. 1,840 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nochi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar.

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Nuk
[noc] Morobe province: Saruwaged range south side, rugged terrain northeast of Boana. 8 villages. 900 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,650. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: North Nuk, South Nuk. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Nukeria
[nur] Bougainville province: Atolls district, north of Bougainville island, Nukuria atoll. 550 (2003 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fead, Nahoa, Nuguria, Nukuria. Dialects: Nukeria. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean. Comments: Distinct from Takuu [nho] and Nukumanu [nuq] in Papua New Guinea and Sikaiana [sky] and Luangiua (Ontong Java [ojv]) in Solomon Islands. Christian.

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Nukna
[klt] Morobe province: lower Timbe river valley. 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,010. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Komutu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa.

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Nukumanu
[nuq] Bougainville province: Atolls district, Nukumanu atoll. 700 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tasman. Dialects: Nukumanu. Tryon (2001) says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) in Papua New Guinea and Ontong Java [ojv] in Solomon Islands. Speakers have contact with Luangiua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean.

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Numanggang
[nop] Morobe province: Lae district, north of Nadzab. 10 villages; Lae, Mount Hagen, and Rabaul. 2,300 (2000 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,800. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Boana, Kai, Manggang, Ngain, Numangan, Numangang, Sugu. Dialects: East Numanggang, West Numanggang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap. Comments: Used in village court and believed to have significant influence on proceedings. Tok Pisin [tpi] or other trade language used for insults, at which point an elder will insist that discussion be limited to Numanggang due to its calming and peaceful power. Christian.

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Numbami
[sij] Morobe province: Lae district. 1 coastal village. 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 250. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Siboma, Sipoma. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Numbami.

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Nyindrou
[lid] Manus province: Manus island west coast. 10 villages. 4,800 (2000 census). Few monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lindau, Lindrou, Nyada, Salien. Dialects: Babon. Babon is in 3 southern villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Comments: Christian.

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Odiai
[bhf] Sandaun province: Amanab district, north of Upper Sepik river. 3 villages. 240 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Busa, Busan, Uriai. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: No schools. Some intermarriage with Yale.

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Odoodee
[kkc] Southern Highlands province: southwest corner; Western province: middle Fly district, Hasalibi, Kalamo Lake Campbell, villages on middle Rentoul river south bank past middle Tomu river to Wawoi Falls. 490 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kalamo, Nomad, Ododei, Tomu, Tomu River. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Samo [smq] and Konai [kxw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland. Comments: ‘Kalamo’ is the name of a clan that lives at Wawoi Falls.

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Ogea
[eri] Madang province: Astrolabe bay. 2,210 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erima, Nuru. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru.

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Oksapmin
[opm] Sandaun province: Telefomin district; Southern Highlands province: Strickland river north bank to Sandaun province border; Western province: Olsobip RLLG. 8,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Several dialects. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Oksapmin.

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Olo
[ong] Sandaun province: Lumi district. 55 villages. 13,700 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Orlei. Dialects: Payi (North Olo, Pay), Wapi (South Olo, Wape). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Comments: Different from Wapi [enq] in Enga Province.

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Ömie
[aom] Oro province: Afore, Kokoda, and Upper Kumusi districts, northwest of Managalasi; Mamama river, and upper Kumusi valley. 800 (1993 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aomie, Upper Managalasi. Dialects: Asapa, Zuwadza, Gora-Bomahouji, Ihuaje, Juvaje. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Koiarian, Baraic.

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One, Inebu
[oin] Sandaun province: Lumi district, West Waipei division, Alkula, Inebu, Kalema, and Windiple villages between east Bewani and west Torricelli ranges. 1,300 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 1,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Inebu, Onele, Oni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Northern One [onr], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One. Comments: Christian.

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One, Kabore
[onk] Sandaun province: Lumi district, West Waipei division, Abore, Kabore Station, Kara, Sapin, and Wamtip villages between east Bewani and west Torricelli ranges. 300 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Kabore, Onele, Oni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One. Comments: Christian.

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One, Kwamtim
[okk] Sandaun province: Lumi district, west Waipei division, Kuamtim village between east Bewani and west Torricelli ranges. 150 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 150. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Kuamtim, Kwamtim, Oni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One. Comments: Christian.

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One, Molmo
[aun] Sandaun province: west Waipei division, Anononti, Laurela, Molmo, Pusa and Wisoli villages between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges. 500 (2000 M. Crowther). L2 users: 200. Ethnic population: 500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Molmo, One, Onele, Oni. Dialects: North Aunalei, Central Aunalei, South Aunalei. Reportedly similar to One Kabore [onk], One Inebu [oin], One Northern [onr], One Southern [osu], One Kwamtim [okk]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One. Comments: Christian.

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One, Northern
[onr] Sandaun province: Lumi district, West Waipei division, Karantu, Koiniri, Parara, Romei, and Wolwale villages between east Bewani and west Torricelli ranges. 2,000 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Onele, Oni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Southern One [osu], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One. Comments: Christian.

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One, Southern
[osu] Sandaun province: Lumi district, West Waipei division, Karantu, Koiniri, Parara, Romei, and Wolwale villages between east Bewani and west Torricelli ranges. 200 (2000 M. Crowther). Ethnic population: 200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aunalei, Onele, Oni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kabore One [onk], Inebu One [oin], Northern One [onr], Kwamtim One [okk], Molmo One [aun]. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One. Comments: Christian.

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Onjob
[onj] Oro province: Ijivitari district, Koreat and Naukwate villages inland south of Cape Nelson. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Onjab. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Maiwa [mti] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan.

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Ono
[ons] Morobe province: Finschhafen district, northeast Huon peninsula. 10,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. Population increase due to Bakesu Revival Church activity. L2 users: 1,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ziwe, Amugen. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western. Comments: Christian.

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Onobasulu
[onn] Southern Highlands province: midway between Mount Sisa and Mount Bosavi. 1,000 (2010 SIL). L2 users: 200. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Onabasulu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi. Comments: Christian.

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Ontenu
[ont] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu district. 3,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ontena. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa.

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Opao
[opo] Gulf province: Orokolo and Keuru area. 1,120 (Brown 1973). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western.

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Orokaiva
[okv] Oro province: Popondetta town area. 200 villages. 35,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ehija, Etija. Dialects: Kokoda, Etija (Sohe, Sose), Ehija (Ifane, Ihane), Harava. Reportedly similar to Aeka [aez] and Hunjara-Kaina Ke [hkk]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Nuclear Binanderean, South Binanderean, Orokaivan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Orokolo
[oro] Gulf province: Purari river mouth east to Bairu river; Kerema is the main town. 13,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bailala, Haira, Kaipi, Kairu-Kaura, Muro, Muru, Vailala, West Elema. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Western.

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Ouma
[oum] Central province: south coast around Labu. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic.

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Oune
[oue] Bougainville province: Crown Prince Range, Asiamana river headwaters southeast to Karewong river. 1,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dapera, Eivo 3, Ounge. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Naasioi [nas]. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi.

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Owenia
[wsr] Eastern Highlands province: Obura district. 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Owena, Owenda, Waijara, Waisara. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Owenia.

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Owiniga
[owi] East Sepik province: Amu, Inagri, Samo, and Yei villages southeast of Nimo [niw] language area. 330 (1998 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bero, Owininga, Samo, Taina. Classification: Arai (Left May). Comments: Traditional culture. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Oya’oya
[oyy] Milne Bay province: Samarai-Murua district, Bwanabwana local government area, southeast tip of Papuan mainland facing China strait. 370 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daiomuni, Kuiaro, Loani, Simagahi. Dialects: Dialect subgroup. Reportedly similar to Unubahe [unu]. Lexical similarity: 61% with Wagawaga [wgb], 46% with Saliba [sbe], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 48% with Buhutu [bxh]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Comments: No schools. Children travel by boat to various offshore islands for school.

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Pagi
[pgi] Sandaun province: Vanimo district, Bewani subdistrict, east and southeast of Kilmeri [kih] language area. 5 villages. 2,140 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bembi, Pagei. Dialects: Western Pagi (Bewani), Eastern Pagi (Imbinis). Related to Kilmeri [kih] and Ningera [nby]. Classification: Border, Bewani.

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Pahi
[lgt] Sandaun province: north into Maimai Namblo division. 840 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lugitama, Riahoma, Wansum. Dialects: None known. Related to Pasi [psq], Kalou [ywa], Mehek [nux], and Yessan-Mayo [yss]. Classification: Sepik, Tama.

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Pak-Tong
[pkg] Manus province: Pak and Tong islands. 1,090 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tong-Pak. Dialects: Pak, Tong. 2 nearly identical dialects; Pak is larger. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Pak-Tong.

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Pal
[abw] Madang province. 1,160 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abasakur. Dialects: None known. Related to Kobol [kgu]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Omosan.

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Pamosu
[hih] Madang province: north central, Adelbert Range. 1,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hinihon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran. Comments: Christian.

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Panim
[pnr] Madang province: west of Madang town. 420 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Gumalu [gmu], Sihan [snr], Isebe [igo], Bau [bbd], and Amele [aey]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum.

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Pano
[mqz] Morobe province: Huon peninsula north coast, Bugada, Malasanga, Sigawa, and Singorokai villages from Lepsius Point tip to Wasu. 1,180 (2000 census). Including 433 in Singorokai Ward, 461 in Malasanga Ward and 279 in Kiari Ward. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malasanga. Dialects: Malasanga, Singorokai. Intelligibility: 88% between dialects. Lexical similarity (based on Pano dialect): 76% with Karnai [bbv], 71% with Arop-Lokep [apr], 36% with Ronji [roe], 32% with Malalamai [mmt], 29% with Mato [met], 22% with Gitua [ggt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap. Comments: Different from Mur Pano (Pano) [tkv]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Papapana
[ppn] Bougainville province. 120 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Papapana.

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Papi
[ppe] Sandaun and East Sepik provinces: Frieda river. 1 village. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Paupe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 29% with Suarmin [seo], most similar. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Papi.

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Papitalai
[pat] Manus province: Los Negros island, Naringel, and Papitalai. 420 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: 3 dialects. Reportedly similar to Koro [kxr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Papua New Guinean Sign Language
[pgz] Scattered. 30,000 (2015 N. Simonsson Juhonewe). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2015, Decision No. 100/2015, Directive No. 8), National Executive Council (NEC) endorsement of the National Policy on disability 2015 - 2016 (7 May 2015). Alternate Names: Melanesian Sign Language, PNGSL. Dialects: There is a great regional variation of this language, but still they are mutually intelligible. Classification: Sign language.

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Parawen
[prw] Madang province. 430 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Para. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan.

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Pare
[ppt] Western province. 2,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akium-Pare, Pa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Awin-Pare.

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Pasi
[psq] Sandaun province: southeast corner, Wan Wan division. 3 villages. 360 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Besi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ayi [ayq]. Classification: Sepik, Tama.

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Patep
[ptp] Morobe province: Mumeng district. 1,700 (2003 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ptep. Dialects: Dengalu. In Mumeng, group of related varieties. Some intelligibility of Gorakor [goc] and Zenag [zeg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng.

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Patpatar
[gfk] New Ireland province: south central Namatanai district. 7,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gelik, Patpari. Dialects: Sokirik, Patpatar (Central Patpatar), Sokarek, Hinsaal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Pawaia
[pwa] Chimbu province: Karimui district; Eastern Highlands province: Lufa and Okapa districts, Lamari river; Gulf province: Baimuru RLLG, Purari river near Oroi. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aurama, Pavaia, Pawaian, Sira, Tudahwe, Yasa. Dialects: Aurama (Turoha, Uri), Hauruha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Pawaian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Paynamar
[pmr] Madang province. 150 (Z’Graggen 1975). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Wanang, Paynamar.

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Pei
[ppq] East Sepik province: Ambunti-Dreikikir district, Hauna village and Walio river. 50 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Walio [wla]. Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze. Comments: Different from Mala [ped] (Pai) in Madang Province. Christian.

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Pele-Ata
[ata] East New Britain province: Mamusi-West Pomio RLLG; West New Britain province: Talasea district, inland from Bongula bay in Nakanai mountains. 2,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Peleata, Uase, Uasi, Uasilau, Wasi. Dialects: Pele, Ata. Classification: Yele-West New Britain, West New Britain.

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Penchal
[pek] Manus province: Rambutyo island. 1,060 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands.

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Petats
[pex] Bougainville province: Buka Passage district, Hitau, Petats, and Pororan islands off Buka island west coast. 2,000 (1975 SIL). L2 users: 8,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Majugan. Dialects: Hitau-Pororan, Matsungan, Sumoun. Sumoun [pex] may be a dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka.

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Piame
[pin] East Sepik province: middle Sepik region, eastern headwaters of Niksek (April) river. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Biami. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Comments: First contact with outsiders in 1982.

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Pinai-Hagahai
[pnn] East Sepik, Enga, Madang, and Western Highlands provinces border area. 600 (1997 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aramo, Hagahai, Miamia, Pinai, Pinaye, Wapi. Dialects: Luya-Ginam-Mamusi, Pinai. Lexical similarity: 78% among dialects, 33% with Haruai [tmd], 19% with Kobon [kpw], 8% with Enga [enq]. Classification: Piawi. Comments: Medical workers report widespread health problems.

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Piu
[pix] Morobe province: upper Watut river. 1 village. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kuruko, Lanzog, Sanbiau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Comments: Distinct from Pyu [pby] in Sandaun Province.

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Ponam
[ncc] Manus province: Ponam island. 630 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Andra-Hus [anx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East.

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Pouye
[bye] Sandaun province: Lumi, East and West Wapei districts. 7 villages: Bulawa, Kiliauto, Komtin, Maurom, Wokien, Wulme, Yukilau. 960 (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bouye. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Karawa [xrw]. Classification: Sepik, Ram. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Puare
[pux] Sandaun province: Puari coast area. 35 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bkwala. Dialects: None known. Related to Rawo [rwa], Isaka [ksi], and Warapu [wra]. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Puari.

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Pulabu
[pup] Madang province. 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Siroi [ssd], Arawum [awm], Migum [klm], and Lemio [lei]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau.

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Purari
[iar] Gulf province: Kapaina inlet to Orokolo, Purari river. 7,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Evorra, Iai, Koriki, Maipua, Namau. Dialects: Iai (Namau), Purari. Apparently unrelated to other Gulf Province languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Purari.

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Pyu
[pby] Sandaun province: October river, Biake No. 2 village. East of Papua, Indonesia border. 100 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Different from Austronesian Piu [pix] in Morobe Province.

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Qaqet
[byx] East New Britain province: Gazelle peninsula. 6,350 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baining, Kakat, Makakat, Mali-Baining, Maqaqet. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: East New Britain, Baining. Comments: Several primary schools.

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Ramoaaina
[rai] East New Britain province: Kokopo district, Duke of York Islands. 10,300 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Duke of York, Ramuaina. Dialects: Makada, Molot (Main Island), Aalawa (Aalawaa, Alawa, Mioko, South Islands, Ulu). Makada dialect very different, possibly not intelligible to speakers of other dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ramopa
[kjx] Bougainville province: northwest Bougainville island, south of Rapoisi. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kereaka, Keriaka. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Rapoisi [kyx]. Classification: North Bougainville, Keriaka. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Rao
[rao] Madang province: Keram river area, to East Sepik province border: lower Ramu valley. 6,000 (1992 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Annaberg, Rao Breri. Dialects: Li’o, Ndramini’o. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Middle Ramu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Rapoisi
[kyx] Bougainville province: Kuna district, northwest Bougainville island. Most villages are inland. 3,500 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konua, Kunua. Dialects: None known. Related to Askopan [eiv], Ramopa [kjx], and Rotokas [roo]. Classification: North Bougainville, Konua. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Rapting
[rpt] Madang province: 30 km north of Madang. 330 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Murupi [mqw], Wamas [wmc], Samosa [swm], Mosimo [mqv], Saruga [sra], Nake [nbk], Matepi [mqe], Garus [gyb], Yoidik [ydk], Rempi [rmp], Silopi [xsp], Utu [utu], Mawan [mcz], Baimak [bmx], Bagupi [bpi], Gal [gap], Nobonob [gaw], and Wagi [fad]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Rawa
[rwo] Madang province. Rai Coast district (Karo dialect), Upper Ramu district (Rawa dialect); dialects on opposite sides of Finisterre Range. 11,500 (1998 SIL), increasing. 7,000 Rawa and 4,500 Karo. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erawa, Erewa, Raua. Dialects: Rawa, Karo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Comments: People report Rawa and Karo dialects seem to be drifting apart. Christian, traditional religion.

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Rawo
[rwa] Sandaun province: coast, 35 km east of Vanimo, Leitre and Rawo area. 640 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Isaka [ksi], Puare [pux], and Warapu [wra]. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Rawo-Main Serra, Rawo.

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Rema
[bow] Western province: Morehead district, Wereavere village. 12 (2012 J. Thiessen). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bothar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Blafe [bfh]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda.

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Rempi
[rmp] Madang province: north coast. 1,590 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: A’e, Aic, Erempi, Rempin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman. Comments: Christian.

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Rerau
[rea] Madang province. 590 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Waube [kop], Ogea [eri], Uya [usu], Uyajitaya [duk], Jilim [jil], and Yangulam [ynl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru.

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Rifao
[nmw] Milne Bay province: Misima district, island group northwest of Sud-Est. 1,100 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nimoa, Nimowa. Dialects: Saisai, Sabal, Nimowa (Nimoa). Lexical similarity: 44% with Sudest [tgo] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest. Comments: Half the children are in school.

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Romkun
[rmk] Madang province. 630 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Romkuin. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tamolan.

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Ronji
[roe] Madang and Morobe provinces: 1 village in each province, north coast of Huon peninsula, northwest of Wasu, north-northwest of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor. 450 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gali, Roinji. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Mato [met], 36% with Pano [mqz], 36% with Karnai [bbv], 33% with Arop-Lokep [apr], 33% with Sio [xsi], 28% with Mutu [tuc] 28% with Malalamai [mmt], 24% with Gitua [ggt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Rotokas
[roo] Bougainville province: Central Bougainville district, central mountains. 28 villages. 4,320 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Dialects: Pipipaia, Aita, Atsilima. Classification: North Bougainville, Rotokas.

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Rumu
[klq] Gulf province: Kikori district, Kikori, Sirebi, and Tiviri rivers north of Kikori. 1,000 (1985 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dumu, Kai-Iri, Kairi, Kibiri, Rumuwa, Tumu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kairi. Comments: A distinct language from Kibiri [prm] (Porome).

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Saep
[spd] Madang province: Gowar river area, Rai coast, east of Madang. 550 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon.

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Safeyoka
[apz] Morobe province: Kaiapit, Lae-Wamba, and Menyamya districts. 2,390 (1980 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ambari, Ampale, Ampeeli, Ampeeli-Wojokeso, Ampele. Dialects: Aiewomba, Wajakes (Wocokeso). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan. Comments: Northwest and southeast areas may be different languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Saliba
[sbe] Milne Bay province: China strait, Rogeia and Sariba islands, mainland across from Rogeia island. 2,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Young children, elderly. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Saliba, Loga. Distinct from Suau [swp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Comments: Christian.

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Salt-Yui
[sll] Chimbu province: Gumine district. 10 villages. 6,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Iui, Salt, Salt-Iui, Yui. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu.

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Sam
[snx] Madang province: Bongu, Buan, Songum, and Wongbe villages inland and south. 780 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Songum. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim. Comments: Songum is a village name, ‘Sam’, language.

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Samberigi
[ssx] Southern Highlands province: Lake Kutubu district, east of Erave. 3,130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sanaberigi, Sau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Engan, Angal-Kewa.

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Samo
[smq] Western province: Lake Murray district, south Upper Strickland census district, east of Strickland river, north of Nomad. 900 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daba, Nomad, Supei. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, East Strickland. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Samosa
[swm] Madang province: inland from Aleishafen on Gogal river north tributary headwaters. 90 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Saniyo-Hiyewe
[sny] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Wogamus river basin foothills; Sandaun province: Telefomin district, southeast of Wano river; Hiyowe dialect: Maposi village; Saniyo dialect: Hanasi, Malapute’e, Pukapuki, Salunapi, and Sio villages. 1,300 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sanio-Hiowe. Dialects: Saniyo (Sanio), Hiyowe (Hiowe). Reportedly similar to the Meiyari dialect of Niksek [gbe]. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Comments: Semi-nomadic.

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Saposa
[sps] Bougainville province: Buka district, island chain south of Buka Island off northwest coast of Bougainville. 1,400 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Taiof, Saposa (Fa Saposa). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz.

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Sarasira
[zsa] Morobe province: upper Markham valley, southeast side of Leron river. 600 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sirasira. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain.

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Saruga
[sra] Madang province: 35 km north of Madang. 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Sausi
[ssj] Madang province: Upper Ramu river, near Koropa. 93 (Wurm 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uya. Dialects: None known. Related to Sinsauru [snz], Asas [asd], Kesawai [xes], and Watiwa [wtf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia.

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Seimat
[ssg] Western Manus province: Anchorite and Ninigo islands. 1,240 (2000 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ninigo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western.

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Selepet
[spl] Morobe province: Kabwum district, Kiari and Pumune river valleys. 7,000 (1988 SIL). Ethnic population: 7,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Selepe. Dialects: North Selepet, South Selepet. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sene
[sej] Morobe province: east end of Huon peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Eastern.

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Sengo
[spk] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, Sengo village west-northwest of Pagwi. 520 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Sengseng
[ssz] West New Britain province: southwest interior. 1,750 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asengseng. Dialects: Senseng treated as a dialect of Kaulong [pss] by Wurm and Hattori. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua.

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Sepa
[spe] Madang province: Manam island south coast, Bogia area. 700 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam.

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Sera
[sry] Sandaun province: Sera area. 1 village. 510 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Serra, Ssia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau.

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Seta
[stf] Sandaun province. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei.

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Setaman
[stm] Western province: North Fly district, Olsobip RLLG, Baktamin area. 280 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain.

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Seti
[sbi] Sandaun province. 160 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei.

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Sewa Bay
[sew] Milne Bay province: center of Normanby island, Sewa Bay area. 1,520 (1972 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duau Pwata. Dialects: Miadeba, Bwakera, Maiabare, Darubia, Sewataitai, Sibonai, Central Sewa Bay. Very diverse dialects. Lexical similarity: 45% with Dobu [dob] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sialum
[slw] Morobe province: Huon peninsula, northeast coast. 400 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western.

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Siane
[snp] Chimbu province: Nambaiyufa census division; Eastern Highlands province: Unggai and Watabung census divisions, Goroka district. 29,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siani. Dialects: Kolepa, Yamofowe, Komongu, Komoigaleka, Kemanimowe, Ona, Keto, Laiya, Fowe, Olumba, Lambau, Alango, Yandime, Wando. Separate literature exists in Komongu and Lambau dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Siane.

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Siar-Lak
[sjr] New Ireland province: Namatanai district. 2,080 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lak, Lamassa, Lambom, Siar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Siawi
[mmp] Sandaun province: south of Sepik river, between Amto and Ama. 1 village. 220 (2007 NTM), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Musa, Musan, Musian, Siafli, Siwai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 29% with Amto [amt]. Amto [amt] and Siawi 3% lexical similarity with Odiai [bhf]. Both average 7% lexical similarity with Arai (Left May) languages. Classification: Amto-Musan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sibe
[nco] Bougainville province: Buin district. 6,000 (2011 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Nagovisi, Sibbe, Sibe-Nagovisi. Dialects: Teleipi, To’mau, Laagasi’, Tobe’laaki’, Welipe’. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi. Comments: Moderate acculturation. Christian.

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Sihan
[snr] Madang province: 35 km southwest of Madang. 570 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Gum.

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Sileibi
[sbq] Madang province: 60 km northwest of Madang. 260 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Sikan.

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Siliput
[mkc] Sandaun province: Makru-Klaplei division, Nuku district, Seleput village north of Mehek. 520 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mai, Maimai, Seleput, Sokorok. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Yahang [rhp]. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper. Comments: Different from Selepet [spl].

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Silopi
[xsp] Madang province: 25 km northwest of Madang. 180 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Simbali
[smg] East New Britain province: Gazelle peninsula, Avungi and Kavudemki villages. 450 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asimbali. Classification: East New Britain, Baining.

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Simbari
[smb] Eastern Highlands province: Obura-Wonenara district, Marawaka station, southeast of Lamari river; Gulf province: Kikori district, Baimuru and Ihu RLLGs. 3,040 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimbari. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Simeku
[smz] Bougainville province: Crown Prince Range west of Arawa, Koopei on east slope, Mainoki west. 3,000 (2007 SIL). 2,000 Koopei and 1,000 Mainoki. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Mainoki (Mainoke), Koopei (Kopei, Korpei). Not functionally intelligible with Naasioi [nas]. Classification: South Bougainville, Nasioi. Comments: People culturally conservative.

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Sinagen
[siu] Sandaun province: 30 km south of Aitape. 330 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galu, Metru. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Sinasina
[sst] Chimbu province: Sinasina-Yonggamugl district, Sinasina RLLG. 50,100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Tabare, Guna. Reportedly similar to Dom [doa] and Golin [gvf]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Chimbu.

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Sinaugoro
[snc] Central province: Rigo district, south of Kwikila. 18,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sinagoro. Dialects: Ikolu, Balawaia, Saroa, Babagarupu, Kwaibida, Taboro, Kwaibo, Alepa, Omene, Tubulamo, Ikega, Boku, Buaga, Wiga, Vora, Kubuli, Oruone. Saroa dialect may be most central for intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Kalo [khz] (most similar), 65%–70% with Hula [hul]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara.

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Sinsauru
[snz] Madang province: near Dumpu. 500 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kow. Dialects: Saipa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia.

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Sio
[xsi] Morobe province: Wasu district, mainland near Sio island. 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sigawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Sio.

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Siroi
[ssd] Madang province: Saidor district, Kumisanger village. 5 villages. 1,310 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Suroi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau. Comments: Christian.

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Sissano
[sso] Sandaun province: Aitape district, Sissano area. 300 (Wurm 2000). In 1990, 4,780 speakers were reported and language use was vigorous. The 1998 tsunami almost completely annihilated the population. Number of surviving speakers unlikely to exceed a few hundred (Wurm 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sinama, Sinano, Sisano. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau.

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Siwai
[siw] Bougainville province: southeast. 6,600. 600 in Baitsi. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Motuna. Dialects: Baitsi (Sigisigero). Classification: South Bougainville, Buin.

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Solong
[aaw] West New Britain province: southwest coast. 2,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Arawe, Arove, Pililo. Dialects: Arawe. Dialect subgroup. Understood by all along the coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe. Comments: Glossonym: Solong. Ethnonym: Arove. Christian, traditional religion.

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Solos
[sol] Bougainville province: central and southwest Buka island. 3,200 (1977 P. Lincoln). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Toros. Dialects: Mainland Solos, Nora Solos, Peit Solos, Coastal Solos (Hetal, Kahule, Pokai Tung). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Solos. Comments: Christian.

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Som
[smc] Morobe province: northwest Huon peninsula, on middle Som river, a tributary of Uruwa river, east of Wantoat [wnc] language area. 80 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dinanget, Somm. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Nukna [klt]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa.

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Somba-Siawari
[bmu] Morobe province: Finschhafen district, Central Huon peninsula, Lae south of Cromwell Range, Burum river valley and west slopes of Kuat river; scattered in Port Moresby. 30 villages. 9,000 (2000 census). 5,500 Somba, 4,500 Siawari. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bulum, Burum, Burum-Mindik, Mindik. Dialects: Somba, Siawari. Lexical similarity: 92% with dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western. Comments: ‘Bulum’ is the Kâte [kmg] name for the Burum area. Christian, traditional religion.

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Sonia
[siq] Western and Southern Highlands provinces: west and southwest of Bosavi. 400 (1993 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi.

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Sop
[urw] Madang province: Usino Bundi district, Usino subdistrict, northeast of Ramu valley. 2,250 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kari, Usino. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka.

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Sori-Harengan
[sbh] Manus province: Manus island northwest coast; Harengan and Sori islands. 770 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Sori, Harengan. Dialects nearly identical. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West.

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Sos Kundi
[sdk] East Sepik province: Angoram, Kwaliangua (center village), Saussia, Wosera Gawi district, and Yangoru villages. 2,850 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agbane, Agbanekundi, Akbana, Soskundi. Dialects: Baltu-Kamatogukundi, Kamatogukundi, Kwaroikundi, Nyandakundi, Sotakundi. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Sowanda
[sow] Sandaun province: Amanab district. 970 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 1,180. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waina, Wanja, Wanya, Wina. Dialects: Punda-Umeda (Umada), Waina. May be 2 languages. Classification: Border, Waris.

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Suarmin
[seo] Sandaun province: Telefomin district, Kenu river hamlets; Om river tributary. Near Duranmin airstrip. 140 (2000 S. Wurm). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akiapmin, Duranmin. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 29% with Papi [ppe]. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Papi.

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Suau
[swp] Milne Bay province: southeasternmost Papua mainland. 6,800 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 14,000. No monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). A lingua franca around the south-eastern tip of Papua New Guinea. Alternate Names: Iou. Dialects: Sinaki (Gadaisu, Gaidasu), Leileiafa, Bona Bona, Dahuni, Suau, Bonarua, Lausaha (Daui, Fife Bay). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic.

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Sudest
[tgo] Milne Bay province: Yama-Yele district, Tagula island, west of Rossel island, end of Calvados chain. 17 villages or hamlets. 2,000 (1987 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sud-Est, Tagula, Vanatina, Vanga. Dialects: Rambuso (Rewa), Eastern Point, Eastern Sudest (Rambuso, Rehuwo), Central Sudest (Araetha, Pamela), Western Sudest (Dtelha, Griffin Point, Jelewaga). Lexical similarity: 44% with Rifao [nmw] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest. Comments: Most children go to school. Christian.

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Suena
[sue] Morobe province: Lae district, southeast coast, north of Yekora. 3,600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yarawe, Yarawi, Yema. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, North Binanderean. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Suganga
[sug] East Sepik province: Ambunti-Dreikikir district; Sandaun province: Telefomin district, east of Sepik river. 350 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Mianmin, Wagarabai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mian [mpt]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain.

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Suki
[sui] Western province: Lake Suki. 3,510 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wiram. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Suki.

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Sukurum
[zsu] Morobe province: upper Markham valley, Leron river northwest side. 1,160 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,160. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain.

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Sulka
[sua] East New Britain province: East Pomio district, Wide Bay coast. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: A dialect chain. Classification: Language isolate.

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Sumariup
[siv] East Sepik province: upper Wagupmeri river. 1 village. 80 (1993 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Latoma, Sogoba. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo.

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Sumau
[six] Madang province: low mountain ranges between Ramu and Naru rivers. 2,580 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garia, Kari, Sumau-Garia. Dialects: Possibly 2 dialects. Related to Sop [urw], Urigina [urg], and Danaru [dnr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka.

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Sursurunga
[sgz] New Ireland province: Namatanai district. 3,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Surkutus. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Susuami
[ssu] Morobe province: upper Watut valley outside Bulolo. 10 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan.

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Tabo
[knv] Western province: lower Aramia river, Alagi, Galu, Saiwase, and Waya villages; Bamu river, Alikinapi village; lower Fly river, Kenedibi, Urio, and Wagumi-Sarau villages; Segero Creek, Segero village. 3,000 (2002 SIL). Population split equally between dialects. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Waya. Dialects: Aramia River, Fly River. Lexical similarity: 60% among dialects, but nearly identical syntax and grammar. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Waia.

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Tabriak
[tzx] East Sepik province: near Chambri, lower Karawari river. 9 villages. 2,080 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karawari. Dialects: Distinct from the Karawari dialect of Alamblak [amp]. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Karawari.

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Tai
[taw] Madang province: Dundrom village southwest. 900 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Kalam-Kobon.

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Taiap
[gpn] East Sepik province: Gapun village. 75 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gapun. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Taiap is the language, Gapun the village.

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Tainae
[ago] Gulf province: Ivori-Swanson district, Famba, Paiguna, and Pio are main villages. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ivori. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Akoye [miw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan.

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Tairora, North
[tbg] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu and Obura districts, north of Kainantu. 6,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tairora. Dialects: Aantantara (Andandara), Arau-Varosia (Arau-Barosia), Arokaara (Arokara), Saiqora (Sai’ora), Tairora. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora.

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Tairora, South
[omw] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. 7,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Omwunra-Toqura. Dialects: Aatasaara (Atakara), Haaviqinra-Oraura (Habina-Oraura), Omwunra-Toqura (Obura-To’okena), Vaira-Ntosara (Baira), Veqaura (Meauna), Vinaata-Konkompira (Pinata-Konkombira). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora.

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Tairuma
[uar] Gulf province: Uaripi and villages near Kerema. 4,500 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kerema, Tairuma’a, Uaripi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Eastern. Comments: Christian.

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Takia
[tbc] Madang province: Madang district, Bagabag island, Karkar island south half, Megiar and Serang coastal villages. 40000 Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Megiar, Serang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern.

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Takuu
[nho] Bougainville province: Atolls district, northeast of Bougainville, Mortlock village, Takuu atoll. 1,750 (2003 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mortlock, Taku, Tau, Tauu. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Nukumanu [nuq] and Nukuria [nur] and Ontong Java [ojv] and Sikaiana [sky] in Solomon Islands, though very closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tami
[tmy] Morobe province: Tami Islands and mainland villages south of Finschhafen. 2,100 (2010 SIL), increasing. 1,000 in each dialect. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Wanam, Taemi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Tami.

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Tanggu
[tgu] Madang province: Bogia district. 3,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tanggum, Tangu. Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu.

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Tanguat
[tbs] Madang province: south of Tanggu [tgu] language area. 740 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Ramu, Tanggu.

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Tapei
[afp] East Sepik province: Karawari rural district, Awim and Imboin villages, Arafundi river area. 290 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61%–74% with Nanubae [afk]. Classification: Arafundi.

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Tauade
[ttd] Central province: Goilala district northeast; Oro province: Sohe district, Kira RLLG. 7,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tauata. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Kunimaipa [kup] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa.

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Taulil
[tuh] East New Britain province: Gazelle peninsula, Kadaulung, Taulil1, and Taulil2. 2,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tulil. Dialects: Taulil. Classification: East New Britain, Taulil.

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Taupota
[tpa] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Maramatana LGA, East Cape, Garuwahi to Wamawamana, includes Taupota village. 1,280 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Probably part of a chain of related varieties with Wa’ema [wag] south and Wedau [wed] west. Lexical similarity: 81% with Topura dialect of Wedau [wed], 69% with central Wedau [wed], 76% with Wa’ema [wag], 56% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Maiwala [mum]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. Comments: 2 schools.

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Tauya
[tya] Madang province: Ramu river valley, 30 km west of Dumpu. 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inafosa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Biyom-Tauya.

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Tawala
[tbo] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Awaiama to East Cape, Milne Bay north and south shores, Basilaki and Sideia islands. 20,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tavara, Tawara. Dialects: Awayama (Awaiama, Awalama), Huhuna, Kehelala (East Cape, Keherara), Lelehudi, Diwinai (Divinai), Labe (Rabe), Yaleba (Ealeba, Gwavili, Gwawili, Wagawaga), Bohilai (Basilaki, Bohira’i), Sideya (Sideia). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota.

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Telefol
[tlf] Sandaun province: Telefomin district, large central area; Western province: North Fly district, Star Mountains and Olsobip RLLGs. 5,400 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Teleefool, Telefolmin, Telefomin. Dialects: Telefol, Feramin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain.

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Tenis
[tns] New Ireland province: Tench (Enus) island, Kavieng. 30 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 250 (2015 J. Brownie). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tench. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias. Comments: Christian.

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Teop
[tio] Bougainville province: Tinputz district, northeast. 5,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Teapu. Dialects: Taunita, Coastal Teop, Rausara (Rausiara), Kosina Mohina, Manava. Coastal Teop speakers understand other dialects, and vice versa. Coastal Teop is 84% cognate with Rausara, 73% with Taunita dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz. Comments: Christian.

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Terebu
[trb] East Sepik province: Taul coast southeast of Wewak, Turubu village. 130 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Terepu, Turubu, Turupu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru.

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Terei
[buo] Bougainville province: Buin district. 26,500 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bougainville Autonomous Region (2007, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3), not yet implemented (2012). Alternate Names: Buin, Kugara, Telei. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Uisai [uis]. Classification: South Bougainville, Buin.

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Tiang
[tbj] New Ireland province: east Djaul island area. 790 (Beaumont 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djaul. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik.

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Tifal
[tif] Sandaun province: Telefomin district, south of Sepik river; Western province: North Fly district, Star Mountains RLLG. 3,600 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tifalmin. Dialects: Tifal, Asbalmin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain. Comments: Christian.

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Tigak
[tgc] New Ireland province: Kavieng district, west Djaul island. 6,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Omo. Dialects: Island Tigak, West Tigak, Central Tigak, South Tigak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik.

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Timbe
[tim] Morobe province: Kabwum district, Timbe river valley and tributaries. 11,000 (1991 SIL). No monolinguals. Women and older men. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Central Timbe, North Timbe, South Timbe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tinputz
[tpz] Bougainville province: Teop-Tinputz district. 3,900 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Timputs, Vasui, Vasuii, Wasoi. Dialects: Vasui, Vavoehpoa’, Vaene’, Vado-Vaene’, Vapopeo’, Vapopeo’-Rausaura, Vado. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz. Comments: Moderate acculturation.

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Titan
[ttv] Manus province: Manus island, southeast coast, Baluan, Bundro, Johnson, M’buke, Rambutyo, Tawi, Tilianu, and Wal islands. 5,100 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manus, M’bunai, Moanus, Tito. Dialects: 2 dialects, r speakers on southeast Manus Island, l speakers on outlying islands. Intelligibility between, r and l, dialects 100%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Comments: Part of the trading ring described by Margaret Mead (Mead 1956). Christian, traditional religion.

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Toaripi
[tqo] Gulf province: Cape Possession to Cape Cupola, Kerema is a main town. 23,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Elema, Melaripi, Motumotu. Dialects: Kaipi (Melaripi), Toaripi (Moripi-Iokea, Moveave), Sepoe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Nuclear Eleman, Eastern.

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Tobo
[tbv] Morobe province: upper Kuat river valley, south of Cromwell range. 2,230 (1980 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Huon, Western.

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Tok Pisin
[tpi] Widespread. 122,000 (2004 SIL). L2 users: 4,000,000. No monolinguals. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Melanesian English, Neomelanesian, New Guinea Pidgin English, Pidgin, Pisin. Dialects: Dialect differences between lowlands, highlands, and islands. Highlands lexicon has more English [eng] influence (Holm 1989). Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tokano
[zuh] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district. 6,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gamuso, Tokama, Yufiyufa, Zaka, Zuhozuho, Zuhuzuho. Dialects: Lower Asaro, Zuhuzuho. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Gahuku-Benabena.

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Tomoip
[tqp] East New Britain province: Pomio district, Waterfall Bay to Wide Bay and interior; West New Britain province: Talasea district, inland from Open bay, small border area. 700 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomoive, Tomoyp, Tumie, Tumuip. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tomoip.

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Torau
[ttu] Bougainville province: southeast coast, north of Kieta. 600 (1963 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rorovana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava. Comments: Fairly acculturated.

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Torricelli
[tei] East Sepik province: Maprik district; Sandaun province: west of Kombio. 5 villages. 520 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anamagi, Lou. Dialects: West Torricelli, East Torricelli. 2 dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. Comments: Different from Lou [loj] in Manus Province or Kaki Ae (Lou) [tbd] in Gulf Province.

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Toura
[don] Central province: Galley Reach area, 50 km northwest of Port Moresby. 1,800 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doura. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 57% with Lala [nrz], 54% with Motu [meu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear.

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Tulu-Bohuai
[rak] Manus province: Bohuai, Peli island, Pelipowai. 1,970 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bohuai, Bohuai-Tulu, Bowai, Pahavai, Pelipowai, Pohuai. Dialects: Keli, Bohuai, Tulu (Tjudun, Tulun). Reportedly similar to Khehek [tlx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West.

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Tuma-Irumu
[iou] Morobe province: Kaiapit district, Wantoat subdistrict. 1,100 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Irumu, Tuma, Upper Irumu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat.

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Tumleo
[tmq] Sandaun province: Tumleo island, Aitape coast area. 790 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau.

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Tungag
[lcm] New Ireland province: Lamet district, New Hanover, Tingwon, and Umbukul islands. 12,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dang, Lavangai, Lavongai, Toangai, Tungak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik. Comments: Center of Johnson cargo cult. Christian.

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Turaka
[trh] Milne Bay province: southwest of Radarada and Ruaba, inland from Goodenough bay. 25 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan.

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Turumsa
[tqm] Western province: Middle Fly district, Makapa village. 5 (2002 SIL), decreasing. Possibly no remaining speakers (2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Dibiyaso [dby], 61% with Doso [dol]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Bosavi.

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Tuwari
[tww] Sandaun province: middle Sepik region, upper Walio river; near Akiapmin south of Central Range. 360 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze.

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Uare
[ksj] Central province: Rigo Inland district, southeast of Port Moresby, Hunter and Kemp Welsh rivers. 1,300 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwale, Kware. Dialects: Garihe (Garia), Uare (Kwale). Lexical similarity: 65%–74% with Humene [huf] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Kwalean. Comments: Different from Kware [ail] in the Bosavi family, Western Province.

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Ubir
[ubr] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Makamaka RLLG; Oro province: Afore district, Tufi RLLG, Collingwood Bay coast, Kwagila river; Milne Bay provincial border area. 2,560 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kubiri, Ubiri. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 27% with Miniafia dialect of Arifama-Miniafia [aai] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are.

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Ufim
[ufi] Morobe province: Markham river upper reaches. 550 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot.

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Uisai
[uis] Bougainville province: Buin district. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Reuno, Kugala, Kukuinu, Iuno. Classification: South Bougainville, Buin.

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Ukuriguma
[ukg] Madang province: 40 km northwest of Madang. 170 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan.

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Ulau-Suain
[svb] Sandaun province: Suain coastal area, Ulau 1, Ulau 2. 2,800 (2003 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Suain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau.

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Umanakaina
[gdn] Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district, Goodenough Bay coast, inland between Mount Gwoira and Mount Simpson. 2,400 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gvede, Gweda, Gwede, Gwedena, Umanikaina. Dialects: Upper Ugu River, East Umanakaina. At least 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 23% with Ginuman [gnm] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Dagan.

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Umbu-Ungu
[ubu] Western Highlands province. Tambul district (No-Penge dialect), lower Kaugel district (Kala dialect), Southern Highlands province (Andelale dialect). 34,200 (2000 census). 14,300 Andelale, 13,500 Kala, and 6,360 No-penge (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gawigl, Gawil, Imbo-Ungu, Kakoli, Kaugel, Kauil, Ubu Ugu, Umbongu, Umbu Ungu. Dialects: Kala (Mendo-Kala), No-Penge, Andelale. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Hagen, Kaugel.

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Umeda
[upi] Sandaun province: Amanda district, south of Imonda. 290 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Border, Bewani.

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Uneapa
[bbn] West New Britain province: Talasea district, Unea island, off northwest coast. 10,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bali, Bali-Vitu, Unea. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu.

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Unserdeutsch
[uln] East New Britain province: Rabaul. No known L1 speakers (2002 SIL). May be extinct (2002 J. Brownie). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Rabaul Creole German. Classification: Creole, German based.

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Unubahe
[unu] Milne Bay province: Gumini village. 7 (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 59. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Unoba’i. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Buhutu [bxh] and Oya’oya [oyy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic.

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Ura
[uro] East New Britain province: Gazelle peninsula. 1,900 (1991 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Auramot, Uramät, Uramet, Uramit, Uramot. Classification: East New Britain, Baining. Comments: ‘Uramät’ refers to the people.

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Urapmin
[urm] Sandaun province: Telefomin district, southern headwaters Sepik river; Western province: North Fly district, Olsobip RLLG, Dumidubi area. 370 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain. Comments: Geographically and linguistically between Tifal [tif] and Telefol [tlf].

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Urat
[urt] East Sepik province: Dreikikir district, southwest of Wom, south of Kombio. 20 villages, several hamlets. 6,280 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 2,480 in Wasep Ngau, 2,060 in Wusyep Yihre, 1,210 in Wasep Yam, and 550 in Wusyep Tep. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Wasep Ngau (North Urat), Wusyep Yihre (Central Urat), Wasep Yam (South Urat), Wusyep Tep (East Urat). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Urat. Comments: Christian.

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Uri
[uvh] Morobe province: Boana district. 2,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erap, Uri Vehees, Urii. Dialects: East Urii, West Urii. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Erap.

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Urigina
[urg] Madang province: Ramu river, 50 km downstream from Dumpu. 1,400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Origanau, Uriginau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Urim
[uri] East Sepik province: Maprik subdistrict; Sandaun province: Nuku subdistrict, southwest of Kombio. 16 villages. 3,740 (2003 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kalp, Kurom, Tayon, Wan. Dialects: Kukwo (Kalpm), Yangkolen. Yangkolen and Kukwo dialects are 95% lexically similar. Lexical similarity: 8% with Kombio [xbi], 12% with Urat [urt], 2% with Kwanga [kwj], and 15% with Aiku [ymo]. Classification: Torricelli, Urim. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Urimo
[urx] East Sepik province: 35 km south of Wewak. 800 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yaugiba. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg.

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Uruava
[urv] Bougainville province: southeast coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava.

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Usan
[wnu] Madang province: Madang district, 65 km northwest of Madang. 1,400 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wanuma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan.

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Usarufa
[usa] Eastern Highlands province: Okapa district. 1,300 (1996 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Usurufa, Uturupa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa.

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Utarmbung
[omo] Madang province. 1,170 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Osum. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Osum.

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Utu
[utu] Madang province: 30 km west of Madang. 580 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Uya
[usu] Madang province: Trans-Gogol district. 270 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Usu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru.

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Uyajitaya
[duk] Madang province: 30 km south of Madang. 470 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abowe, Amito, Amowe, Duduela, Koki, Uyaji, Xuyadzitaya, Yabatia. Dialects: Uyajitaya, Amowe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru.

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Valman
[van] Sandaun province: east of Aitape. 1,740 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Koroko, Walman. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Vanimo
[vam] Sandaun province: Vanimo district. 3 villages. 2,670 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dumo, Duso, Manimo, Wanimo. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Nuclear Skou, Eastern Skou. Comments: Many highly educated.

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Vehes
[val] Morobe province: near the coast between Lae and Salamaua. 1 village. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Buasi, Vehees. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Mapos Buang [bzh] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang.

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Vitu
[wiv] West New Britain Province, Talasea district, Vitu and Mudua islands off northwest coast. 8,800 (1991 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Muduapa, Witu. Dialects: 2 or 3 dialects. Mudua Island variety may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu. Comments: ‘Vitu’ is island name.

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Wab
[wab] Madang province: Huon peninsula north coast, Saui and Wab villages next to Saidor. 120 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Som. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe.

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Waboda
[kmx] Western province: Wabuda island, Dameratamu, Gesoa, Kabaturi, Maduduo, Meipani, Sagero, Tirere, and Wapi villages on Fly river mouth north bank. 2,750 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wabuda. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kiwaian.

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Wadaginam
[wdg] Madang province: 30 km southeast of Erima. 950 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wadaginamb. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Josephstaal, Wadaginam.

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Wa’ema
[wag] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Huhu local government area, Giligili estates to Turnbull war memorial, Milne Bay area north up to East Cape coastal range. 1,020 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waiema. Dialects: None known. Wa’ema seems to be part of a chain of related varieties with Taupota [tpa]. Tawala [tbo] not intelligible to Wa’ema. Lexical similarity: 76% with Taupota [tpa], 69% with Maiwala [mum], 54% with Tawala [tbo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota.

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Waffa
[waj] Eastern Highlands province: Kainantau district, small border area near To’okena; Morobe province: Kaiapit district, Waffa river headwaters, 5 villages. 1,300 (1988 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Kainantu, Tairora. Comments: Christian.

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Wagawaga
[wgb] Milne Bay province: Upper and Lower Dawadawa wards, along Tawala river and east of Wagawaga village, in the middle of Tawala [tbo] language area. 600 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baeaula, Beauli, Ealeba, Gamadoudou, Gibara, Kilikilana. Dialects: Gamadoudou. Reportedly similar to Yaleba [ylb]. Lexical similarity: 61% with Oya’oya [oyy], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 55% with Buhutu [bxh]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic.

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Wagi
[fad] Madang province: northwest of Madang, Foran, Kamba, Kauris, Mis, and Silibob villages. 3,380 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Foran, Furan, Kamba, Mis-Kemba. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 30% with Ari dialect of Nobonob [gaw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Wahgi
[wgi] Western Highlands province: Minj district; Chimbu province: south of Wahgi river. 39,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mid Wahgi. Dialects: Kup-Minj (Kumai), Pukamigl-Andegabu, Kunjip, Kambia, Mid-Wahgi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi.

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Wahgi, North
[whg] Chimbu province: Kerowagi district; Madang province: Usino-Bundi district, Usino LLG; Western Highlands province: Minj district; both sides of Sepik-Wahgi divide. 47,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Banz-Nondugl. Between 2 to 5 dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Chimbu-Wahgi, Wahgi.

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Waima
[rro] Central province: Bereina district, Hall Sound shores between Yule island and mainland, northwest of Port Moresby. 15,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Roro. Dialects: Waima, Paitana, Roro. Roro and Paitana populations smaller and scattered. Lexical similarity: 45% with Kuni [kse] (most similar), 99% among all 3 dialects. All agree Waima is the main dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear. Comments: Many schools.

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Walio
[wla] East Sepik province: Walio (Leonhardt Schultze) river. 230 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 12% with Yawiyo [ybx]. Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze.

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Wamas
[wmc] Madang province: 40 km north of Madang. 10 villages. 220 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Wampar
[lbq] Morobe province: lower Markham and Wamped rivers. 5,150 (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Laewamba, Laewomba, Laiwomba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Wampar. Comments: Different from Wampur [waz] on the Wanton river.

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Wampur
[waz] Morobe province: Wanton river, Mirir and Wampur villages (Holzknecht 1989); some in Aringon village of Waffa [waj] language group. 530 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 550. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wampul. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Mari [hob]. Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain. Comments: Different from Wampar [lbq] in lower Markham Valley.

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Wanambre
[wnb] Madang province: 55 km west of Karkar island. 590 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vanambere. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Tiboran.

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Wanap
[wnp] Sandaun province: north of Mehek, northeast of Siliput. 1,070 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayik. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Wantoat
[wnc] Morobe province: Kaiapit district, Bam, Leron, and Wantoat rivers. 8,200 (McElhanon 1978). 390 Bam (McElhanon 1978) and 490 Yagawak (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Wapu (Leron), Central Wantoat, Bam, Yagawak (Kandomin). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Wantoat. Comments: Saseng is a village.

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Wára
[tci] Western province: Morehead district, villages west of Morehead. 700 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ara, Kamindjo, Rouku, Tjokwai, Tokwasa, Upper Morehead, Vara, Wärä, Yumbar. Dialects: Wára, Kómnjo, Anta, Wèré. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Warapu
[wra] Sandaun province: near Sera and Sissano coast, Ramu and Sumo town areas, northwest peninsula of Sissano Lagoon. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barupu. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Piore River.

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Waris
[wrs] Sandaun province: Amanab district, Wasengla area. 2,500 in Papua New Guinea, increasing. Total users in all countries: 4,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Walsa. Dialects: None known. Intelligible at Imonda but not Amanab. Similar to Imonda [imn] and Amanab [amn]. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Different from Waritai [wbe] or Wares [wai] of Indonesia. Christian.

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Waruna
[wrv] Western province: Aramia river area, Waruna village. 600 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Ari [aac]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala.

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Warwar Feni
[hrw] New Ireland province: Feni islands. 2,100 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anir, Feni, Tangga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai.

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Wasembo
[gsp] Morobe province: west of Ufim. 590 (1980 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biapim, Gusap, Yankowan. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Wasembo.

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Waskia
[wsk] Madang province: Madang district, northern half of Karkar island. 20,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vaskia, Woskia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Korak [koz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, South Adelbert Range, Kowan.

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Watakataui
[wtk] East Sepik province: middle Korosameri river branch. 2 villages. 350 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Waxe. Classification: Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo.

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Watiwa
[wtf] Madang province: Bebei and Dumpu villages. 510 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dumpu, Watifa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia.

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Watut, Middle
[mpl] Morobe province: Mumeng district, lower Watut valley, Babuaf (Madzim and Singono), Bencheng, Dungutung, and Marauna villages. 1,700 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maraliinan, Maralinan, Silisili, Watut. Dialects: Waggong, Middle Watut. The Waggong dialect is spoken in Dungutung village and is related to North Watut [una]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut.

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Watut, North
[una] Morobe province: Mumeng district, Kaiapit area, Waffa valley, Mafanazo, Onom (Morom), and Uruf villages. 630 (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Onank, Unangg, Unank, Watut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut.

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Watut, South
[mcy] Morobe province: lower or south Watut river, Bulaprik (Gumots), Dangal, Maralangko, Sanang, Wawas and Zinimb villages. 890 (Holzknecht 1988). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Maralango (Maralangko), Dangal (Danggal). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut.

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Waube
[kop] Madang province: 20 km east of Erima. 780 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwato, Waupe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru.

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Wedau
[wed] Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district, Weraura local government area, mainland from Kuvira Bay to Dogura along north coast. 2,200 (2000 D. Tryon). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wedaun, Wedawan. Dialects: Topura, Yapoa, Lavora, Kwamana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. Comments: Christian.

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Weliki
[klh] Morobe province: lower Timbe river valley. 2 villages. 200 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karangi, Weleki. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa.

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Weri
[wer] Central province: Goilala district northeast; Morobe province: Wau district, Biaru, Ono, and Waria rivers’ headwaters. 4,160 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wele, Weli. Dialects: Sim, Biaru-Waria, Ono. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Goilalan, Kunimaipa.

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Wiarumus
[tua] East Sepik province: Mandi village, southeast of Wewak on coast. 460 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Imandi, Mandi. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg.

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Wipi
[gdr] Western province: east third of area between Fly delta, estuary, and south coast. 3,500 (1999 J. Shim). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gidra, Jibu, Oriomo. Dialects: Dorogori, Abam, Peawa, Ume, Kuru (uKuru), Woigo, Wonie, Iamega, Gamaewe, Podari, Wipim, Kapal, Rual, Guiam, Yuta. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly. Comments: ‘Gidra’ a Bine term, bush.

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Wiru
[wiu] Southern Highlands province: Ialibu district. 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Witu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Wiru.

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Wogamusin
[wog] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, juncture of Niksek (April) and Sepik rivers. 4 villages. 700 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wongamusin. Classification: Sepik, Wogamusin-Chenapian.

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Wogeo
[woc] East Sepik province: Koil islands and Vokeo islands. 1,620 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Uageo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam.

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Wom
[wmo] East Sepik province: Maprik district, east of Wara Sikau; Dreikikir district, west of Maprik; Torricelli mountain foothills. 12 villages. 4,260 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wam. Dialects: 2 slightly different dialects. Brief word lists and survey indicate little similarity to Kombio [xbi]. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Womo
[wmx] Sandaun province: Onei village. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Serra Hills, Rawo-Main Serra, Main Serra.

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Wutung
[wut] Sandaun province: Vanimo district, coast bordering Papua, Indonesia, including Sangke village. 900 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Udung. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Nuclear Skou, Eastern Skou.

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Wuvulu-Aua
[wuv] Western Manus province: Aua, Durour, Maty, and Wuvulu islands. 1,560 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aua-Viwulu, Viwulu-Aua. Dialects: Aua, Wuvulu (Wuu). Dialects nearly identical. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western.

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Yabem
[jae] Morobe province: Huon peninsula, near Finschhafen coast. 2,080 (McElhanon 1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jabem, Jabim, Laulabu, Yabim. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North. Comments: Christian.

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Yaben
[ybm] Madang province: 65 km northwest of Madang. 700 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan.

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Yabong
[ybo] Madang province. 1,500 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon.

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Yagaria
[ygr] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district. 21,100 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kami-Kulaka, Move, Ologuti, Dagenava, Kamate, Hira, Hua (Huva), Kotom. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Kamano-Yagaria.

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Yagomi
[ygm] Madang province: Saidor district, coast southeast of Seure, Yagomi village. 280 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Warup. Comments: May be same as Muratayak [asx].

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Yagwoia
[ygw] Eastern Highlands province: Iqwalaqamalje; Gulf province: Gwase; Morobe province: Hiqwase, Hiqwaye, and Yeqwangilje. 10,000 (2005 R. Westerveld). 1,500 Iwalaqamalje, 1,500 Gwase, 7,000 Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Yeqwangilje. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gwase, Hiqwase, Hiqwaye, Iwalaqamalhe, Kokwaiyakwa, Yeghuye, Yeqwangilje. Dialects: Iwalaqamalje, Gwase, Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Yeqwangilje. Reportedly similar to Chimbari [smb], Hamtai [hmt], Baruya [byr], and Menya [mcr] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan. Comments: 5 ethnic groups: Iwalaqamalje, Hiqwaye, Hiqwase, Gwase, Heqwangilye. Christian.

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Yahang
[rhp] Sandaun province: west of Mehek. 1,430 (2003 SIL). 1,120 in area, 66 outside. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ruruhi’ip, Ruruhip, Ya’unk. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Heyo [auk] (Arinua). Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper. Comments: Heyo (Arinua) [auk] glossonym: Ruruhip.

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Yakaikeke
[ykk] Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Weraura local government area, Goodenough Bay between Wedau and Radava, Diruna near Manubada. 100 (1998 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Iakaikeke. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Wedau [wed] (most similar), 58% with Kwamana dialect of Wedau [wed], 48% with Ghayavi [bmk] (at Radava). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota.

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Yale
[nce] Sandaun province: Amanab district, west of Namia. 6 villages. South of Kwomtari [kwo] language, north of Abau [aau] language area, northeast of Busa [bhf] language area, east of Biaka [bio] language area, southeast of Anggor [agg] and Amanab [amn] language areas. 600 (1991 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nagatiman, Nagatman, Yade, Yarë. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: ‘Nagatman’ is a corrupted name of 1 village, not a language name. There is some intermarriage with the Odiai, Abau, and Kwomtari. Christian.

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Yaleba
[ylb] Milne Bay province: Huhu LGA, Dalidali, Gamadoudou, Gibara, Gwaugulina, Iwame, Kilakilana, and Wanabelo villages. 1,330 (2005 SIL). Only 25 Sileba dialect speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aisana. Dialects: Gamadoudou, Sileba. Reportedly similar to Wagawaga [wgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic.

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Yamap
[ymp] Morobe province: Francisco river area. 1,580 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Hote [hot] and Misim, a dialect of Hote. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote.

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Yambes
[ymb] East Sepik province: Dreikikkir district, east and southeast of Kombio, northwest of Wom. 4 villages. 1,080 (2003 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: West Yambes, East Yambes. Language combines features and vocabulary of Kombio [xbi], Urat [urt], and Wom [wmo]; some understanding of all 3. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio.

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Yangulam
[ynl] Madang province: east of Erima. 400 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru.

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Yangum Dey
[yde] Sandaun province: Nuku district. 180 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Yangum Gel
[ygl] Sandaun province: Nuku district. 45 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Yangum Mon
[ymo] Sandaun province: Nuku district. 730 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aiku, Malek, Menandon, Minendon. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei.

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Yapunda
[yev] Sandaun province: south-southeast of Aitape, on upper Om river. 60 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Reiwo, Yeri. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Yarawata
[yrw] Madang province. 130 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Pihom, Numugenan.

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Yareba
[yrb] Oro province: Ijitivari and Popondetta districts, Moni river basin. 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Middle Musa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Southeast Papuan, Yareban.

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Yau
[yuw] Morobe province: Kabwum district, Kotet, Mitmit, Mup, Sindamon, Worin, and Yawan villages. 1,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Uruwa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Uruwa. Comments: Different from Yau [yyu] and from the Yawu dialect of Yessan-Mayo [yss].

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Yau
[yyu] Sandaun province: northwest of Lumi. 1 village. 140 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Olo [ong] and Yis [yis]. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Comments: Different from Yau [yuw] and Yawu dialect of Yessan-Mayo [yss].

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Yaul
[yla] East Sepik province: 35 km south of Angoram. 1,210 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Mongol-Langam.

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Yaweyuha
[yby] Eastern Highlands province: Goroka district, south of Goroka. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yabiyufa, Yawiyuha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kainantu-Goroka, Gorokan, Siane.

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Yawiyo
[ybx] East Sepik province: Ambunti-Dreikikir district; Sandaun province: Telefomin district, east of Duranmin, 3 villages; language area situated astride upstream portion of Wano river. 66 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yabio. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 7% with Papi [ppe]. Classification: Sepik, Leonhard Schultze.

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Yekora
[ykr] Morobe province: Morobe government station area. 2 villages. 1,050 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mawae dialect of Zia [zia]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, Yekora.

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Yele
[yle] Milne Bay province: Misima district, Rossel island at Calvados chain east end; Alotau and Port Moresby. 3,750 (1998 Rossel Health Centres). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,750 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rossel, Yela, Yelejong, Yeletnye, Yélî Dnye, Yelidnye. Dialects: Daminyu, Bou, Wulanga, Jinjo, Abaletti, Jaru. Lexical similarity: 8% with Daga [dgz] (most similar). Classification: Yele-West New Britain, Yele. Comments: Christian.

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Yelogu
[ylg] East Sepik province: Ambunti district. 1 village. 160 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buiamanambu, Kaunga. Classification: Sepik, Ndu.

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Yerakai
[yra] East Sepik province: Ambunti district, southeast near government station. 2 villages. 380 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yerekai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 6% with Middle Sepik languages. Classification: Sepik, Yerakai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yessan-Mayo
[yss] East Sepik province: Ambunti district; Sandaun province: Wan Wan district, south of Mehek. 10 villages. 1,990 (2000 census). 993 Yawu dialect (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maio-Yesan, Mayo-Yesan, Yasyin, Yesan. Dialects: Yawu (Warasai, Yau, Yaw), Mayo-Yessan. Classification: Sepik, Tama. Comments: Yawu dialect different from Yau [yyu] or Yau [yuw]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yil
[yll] Sandaun province: northwest of Au [avt] language area. 16 villages. 2,470 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 23% with Au [avt]. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Yimas
[yee] East Sepik province: near Chambri, Arafundi and middle Karawari rivers. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Ramu-Lower Sepik, Lower Sepik, Karawari.

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Yipma
[byr] Eastern Highlands province: Marawaka district. 6,600 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barua, Baruya. Dialects: Wantakia, Baruya, Gulicha, Usirampia (Wuzuraabya). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Angan, Nuclear Angan.

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Yis
[yis] Sandaun province: west of Lumi. 5 villages. 320 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different dialects in each village. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

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Yoba
[yob] Central province: north of Magori. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric.

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Yoidik
[ydk] Madang province: 35 km north of Madang on the coast. 770 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang, Croisilles, Hanseman.

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Yongkom
[yon] Western province: Fly and Tedi (Alice) rivers and toward Lake Murray. 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yonggom, Yongom. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with North Muyu [kti], 70% with South Muyu [kts], 30% with Ninggerum [nxr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland.

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Yopno
[yut] Madang and Morobe provincial borders: Finisterre range. 9,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yupna. Dialects: Kewieng, Nokopo, Wandabong, Isan. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yout Wam
[ytw] Madang province: Finisterre mountains north slope of Rai Coast, Yout village. 270 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Finisterre-Huon, Finisterre, Yupna.

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Zenag
[zeg] Morobe province: Mumeng district, northwest of Bulolo. 1,820 (1979 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zenang. Dialects: Latep. In the Mumeng chain of related varieties. Some intelligibility of Patep [ptp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng.

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Zia
[zia] Morobe province: Huon Gulf district, Morobe Patrol Post station near Waria river mouth; downstream from Oro province, Sohe district. 4,500 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Zia (1991 SIL), 940 Mawae dialect. Ethnic population: 4,550. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lower Waria, Tsia, Ziya. Dialects: Zia, Mawae. Lexical similarity: 68% with Yekora [ykr] (most similar). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Greater Binanderean, Binanderean, North Binanderean.

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Zimakani
[zik] Western province: Lake Murray south end. 1,500 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baegwa, Bagwa Zimakani, Dea. Dialects: Zimakani, Bagwa (Begua, Mbegu), Dea. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Boazi.

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