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Adasen
[tiu] Luzon, northeast Abra Province; into western Apayao Province. 4,000 (NTM). Ethnic population: 5,720. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Addasen, Addasen Tinguian, Itneg Adasen. Dialects: Eastern Addasen, Western Addasen. Comprehension of Isnag [isd] 74%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag.

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Agta, Alabat Island
[dul] Luzon, east of Quezon Province, central Alabat island. 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 75. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alabat Island Dumagat. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget.

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Agta, Casiguran Dumagat
[dgc] Central Luzon, east coast; Isabela Province, Dinapigue municipality; down coast, Aurora Province, past Casiguran city as far as Dipaculao municipality; Quirino Province, thin border strip. 610 (Headland 1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Casiguran Dumagat. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: 83% of Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern. Comments: Negrito. Pressure from Filipino homesteaders moving into the area. Traditional lands now used by homesteaders for agriculture.

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Agta, Central Cagayan
[agt] Northeast Luzon, Cagayan Province, inland area, east and northeast from Baggao. 780 (2000). Ethnic population: 820. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Labin Agta. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic. Comments: Negrito. Christian.

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Agta, Dicamay
[duy] Luzon, Isabela Province, Jones municipality, southeast of Santiago City. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dicamay Dumagat. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern.

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Agta, Dupaninan
[duo] Northeast Luzon, Cagayan and Isabela provinces, from below Divilacan bay south to Palaui island north. 1,200 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2007 L. Reid). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dupaningan Agta, Eastern Cagayan Agta. Dialects: Yaga, Tanglagan, Santa Ana-Gonzaga, Barongagunay, Palaui Island, Camonayan, Valley Cove, Bolos Point, Peñablanca, Roso (Southeast Cagayan), Santa Margarita. Intelligibility of Yaga dialect 83%. Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta [agt] are 63% intelligible. Lexical similarity: 51% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Tanglagan dialect, 66% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Yaga dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern.

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Agta, Isarog
[agk] Luzon, Bicol region, Camarines Sur Province, mount Isarog east of Naga city. 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga.

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Agta, Mt. Iraya
[atl] Luzon, Bicol region, Camarines Sur Province, Mount Buhi area east of Lake Buhi. 150 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Inagta of Mt. Iraya, Itbeg Rugnot, Lake Buhi, Rugnot of Lake Buhi East. Dialects: 54%–86% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 94% comprehension of Mt. Iriga Agta [agz], Iriga City dialect. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bikol; 70% with Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect, 93% among four dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga. Comments: Heavy borrowing from Legaspi dialect of Central Bikol [bcl].

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Agta, Mt. Iriga
[agz] Luzon, Bicol region, Camarines Sur Province, east of Iriga city, west of Lake Buhi. 1,500 (1979 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lake Buhi West, Mount Iriga Negrito, San Ramon Inagta. Dialects: 86% intelligibility of Rinconada Bikol [bto], 82% of Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 72% of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect). Intelligibility of Naga Bikol for Mt. Iriga Agta doubtful. Lexical similarity: 76% with Iriga City Bikol [bto], 66% with Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 66% with Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland.

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Agta, Pahanan
[apf] Luzon, Isabela province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town, inland to San Mariano. 1,700 (2009 J. Lobel), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pahanan, Palanan Agta. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Agta, Umiray Dumaget
[due] East Luzon, Philippine Sea coast, Aurora and Quezon provinces; small border areas inland, Nueva Ecija and Bulacan provinces. 3,000 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Umiray Agta, Umirey Dumagat. Dialects: Polillo Island Agta, Anglat Agta. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget.

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Agta, Villa Viciosa
[dyg] Luzon, Abra Province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine.

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Agutaynen
[agn] Agutaya island, 5 surrounding islands; Roxas, San Vicente, and Brooke’s Point, Palawan Province municipalities; Mindoro, Taytay, Linapacan, and Manila. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agutayno, Agutaynon. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Cuyonon [cyo], 71% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Kalamian. Comments: Culturally lowland. Christian.

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Alangan
[alj] North central Mindoro; Mindoro Occidental Province, Sablayar municipality; Mindoro Oriental Province, Naujan and Victoria municipalities. 2,150 (2002 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan.

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Alta, Northern
[aqn] East Luzon, Aurora Province, San Luis municipality, Bayanihan area, Diteki river. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baler Negrito, Ditaylin Alta, Ditaylin Dumagat, Edimala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages (1992 L. Reid). Lexical similarity: 34% with Southern Alta [agy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta.

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Alta, Southern
[agy] Luzon, Quezon Province coastal areas, east Nueva Ecija, Sierra Madre, and San Miguel town; Bulacan Province, a large community in remote San Miguel. North of the Umiray Dumaget [due] language area. 1,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ita, Kaboloan, Kabulowan, Kabuluen, Kabuluwan, Kabuluwen. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 34% with Northern Alta [aqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ASL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Philippine Sign Language [psp] and ASL are very similar but generally regarded by Deaf people in the Philippines as distinct languages. Both are in use as a normal means of communication, with a lot of bilingualism. Different deaf schools prefer different languages.

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Arta
[atz] Luzon, Quirino Province, Aglipay municipality, Cagayan river area. 11 (2013 Y. Kimoto). 35–45 have some knowledge of the language, but cannot speak properly (2013 Y. Kimoto). Ethnic population: 150. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Not similar to any other language (1992 L. Reid). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Arta. Comments: Negrito.

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Ata
[atm] Central Visayas, Negros Oriental province, Mabinay. 2 (Wurm 2000). In 1973, only a few families of speakers were reported. Probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Different from Ata Manobo [atd] or Atta languages.

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Ati
[atk] Western Visayas, north and west Iloilo Province, west central Capiz Province; southwest Aklan Province; Antique Province, border areas east of San Remigio; Panay island. 1,500 (1980 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inati. Dialects: Malay, Barotac Viejo Nagpana. Barotac Viejo Nagpana is the prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Comments: Negrito.

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Atta, Faire
[azt] Luzon, Cagayan Province, Santo Nino municipality, near Faire-Rizal. 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Southern Atta. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pudtol Atta [atp], 60% with Isnag [isd], 66% with Central Cagayan Agta [agt], 82% with Pamplona Atta [att], 90% with Rizal Atta, 72% with Ibanag [ibg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic. Comments: Negrito.

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Atta, Pamplona
[att] Luzon, Northwest Cagayan Province. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atta, Northern Cagayan Negrito. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Ibanag North [ibg] 97%, of Itawit [itv] 52%. Lexical similarity: 91% with Ibanag North, 63% with Ilocano [ilo], 69% with Itawit. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic.

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Atta, Pudtol
[atp] Luzon, Apayao Province, Pudtol, and Abulog river south of Pamplona. 710 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Pamplona Atta [att], 75% with Ibanag [ibg], 63% with Isnag [isd], 81% with Faire Atta [azt], 42% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic. Comments: Negrito.

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Ayta, Abellen
[abp] Luzon, Tarlac Province, San Jose, Maamot; Station Juliana, Mayantoc, and Capas. 3,000 (2008 SIL), decreasing. 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abenlen, Aburlen Negrito, Ayta Abellen Sambal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 49% with Sambal [xsb], 38%–44% with Ilocano [ilo], Pangasinan [pag], Filipino [fil], Pampangan [pam]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayta, Ambala
[abc] Luzon, Zambales Province, San Marcelino, Subic city, Olongapa, Castillejos barrios; Luzon, Bataan province, Dinalupinan barrio. 1,660 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambala Agta, Ambala Sambal. Dialects: None known. Ambala Ayta speakers’ comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl] is 60%, of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx] is 54%, of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb] is 60%, of Magbukun Ayta [ayt] is 70%. Lexical similarity: 70% with Botolan Sambal, 55% with Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Do not mix with other Ayta groups. Affected by Mount Pinatubo eruption. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayta, Mag-antsi
[sgb] Central Luzon, Mount Pinatubo east side, Botolan Sambal area, near Tarlac-Pampanga border, Capas, Tarlac, Bamban, San Marcelino, Zambales, 2 of Castillejos, Zambales, 2 of Mabalacat, Pampanga, Sapang Bato, and Angeles city barrios. 8,200 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayta, Mag-Anchi, Mag-Anchi Sambal. Dialects: None known. 77% intelligibility of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx], 65% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 46% of Pampangan [pam]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% with Filipino [fil], 46% with Pampangan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: People scattered due to Mount Pinatubo eruption.

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Ayta, Mag-Indi
[blx] Luzon, Zambales Province, San Marcelino; Pampanga Province, barrios and communities in Florida Blanca and Porac; far northern Bataan Province. 5,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 30,000. All Ayta in Zambales, Pampanga, and Tarlac regions. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Indi Ayta, Mag-Indi Sambal. Dialects: None known. 46% comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 59% of Pampangan [pam], 32% of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 38% with Filipino [fil], 83% with Mag-Anchi [sgb], 71% with Ayta Abellen [abp], 51% with Kapampangan [pam]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic.

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Ayta, Magbukun
[ayt] Luzon, Bataan Province, Mariveles. 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bataan Ayta, Bataan Sambal, Mariveles Ayta. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Botolan Sambal [sbl] and Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Negrito.

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Ayta, Sorsogon
[ays] Luzon, Sorsogon Province, Prieto Diaz municipality. 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 180. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Frequent intermarriage with other groups.

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Ayta, Tayabas
[ayy] Luzon, Quezon Province, Tayabas area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Negrito.

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Balangao
[blw] Northern Luzon, Mountain Province, central area; into Kalinga Province, Tanudan municipality. 21,300 (2000), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Balangao Bontoc, Balangaw, Farangao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Balangaw. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bantayanon
[bfx] Central Visayas, Cebu Province, Bantayan and surrounding islands. 71,600 (2007 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central.

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Bantoanon
[bno] Romblon Province. 75,000 (2011 Governor’s Office, Romblon Province), decreasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 75,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asi, Asiq. Dialects: Banton, Calatravanhon, Odionganon, Sibalenhon (Sibale), Simaranhon. 63% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]; 92% with Inonhan [loc]. Odionganon dialect preferred for literature. Lexical similarity: 83% with Romblomanon [rol] (Zorc 1977). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Banton. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, Muslim.

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Basque
[eus] Well-established community since early 19th century, mostly as business owners, financiers, etc. Important centers: Zumarraga, Manila, Bicol, Visayas islands, especially Negros, Panay and Cebu. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Euskara. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Batak
[bya] Palawan Province, central Palawan island, Sulu sea coast, generally southwest from Malcampo towards Puerto Princesa. 1,480 (2002 UNSD), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,040 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Babuyan, Palawan Batak, Tinitianes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Negrito. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baybayanon
[bvy] Eastern Viscayas, Leyte island, Baybay town in Pangasugan river area, Guadalupe (Utod), Gabas, Kilim, Patag and Pangasugan villages. 10,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Leyte, Utudnon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan.

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Bikol
[bik] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 3,799,900 Status: Comments: Includes: Buhi’non Bikol [ubl], Central Bikol [bcl], Libon Bikol [lbl], Miraya Bikol [rbl], Northern Catanduanes Bikol [cts], Rinconada Bikol [bto], Southern Catanduanes Bikol [bln], West Albay Bikol [fbl].

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Bikol, Buhi’non
[ubl] Luzon, Camarines Sur Province, Buhi town. 73,600 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol Buhi, Boînan, Buhi, Buhi’non, Buhi-non. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Central
[bcl] Bikol Region, Quezon Province, extreme eastern tip; Camarines Sur Province, around San Miguel bay, Ragay gulf, Caramoan peninsula to Lagonay gulf; western Albay Province, including Legapi area; northern Sorsogon Province, mouth, Sorsogon bay, inland; Camarines Norte Province, facing Philippine Sea, from basiad marshes east along coast to Mandao, San Miguel bay; southwestern third, Catanduanes Province; Masbate Province, most likely Burias and Ticao islands. 2,500,000 (1990 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Camarines Norte, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Bikol, Central Bicolano. Dialects: Naga, Legazpi (Legapi), Daet, Partido. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Libon
[lbl] Luzon, Albay Province, Libon town. 68,800 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Libongeño. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Miraya
[rbl] Luzon, Albay Province, Guinobatan, Camalig, Daraga, and Jovellar towns; Sorsogon Province, Donsol town. 300,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol, Daraga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to West Albay Bikol [fbl]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Northern Catanduanes
[cts] Luzon, Catanduanes Province, Pandan, Caramonan, Viga, Panganiban, and Bato. 77,500 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northern Catanduanes Bicolano, Pandan. Dialects: 68% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 66% comprehension of Filipino [fil] narrative. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Pandan. Comments: Proud of language and culture. People who identify with this language are negotiating multiple identities.

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Bikol, Rinconada
[bto] Luzon, Camarines Sur Province, Rinconada district, Iriga city, Baao, Bato, Balatan, Bula, Buhi, and Nabua municipalities. 385,000 (2010 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Monolingual speakers are elderly; boast of their identity as Rinconada. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicolano, Iriga, Rinconada Bicolano, Rinconada Bikol. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Iriga. Comments: Iriga City inhabitants regard Naga [bcl] dialect as true Bicolano; proud of their language and culture. Christian.

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Bikol, Southern Catanduanes
[bln] Luzon, Catanduanes Province, southern municipalities: Virac, San Miguel, San Andres, Gigmoto, Bato, and Baras. 135,000 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Catanduanes Bikolano, Virac. Dialects: Samples had 85% comprehension of Central Bikol [bcl] and Filipino [fil] narrative. Intelligibility of Northern Catanduanes [cts] 91%. Prefer Virac dialect for literature. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Virac. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, West Albay
[fbl] Luzon, Albay Province, Polangui, Oas, Ligao, and Pio Duran towns. 260,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicol, Bikol, Ligaoeño, Oasnun, Oasnün, Polanguinon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Miraya Bikol [rbl]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Binukid
[bkd] North Central Mindanao, central, north Bukidnon Province; northeast Lanao del Norte Province; Misamis Oriental Province, Cagayan de Oro area including southwest of Gingoog bay; very small border strip, Lanao del Sur. 100,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binokid, Binukid Manobo, Bukidnon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Higaonon [mba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North.

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Binukidnon, Northern
[kyn] Negros Occidental Province, Kabankalan. 15,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karolanos. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Southern Binukidnon [mtw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine.

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Binukidnon, Southern
[mtw] Negros Oriental Province, Mount Arniyo near Bayawan, upper Tayaban, Bayawan, Tanjag, Santa Catalina, and Siaton municipalities. 7,570 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukidnon, “Magahat” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Binukidnon [kyn]. Reportedly includes a heavy mixture of Cebuano [ceb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Tend to live in high elevations.

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Blaan, Koronadal
[bpr] Mindanao, South Cotabato (eastern portion) and Sarangani provinces; Sultan Kudarat Province, Lutayan area; also in Davao del Sur Province. 150,000 (2007 SIL). 40,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baraan, Bilanes, Biraan, Koronadal Bilaan, Tagalagad. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Blaan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Blaan, Sarangani
[bps] Mindanao, almost entire area of Sarangani Province; South Cotabato Province, General Santos and north; Davao del Sur Province, language area across from Sarangani northern border. 90,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balud, Bilaan, Tumanao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Blaan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bolinao
[smk] Luzon, West Pangasinan Province, Bolinao and Anda municipalities. 51,200 (2007 census), decreasing. L2 users: 5,000. 510 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 104,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Binobolinao, Bino-Bolinao, Binubolinao, Binubulinao, Bolinao Sambal, Bolinao Zambal, Bulinaw, Sambal Bolinao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Christian.

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Bontok
[bnc] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 40,700 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Bontok [lbk], Eastern Bontok [ebk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southern Bontok [obk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk].

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Bontok, Central
[lbk] Luzon, Mountain Province, Bontoc municipality, Bontoc ili, Caluttit, Dalican, Guina-ang, Ma-init, Maligcong, Samoki, and Tocucan villages. 19,600 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Bontoc Igorot, Bontoc, Central. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok.

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Bontok, Eastern
[ebk] Luzon, east Mountain Province, Barlig municipality, Barlig, Kadaklan, and Lias villages. 6,170 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Bontoc, Finallig, Southern Bontoc. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]; intelligibility of Ilocano [ilo] 53%, of Balangao [blw] 49%. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bontok, Northern
[rbk] Luzon, northern Mountain Province, Sadanga municipality, Anabel, Bekigan, Belwang, Betwagan, Demang, Sacasacan, Saclit, and the municipal center, Sadanga Poblacion; some in south Kalinga Province. 9,700 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Bontoc, Central, Bontoc, Northern. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Eastern Bontok [ebk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Various Sadanga municipality residents do not identify their language as Bontok. They identify with their community dialect, and label it distinctively.

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Bontok, Southern
[obk] Luzon, Mountain Province, south of Bontoc municipality, Talubin, Bayyo, and Can-eo towns. 2,760 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Southern Bontoc. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Central Bontok [lbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bontok, Southwestern
[vbk] Luzon, Mountain Province, Bontoc municipality, Alab, Balili, Gonogon and villages in Chico river valley, southwest of municipal capital Bontoc, along Halsema Highway. 2,470 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bontoc. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Various municipality residents do not identify their language as Bontok. They identify with their community dialect, and label it distinctively: Alab (Ina-ab), Balili (Binalili), Gonogon (Ginonogon); however, they maintain a sense of community with other Southwestern Bontok speakers based on perceived phonological and other linguistic differences from Central Bontok [lbk].

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Buhid
[bku] South Mindoro island, Mindoro Occidental and Mindoro Oriental provinces, remote central highland area. 8,000 (1991 OMF). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangon, Batangan, Bukil. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid.

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Butuanon
[btw] Northern Mindanao, Agusan del Norte Province, Butuan city. 34,500 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kamayo [kyk]; 69% with Surigaonon [sgd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug.

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Caluyanun
[clu] Western Visayas, Aklan Province, Caluya Islands northwest. 30,000 (1994 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caluyanen, Caluyanhon. Dialects: Semirara. 69% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil], 62% of Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West. Comments: Christian.

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Capiznon
[cps] Western Visayas, northeast Panay, Capiz Province; Iloilo Province, Balasan. 639,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Capisano, Capiseño. Dialects: None known. Sample had 91% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil] narrative. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral.

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Cebuano
[ceb] Widespread; throughout Visayas and south Masbate provinces; parts of Mindanao. 15,800,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 15,810,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Cebu Province, 4 other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Binisaya, Bisayan, Sebuano, Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Visayan. Dialects: Cebu, Boholano, Leyte, Mindanao Visayan. Boholano sometimes considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Cebuan. Comments: Christian.

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Chavacano
[cbk] Mindanao, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay and Basilan provinces; scattered groups in Kabasalan, Siay, Margosatubig, Ipil, Malangas, Lapuyan, Buug, Tungawan, Alicia, Isabela, Lamitan, Maluso, Malamawi, and Cotabato city; Cavite, Ternate, and Ermita near Manila. 1,200,000 (Quilis 1996). 300,000 Zamboangueño (Steinkrüger 2013), 359,000 Zamboangueño (Rubino 2008); 4,000 Caviteño; 3,000 Ternateño (Lesho and Sippola 2013); 5,470 Cotabato Chavacano (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chabacano, Chabakano, Zamboangueño. Dialects: Caviteño (Cavite Chabacano), Ternateño (Bahra, Ternate Chabacano, Ternateño Chavacano), Ermitaño (Ermiteño), Davaweño Zamboangueño (Abakay Spanish, Davao Chavacano, Davaoeño, Davaweño), Cotabato Chavacano (Cotabateño), Zamboangueño (Chabacano de Zamboanga, Español quebrao, Southern Mindinao Creole, Zamboanga Chabacano). Classification: Creole, Spanish based. Comments: A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical structure. Speakers in 60 of 66 provinces (1970 census). Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 500 in Philippines. Ethnic population: All ethnic Chinese are 53,300 (1990 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Most prominent Chinese variety, widespread in Manila and other cities. 592,000 in Philippines (1982). 99% of Chinese population in the Philippines (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Min Nan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] 9,780 in Philippines (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Cuyonon
[cyo] Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan and Panay. 123,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuyo, Cuyono, Cuyunon, Kuyonon, Kuyunon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ratagnon [btn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan.

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Davawenyo
[daw] Mindanao, Davao Oriental and Davao del Sur provinces. 147,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davaoeño, Davaweño, Matino. Dialects: Synthesis of Filipino [fil], Cebuano [ceb], other Visayan dialects. Some Spanish [spa] words. Not a Spanish creole. Different from Davawenyo dialect of Chavacano [cbk]. 2 dialects: East Coast (90% of speakers), and Davao City area (Whinnom 1956). Lowland Davawenyo have 89% intelligibility of Kamayo [kyk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Davawenyo.

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Dumagat, Remontado
[agv] Calabarzon region, Quezon Province, General Nakar, Paimohuan; Rizal Province, Santa Inez; Laguna Province, Santa Maria municipality. 2,530 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hatang-Kayey, Remontado Agta, Sinauna, Sinauna Tagalog. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Filipino [fil], 37% with Umiray Dumaget Agta [due]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sinauna. Comments: Reportedly highly endangered; possibly no longer in use (2006 SIL). Reportedly high levels of bilingualism (1989 SIL). Previously erroneously identified as a variety of Agta.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 20,000 in Philippines (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 40,000,000 in Philippines (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(7)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Eskayan
[esy] Central Visayas, Bohol (island) Province, Cadapdapan, Biabas, Lundag, Taytay, and Canta-ub villages. No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 500 (2013 P. Kelly). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2013 P. Kelly). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bisayan Declarado, Bisayan Diklaradu, Bisayan-Eskaya, Eskaya’, Ineskaya, Iniskaya, Iskaya’. Dialects: Created through a relexification of Boholano, a dialect of Cebuano [ceb], but with changes to affixation rules. Some lexical input from Cebuano, Spanish [spa], and English [eng] (Kelly 2012). Classification: Mixed language, Cebuano-Spanish-English. Comments: It is taught in traditional schools in Taytay and Biabas on Sundays. It is taught for 30 minutes each morning in the government elementary school in Taytay (2013 P. Kelly).

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Filipino
[fil] Widespread. L2 users: 45,000,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(6)), not used in all official domains. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Primarily based on Tagalog [tgl] with some terminology imported from other regional languages. Christian.

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Filipino Sign Language
[psp] Scattered. 100,000 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: FSL, Local Sign Language, Philippine Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Filipino Sign Language and ASL [ase] are very similar but generally regarded by Deaf people in the Philippines as distinct languages. Both are in use as a normal means of communication, with a lot of bilingualism. Different deaf schools prefer different languages.

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Ga’dang
[gdg] Luzon, Mountain Province, Paracelis; Kalinga Province, Tabuk city; Ifugao Province, Potia. 6,000 (2002 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baliwon, Gaddang, Ginabwal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gaddang [gad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gaddang
[gad] Luzon, central; Nueva Vizcaya Province, Bagabag, Bayombong, and Solano municipalities; into Ifugao Province, north of Magat Reservoir; separate small enclave, Isabela Province, along middle branch of Cagayan river, Tuboc area. 30,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cagayan. Dialects: None known. Less than 80% intelligibility of Ga’dang [gdg]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ga’dang [gdg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic. Comments: A lowland group. Christian.

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Giangan
[bgi] Mindanao, Davao City; Davao del Sur Province, east slopes of Mount Apo. 55,000 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Atto, Bagobo, Clata, Eto, Guanga, Gulanga, Jangan. Dialects: None known. 69% comprehension of Tagabawa [bgs]; 79% of Obo Manobo [obo]. Lexical similarity: 34% with Tagabawa [bgs], 35% with Obo Manobo [obo], 43% with Blaan [bpr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic. Comments: Different from Manobo.

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Hanunoo
[hnn] Mindoro island, southern tip; Mindoro Oriental Province, area north from San Pedro; Mindoro Occidental Province, from Ilin island inland. 13,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hanonoo. Dialects: Gubatnon (Gubat, Sorsogonon), Binli, Kagankan, Waigan, Wawan, Bulalakawnon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Hanunoo.

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Higaonon
[mba] North central Mindanao, Butuan river basin, northwest Agusan del Sur Province; Agusan del Norte Province, south of Butuan city. 30,000 (1996 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Higaunon, Misamis Higaonon Manobo. Dialects: None known. Related to Binukid [bkd] with 77%–81% intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North.

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Hiligaynon
[hil] Masbate Province, Jintotolo peninsula, south of Panguiranan; Western Visayas, almost all of Negros Occidental Province; Negros Oriental Province, Basay, Bayawan, and Canlaon municipalities; Panay island, Iloilo Province, from Iloilo city northeast along Guimaras strait to Binon-an, nearby islands; west and central Capiz Province, and Guimaras island; Mindanao, central west and eastern Sultan Kudarat Province; South Cotabato Province, from northwest towards Bayabas; North Cotabato Province, area west of Lake Buluan; Maguindanao Province, small border area south of Timbangan. 5,770,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Iloilo, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Hiligainon, Illogo, Ilonggo. Dialects: Hiligaynon, Kawayan, Kari. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Comments: Christian.

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I-wak
[iwk] Luzon, Benguet Province, east Itogon municipality, Tojongan, Bakes, Lebeng, Domolpos, Bujasjas, and Kayo-ko villages; also in Nueva Vizcayay Province, Kayapa municipality, Salaksak village. 3,260 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iwaak. Dialects: None known. Related to Karao [kyj], Ibaloi [ibl], and Kalanguya [kak]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy. Comments: Less acculturated to outside culture than other mountain groups. Possibly people group speaks only Kalanguya [kak] in Nueva Vizcaya.

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Ibaloi
[ibl] Luzon, central and south Benguet Province, west Nueva Vizcaya Province. 111,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benguet-Igorot, Ibadoy, Ibaloy, Igodor, Inibaloi, Nabaloi. Dialects: Daklan, Kabayan, Bokod. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy.

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Ibanag
[ibg] Luzon, Isabela and Cagayan provinces. 500,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Cagayan and Isabela provinces. Alternate Names: Ybanag. Dialects: North Ibanag, South Ibanag. Intelligibility of Itawit [itv] 69%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic.

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Ibatan
[ivb] North of Luzon, Babuyan Islands, Ibatan tribe ancestral domain; administered under Cagayan Province, Calayan municipality, except for Fuga island under Aparri municipality. 1,240 (2007 NCIP). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,400 (2008 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Babuyan, Ibataan, Ivatan. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv] 64%; Basco Ivatan [ivv] 31%. Lexical similarity: 72% with Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv], 74% with Basco Ivatan [ivv] (1974–1975 SIL survey). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Ivatan. Comments: Since 1978, speakers have increased from 450 to 1,220. On June 1, 2007, the Ibatan were awarded title to their island home of Babuyan Claro with all collective rights to natural resources, including 5 km of ocean around the island. The ancestral domain was established with the help of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines and based on the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997 (2007 SIL). Christian.

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Ifugao, Amganad
[ifa] Luzon, Ifugao Province, Hungduan and Banaue municiplities; into southwest Mountain Province. 27,100 (2000 SIL). 168,000 all Ifugao (1990 census). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amganad, Ifugaw. Dialects: Burnay Ifugao, Banaue Ifugao. Intelligibility of Burnay dialect 81%. Lexical similarity: 83% with Burnay dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ifugao, Batad
[ifb] Luzon, central Ifugao Province; some in Isabela Province, eastern shore, Magat reservoir. 10,100 (2002 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad, Ifugaw. Dialects: Ducligan Ifugao. Intelligibility of Ayangan Batad Ifugao: Mayoyao [ifu] 86%–94%. Lexical similarity: 89% with Ducligan dialect, 79% with Mayoyao [ifu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ifugao, Mayoyao
[ifu] Luzon, Ifugao Province, north Mayoyao, Aguinaldo, and Alfonso Lista municipalities; Mountain Province, 2 small border areas. 30,000 (2007 SIL). L2 users: 0. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ifugaw, Mayaoyaw, Mayoyao. Dialects: None known. 86%–94% intelligibility of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Grammatical markers are different. Lexical similarity: 54% with Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ifugao, Tuwali
[ifk] Luzon, south Ifugao Province. 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Only those below grade-school age are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan, Tuwali. Dialects: Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 78% of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Hapao dialect has 88% intelligibility of Hungduan dialect. Lexical similarity: 80% with Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 72% with Batad Ifugao [ifb], 78% with Hapao dialect, 86% with Hungduan dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Kiangan is the place, Tuwali the language. Christian.

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Ilocano
[ilo] Widespread; northwest Luzon, La Union and Ilocos provinces; Babuyan islands; Cagayan valley, Mindoro, Mindanao areas. 6,920,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 7,016,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in northwest Luzon Island, other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Ilokano, Iloko. Dialects: None known. A pidginized form is used in northern Luzon highlands. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Ilocano. Comments: Christian.

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Ilongot
[ilk] Luzon, most of Quirino Province north of the Cagayan; eastern Nueva Vizcaya Province; south Isabela Province, upper reaches, Cagayan river. 50,800 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bugkalut, Bukalot, Lingotes. Dialects: Abaka (Abaca), Egongot, Ibalao (Ibilao), Italon, Iyongut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Ilongot.

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Inabaknon
[abx] East Visayas, Northern Samar Province, San Bernardino strait, Capul island, facing east to San Isidro island; Manila. 26,400 (2010 M. Jacobson). Population increases 300–500 yearly. About 500 leave annually to find opportunities elsewhere. 3,000 monolinguals. Almost all children. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Abaknon, Abaknon Sama, Capuleño, Kapul, Sama. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Abaknon. Comments: Christian.

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Inakeanon
[akl] Western Visayas, north Panay island, principally Aklan Province; northwest Capiz Province border; Antique Province, far north, Libertad and Pandan municipalities. 93,200 in Philippines (2002 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 116,800. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Aklan and Capiz provinces. Alternate Names: Aklan, Aklano, Aklanon, Aklanon-Bisayan, Panay. Dialects: None known. 66% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan.

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Inonhan
[loc] Romblon Province, South Tablas island; Mindoro Oriental and Mindoro Occidental provinces. 85,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loocnon, Looknon, “Unhan” (pej.). Dialects: Bulalakaw, Dispoholnon, Looknon, Alcantaranon. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odionganon [bno] (Bantuanon), 93% with Aklanon [akl], 86% with Caluyanun [clu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, North Central. Comments: Loocnon is a town name.

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Iranun
[ilp] Mindanao, Maguindanao Province, Barida, Buidon, Parang, Sultan Mastera, and Sultan Kudarat municipalities; North Cotabato Province, Alamada, Banasilan, Carmen, Libungan, and Pigcawayan municipallities; Lanao del Sur Province, southeasern tip; and Bukidnon Province, Kalilangan municipality. 241,000 (2015 S. Conklin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Illanun. Dialects: Ilanon, Ilanum, Illanon, Iranon. 85% intelligibility of Maranao [mrw] of the Philippines. Most closely related to Maranao. Related to, but distinct from, Maguindanaon [mdh]. Different from Lahanan [lhn] of Sarawak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon.

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Iraya
[iry] North Mindoro island, Mindoro Occidental Province, Paluan, Abra de Ilog, northern Mamburao, and Santa Cruz municipalities; Mindoro Oriental Province, Puerto Galera and San Teadoro municipalities. 10,000 (1991 OMF). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Abra-De-Ilog, Alag-Bako, Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite, Pambuhan, Santa Cruz. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan.

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Isinai
[inn] Luzon, Nueva Vizcaya Province, Bambang, Dupax Del Sur, and Aritao municipalities. 5,520 (1990 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Inmeas, Insinai, Isinay, Isnay. Dialects: None known. Not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Isinai.

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Isnag
[isd] North Luzon, northern two thirds of Apayao Province; Cagayan Province, Claveria and Santa Praxedes municipalites; Abra and Ilocos Norte provinces, scattered areas along Apayao western border. 450 (2002 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Apayao, Dibagat-Kabugao-Isneg, Isneg, Maragat. Dialects: Bayag, Dibagat-Kabugao, Calanasan, Karagawan (Daragawan), Talifugu-Ripang (Tawini). Calanasan dialect 94% intelligibility of Dibagat dialect, 88% of Ilocano [ilo]; Talifugu-Ripang 89% of Dibagat, 71% of Ilocano. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag.

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Itawit
[itv] Luzon, south central Cagayan Province and Apayao Province, Conner municipality. 134,000 (1990 census). 120,000 Itawit, 14,500 Malaweg. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Itawes, Itawis, Tawit. Dialects: Malaweg (Malaueg), Itawis. Related to Ibanag languages; 72% intelligibility of South Ibanag [ibg]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic. Comments: Malaweg may be reclassified as a separate language.

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Itneg, Banao
[bjx] Luzon, Kalinga Province, Balbalan and Pasil municipalities; Abra Province, Daguioman and Malibcong municipalities. 3,500 (2003 SIL). Unknown number in Malibcong dialect area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banao, Banaw, Itneg, Timggian, Tinguian. Dialects: Malibcong Banao, Banao Pikekj, Gubang Itneg. Lexical similarity: Malibcong Banao 58% with Ilocano [ilo], 81% with Lubuagan Kalinga [knb], 73% with Limos Kalinga [kmk]; Banao Pikek (Daguioman) dialect 62% with Ilocano, 83% with Masadiit and Boliney Itneg [tis], 79% with Masadiit and Sallapadan Itneg [tis], 78% with the Banao dialect of Malibcong, and 73% with Binongan Itneg [itb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: High value placed on education. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Itneg, Binongan
[itb] Luzon, Abra Province, Licuan-Baay. 7,500 (2003 SIL). 46,400 in all Itneg varieties (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tingguian, Tinguian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Ilocano [ilo], 79% with Masadiit Itneg [tis]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Inlaod
[iti] Northern Luzon, Abra Province, a few villages in Penarubia, Lagangilang, Danglas, and Langiden municipalities; southwest of Binongan Itneg [itb] and northwest of Masadiit Itneg [tis] language areas. 9,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Inlaod, Tinggian, Tinguian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: Inlaod of Langiden 73% with Ilocano [ilo]; Inlaod of Danglas 71% with Ilocano, 75%–77% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75%–76% with Masadiit [tis] of Sallapadan, 74%–75% with Moyadan Itneg [ity]. Inlaod of Langiden and Inlaod of Danglas 86% with each other. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Maeng
[itt] Luzon, south Abra Province, Luba, Tubo, and Villavisciosa municipalities. 18,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 18,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luba-Tiempo Itneg, Southern Itneg. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: Tubo area 60% with Ilocano [ilo], 68% with Northern Kankanaey [kne]; Villavisciosa area 76% with Ilocano, 61% with Northern Kankanaey. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Masadiit
[tis] Luzon, Abra Province, Sallapadan, Bucloc, and Boliney municipalities; also in Kalinga Province, western border strip. 7,500. 45,000 all Itnegs in Abra Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Masadiit Boliney, Masadiit Sallapadan. Lexical similarity: 62% with Ilocano [ilo], 70% with Guinaang Kalinga [knb], 86% with Binongan Itneg [itb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Moyadan
[ity] Luzon, Abra Province. 12,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tinggian, Tinguian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Ilocano [ilo], 85% with Masadiit Sallapadan [tis], 80% with Masadiit Boliney [tis], 76% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75% with Inlaod Danglas [iti], 74% with Inlaod Langiden [iti], 73% with Maeng [itt] of Tubo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Ivatan
[ivv] North of Luzon, Batanes Islands. Many relocated to Mindanao near Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, and Cotabato; Manila, Luzon, and Palawan. 35,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. 3,450 Itbayatan (1996 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Batanes province. Alternate Names: Ivatanen. Dialects: Itbayaten, Basco Ivatan, Southern Ivatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Ivatan. Comments: Christian.

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Kagayanen
[cgc] Palawan Province, Cagayan island between Negros and Palawan; Palawan coastal communities; south Palawan, Balabac island, Quezon and Rizal areas; north Palawan, Busuanga, Coron municipality; Iloilo Province, Silay, Negros, and Manila. 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen. Dialects: Calamian Kagayanen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North. Comments: A growing number are moving to cities for economic improvement, education. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalagan
[kqe] Mindanao, Davao del Sur Province, southwest of Davao city, inland along coast; Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces, including Samal and associated islands, and inland on easern shores of Davao gulf; Davao Oriental Plrovince, highlands; some in North Cotabato Province; dialects: Isamal dialect: Samal Island; western: Davao Oriental Province; Lupon: Davao del Sur Province, along the gulf down to Hagonoy and Guihing near Digos city; eastern: mainly Davao Oriental Province. 70,000 (2002 census), decreasing. 7,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaagan, Kalagan, Minuslim, Kinalagan. Dialects: Isamal, Western Kalagan, Eastern Kalagan. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kagan [kll], 74% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Mandaya [mry]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Kalagan, Kagan
[kll] Mindanao, Davao del Sur Province near Digos city. 6,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaagan, Kagan Kalagan. Dialects: 82% intelligibility with Kalagan [kqe] dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western.

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Kalanguya
[kak] Luzon, western Nueva Vizcaya Province; Ifugao Province, Hungduan municipality; Benguet Province, Bokod municipality; northeast Pangasinan Province, San Nicolas municipality. 100,000 (2010), increasing. census. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikalahan, Kalangoya, Kalangoya-Ikalahan, Kallahan, Kayapa. Dialects: Central Kalanguya (Kayapa), Northern Kalanguya (Ambaguio, Tinoc), Southern Kalanguya (Santa Fe), Western Kalanguya (Benguet). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan. Comments: Intermarriage with Ilocanos and other groups. Children in such marriages tend to adapt a somewhat different language which is a combination of their parents’ languages. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalinga, Butbut
[kyb] Northern Luzon, Kalinga Province, Cordillera Region, Tinglayan and Butbut; Buscalan, Bugnay, Loccong, and Ngibat; Tabuk city, Lucnang, Pakak, Kataw, and Dinongsay; Rizal Province, Annenang, Malapiat, Andaraya, and Bua. 15,000 (2008), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Butbut. Dialects: None known. 72% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk]; 44% of Ilocano [ilo]; 70% of Guinaang [knb], 47% of Tanudan [kml], 74% of Bangad (Southern) Kalinga [ksc]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Southern Kalinga, 78% with Guinaang and Tanudan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalinga, Limos
[kmk] Luzon, Kalinga Province, Tabuk City, north to border; Apayao Province, Conner municipality. 12,700 (2007 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern Kalinga. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: Lubuagan Kalinga [knb] 65%, Southern Kalinga [ksc] 66%, Tanudan Kalinga 67% [kml], Ilocano [ilo] 84%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Lowland teachers and church leaders use other languages which Limos Kalinga speakers find difficult to understand, and it forces the Limos Kalinga speakers to shift to the other languages. Christian.

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Kalinga, Lubuagan
[knb] Northern Luzon, Kalinga Province, Cordillera Region, Lubuagan; Tabuk city; Manila; Baguio city. 30,000 (2008 V. Dumatog), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Guinaang, Balbalasang, Ableg-Salegseg, Balatok-Kalinga (Balatok-Itneg). Intelligibility of Balbalasang dialect 81%, Sumadel [ksc] 82%, Limos [kmk] 70%, 48% comprehension of Ilocano [ilo] narrative. Lexical similarity: 81% with Balbalasang and Limos. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Mabaka Valley
[kkg] Luzon, Apayao Province, Conner municipality; western Abra and northern Kalinga provinces. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kal-Uwan, Mabaka, Mabaka Itneg. Dialects: None known. 79% comprehension of Limos Kalinga [kmk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga.

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Kalinga, Majukayang
[kmd] Northern Luzon, southeast Kalinga Province, Tabuk City; Mountain Province, Paracelis municipality. 1,500 (1990 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalinga, Madukayang, Majukayong. Dialects: None known. 83% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk] and Balangao [blw], 86% of Tanudan Kalinga [kml]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Tanudan Kalinga [kml], 68% with Limos Kalinga [kmk], 65% with Balangao [blw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Southern
[ksc] Luzon, Kalinga Province, Lubuapan municipality; Mountain Province, Sadanga and Sagada municiplities, 13 villages; some in Tabuk. 13,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 7,540 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Madlango Kalinga, Tinglayan Kalinga. Dialects: Mallango, Sumadel, Bangad, Tinglayan. Intelligibility of Guinaang Kalinga [knb] 63%, Tanudan Kalinga [kml] 51%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Tanudan
[kml] Luzon, south Kalinga Province, south end of Tanudan valley. 11,200 (1998 SIL), increasing. 1,120 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lower Tanudan, Lower Tanudan Kalinga, Mangali Kalinga. Dialects: Minangali (Mangali), Tinaloctoc (Taluctoc), Pinangol (Pangul), Dacalan, Lubo. Intelligibility: 79% of Limos Kalinga [kmk], 66% of Guinaang dialect of Lubuagan Kalinga [knb]. Lexical similarity: 97% with Pinangol dialect, 80% with Madukayang Kalinga [kmd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kallahan, Keley-i
[ify] Luzon, Ifugao Province, Kiangan municipality, Aritao municipality. 8,000 (2000 SIL). Only children under 5 are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Antipolo Ifugao, Hanalulo, Keley-i, Keley-i Kalanguya, Keleyqiq Ifugao. Dialects: Bayninan, Ya-Tuka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kamayo
[kyk] Mindanao, Surigao del Sur Province, between Marihatag and Lingig; Agusan del Sur Province border areas; Davao Oriental Province, between Lingig and Boston. 363,000 (2000 census). Estimated population for Caraga, Davao Oriental, and Surigao del Sur regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davaweño, Davawenyo, Kadi, Kinadi, Kinamayo, Mandaya. Dialects: North Kamayo, South Kamayo. Lexical similarity: 66% with Surigaonon [sgd], 70% with Butuanon [btw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Northern. Comments: Stable diglossia; high bilingualism in Cebuano [ceb]. Christian.

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Kankanaey
[kne] Luzon, north Benguet, southwest Mountain, southeast Ilocos Sur, and northeast La Union, southeast Ilocos Sur, southwest Mountain, and southwest Ifugao provinces. 150,000 (1991 SIL). All Kankanai 218,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Kankanaey, Kankanai, Kankanay. Dialects: Mankayan-Buguias, Kapangan, Bakun-Kibungan, Guinzadan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kankanay, Northern
[xnn] Luzon, west Mountain Province; Ilocos Sur Province, Quirino, Cervantes, Gregorio del Pilar, San Emilio municipalities; Abra Province, Tubo municipality. 70,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sagada Igorot, Western Bontoc. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay.

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Karao
[kyj] Luzon, east Nueva Vizcaya Province, Karao, Ekip, and Bokod areas; into western Benguet Province, also in Ifugao Province, southwest corner. 2,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karaw. Dialects: None known. Limited comprehension testing showed 85% comprehension of Kalanguya [kak]; 78% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Ibaloi [ibl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Karaw.

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Kasiguranin
[ksn] Luzon, Aurora Province, Casiguran municipality. 10,000 (1975 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Casiguranin. Dialects: None known. 82% intelligibility of Paranan [prf]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Filipino [fil], 75% with Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern.

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Katabaga
[ktq] Luzon, Quezon Province, Bondoc peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. Comments: Negrito.

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Kinabalian
[cbw] Leyte island, Southern Leyte Province, 6 villages in San Juan (Cabalian) town. 14,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisaya’, Cabalian, Cabalianon, Kinabalianon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan.

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Kinaray-a
[krj] Western Panay, almost entire Antique Province; western half, Iloilo Province; into western Capiz Province; scattered areas along Aklan Province; possibly, Mindanao, national capital region. 378,000 (1994 SIL), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Antiqueño, Ati, Hamtiknon, Hinaray-a, Karay-a, Kiniray-a, Panayano, Sulud. Dialects: Pandan, Hamtik, Anini-y, Pototan, Lambunao, Miag-Ao, Guimaras Island (Gimaras). Antique area has 75% comprehension of Filipino [fil]; 90% of Hiligaynon [hil]; Iloilo area, 95% of Hiligaynon; 90% of Antique. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kinarayan. Comments: Christian.

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Maguindanaon
[mdh] Mindanao, most of Maguindanao Province, Cotabato city southeast to Lake Buluan; North Cotabato Province, south central area from Kayaga to Dillian; central Sultan Kudarat Province west of Lake Buluan; South Cotabato Province, northern tip. 1,100,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Cotabato and 3 other Mindanao provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Magindanao, Magindanaon, Magindanaw, Magindanawn, Maguindanaw. Dialects: Laya, Ilud, Biwangan, Sibugay, Tagakawanan. Intelligibility 60% of Maranao [mrw], 96% of Iranun [ilp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Magindanao. Comments: Muslim.

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Malaynon
[mlz] Panay, lowland, northwest Aklan Province, Malay municipality. 8,500 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 93% with Aklanon [akl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan.

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Mamanwa
[mmn] East Mindanao, Lake Mainit area, Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte provinces. 5,150 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mamanwa Negrito, Minamanwa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mamanwa.

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Mandaya
[mry] Mindanao, Davao Oriental Province, Manay, Caraga, Baganga, and Cateel municipalities; Davao del Norte Province. 250,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davawenyo. Dialects: Carraga Mandaya, Cateelenyo, Manay Mandayan, Mandaya, Cataelano, Karaga, Sangab, Mangaragan Mandaya. 77% intelligibility of Mansaka [msk]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Kalagan [kqe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern. Comments: Many Mandaya will say they are Davawenyo; “Mandaya” can be a derogatory term, meaning uneducated people from the hills. Christian, traditional religion.

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Manide
[abd] Luzon, Camarines Norte Province, Santa Elena and Labo municipalities. 3,800 (Lobel 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abiyan, Camarinas Norte Agta. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Alabat Agta [dul], 35% with Mt. Iriga Agta [agz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget.

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Manobo, Agusan
[msm] Mindanao, Agusan del Sur Province, western area, southeast of Lake Buluan; inland areas, Surigao del Sur Province; southwest of Lanuza peninsula to Lianga bay; Agusan del Norte Province, western area; Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces, continuous strip along northern borders; Surigao del Norte Province, southern tip, inland; scattered small border areas, Bukidnon and Davao Oriental provinces. 60,000 (2002 SIL). 157,000 all Manobo (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agusan, Manobo, Minanubu. Dialects: Umayam, Adgawan, Surigao, Omayamnon. 83% intelligibility of Dibabawon [mbd]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Omayamnon dialect and other dialects, 85% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Ata
[atd] Mindanao, northwest Davao del Norte Province; southeast Bukidnon Province; Compostela Valley Province, northwest border; Davao del Sur Province, northwest enclave. 26,700 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ata of Davao, Atao Manobo, Langilan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa. Comments: Different from Ata [atm] of Mabinay, Negros Oriental, and Atta languages. A Negrito people.

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Manobo, Cotabato
[mta] Mindanao, Sultan Kudarat Province, Kalamansig, Palimbang, and Ninoy Aquino municipalities; South Cotabato Province, T’Boli municipality. 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dulangan Manobo. Dialects: Tasaday, Blit. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Dibabawon
[mbd] Mindanao, northern Compostela Valley Province, upper Agusan river area; Davao Oriental Province, Boston and Cateel municipalities; Davao del Norte Province, Asuncion municipality, Manguagan. 10,000 (1978 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Debabaon, Dibabaon, Mandaya. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East.

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Manobo, Ilianen
[mbi] Mindanao, North Cotabato Province, north and central watershed of Mindanao river; Bukidnon Province, Kandingilan, Kibawe, and Darnulong municipalities; Maguindanao Province, northern tips of both Northern Kambutalan and Datu Montawal municipalities. 14,600 (2000). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ilianen. Dialects: Arakan, Livunganen, Pulangiyan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West. Comments: Unable to enforce traditional land claims. Traditional religion.

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Manobo, Kinamiging
[mkx] Camiguin Province, entire island north of Mindanao. 26,700 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cinamiguin, Kamigin, Kinamigin, Kinamiguin, Manobo, Cinamiguin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North.

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Manobo, Matigsalug
[mbt] Mindanao, south central Bukidnon, North Cotabato (northeast), and northwestern Davao del Sur provinces. 50,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matig-Salug Manobo. Dialects: Kulamanen. Tigwa has marginal intelligibility of Matigsalug. Tala Ingod may have adequate intelligibility of Matigsalug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Obo
[obo] Mindanao, northeast slope of Mount Apo, between Davao del Sur and North Cotabato provinces. 60,000 (2007 SIL). 20,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bagobo, Kidapawan Manobo, Manobo, Obo Bagobo. Dialects: Kidapawan Manobo, Magpet Manobo, Arakan Manobo, Marilog. 69% intelligibility of Tigwa (Matigsalug Manobo [mbt] reportedly most similar) and 60% of Tagabawa [bgs]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Tagabawa [bgs] and Ilianen Manobo [mbi], 35% with Cebuano [ceb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Obo. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Rajah Kabunsuwan
[mqk] Mindanao, Davao Oriental Province, northern border; southeast corner, Agusan del Sur Province; south Surigao del Sur Province, Lingig, Rajah Cabungsuan. 7,560 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rajah Kabungsuan Manobo. Dialects: Intelligibility of Dibabawon Manobo [mbd] 80%, San Miguel Calatugan Agusan [msm] 81%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 76% with Sagunto dialect of Agusan Manobo [msm] and San Miguel Calatugan dialect of Agusan Manobo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Sarangani
[mbs] Mindanao, Davao del Sur Province, Jose Abad Santos municipality; Davao Oriental Province, Governor Generoso municipality; Sarangani Province, Glan municipality. 58,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Governor Generoso Manobo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South.

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Manobo, Western Bukidnon
[mbb] Mindanao, south Bukidnon Province, Dangcagan, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, and especially Maramag municipalities; into North Cotabato Province, Banisilan municipality. 15,000 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Western Bukidnon. Dialects: Ilentungen, Kiriyenteken, Pulangiyen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West.

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Mansaka
[msk] Mindanao, Davao Oriental Province, west Baganga municipality; then into central west Compostela Valley Province; continuing south back into Davao Oriental Province, as far south as Pujada Bay. 57,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandaya Mansaka. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Bislig-Mati, 89% with Mandaya [mry], 84% with Mati, 74% with Piso dialect of Kalagan [kqe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern.

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Mapun
[sjm] Muslim Mindinao autonomous region, Tawi-Tawi, Cagayan de Sulu (Mapun) island. 43,000 in Philippines (2011 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 43,000. Total users in all countries: 58,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanen, Cagayano, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang, Sama Mapun. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 59%, intelligibility of Sama Pangutaran [sml] 61%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: The center of the ethnic group is on Mapun island (pop. 20,000), also known as Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayan Sulu, and Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. The Mapun people only refer to it as Mapun. Many people from the island go to Sabah, Malaysia to find work. Many have settled there over the past century. There are approximately 15,000 Mapun people in Malaysia. There are approximately 5,000 to 10,000 Mapun people on the island of Palawan in the Philippines. Muslim.

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Maranao
[mrw] Mindanao, almost entire expanse of Lanao del Sur Province; Lanao del Norte Province, southern half, north of Lake Lano; northwest Maguindanao Province, Matanog, Bariya, Buldon, and northern Parang municipalities; North Cotabato (northwest) and west central Bukidnon provinces. 776,000 (1990 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Lanao del Sur. Alternate Names: Maranaw, Ranao. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Iranun [ilp] 87%, of Maguindanaon [mdh] 52%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon. Comments: Muslim.

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Masbatenyo
[msb] Masbate Province, 3 islands. 350,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. L2 users: 250,000 (2002 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals. Mostly children. Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Masbate Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Masbateño, Minasbate. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Capiznon [cps], 76% with Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Comments: Christian.

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Molbog
[pwm] Palawan Province, Palawan, Bataraza, Balabac, Banggi, Ramos, and Balambangam islands. 6,680 in Philippines (1990 census). Ethnic population: 13,400. Total users in all countries: 9,180. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balabak, Molbog Palawan. Dialects: Balabac Island, Southern Palawan, Banggi Island. Intelligibility of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] is 27%, of South Palawano is 55%. Lexical similarity: 69% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Muslim.

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Palawano, Brooke’s Point
[plw] Southeast Palawan Island, south of Abu Abu to Bataraza, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 14,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brooke’s Point Palawan, Palawan, Palawanun, Palaweño. Dialects: South Palawano (Bugsuk Palawano). Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 76%; of Southwest Palawano [plv] 68%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central), 85% with Southwest Palawano [plv], 83% with South Palawano. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Palawano, Central
[plc] Southwest Palawan Island, north of Quezon to north of Rizal; east Abu Abu area, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 12,000 (1981 UBS). 40,500 all Palawano (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Palawanen, Palaweño, Quezon Palawano. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Southwest Palawano [plv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Palawano, Southwest
[plv] Southwest Palawan Island, north of Rizal to the south tip, east side from Bataraza south, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 12,000 (2005 W. Davis). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 75%, of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] 76%. Lexical similarity: 85% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Central Palawano [plc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Pampangan
[pam] Luzon, southern half, Tarlac Province; most of Pampanga Province west of Pampanga river; southwest Nueva Ecija Province; and Zambales Province, scattered areas along eastern border. 1,900,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Total users in all countries: 1,905,430. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pampanga and 2 other Luzon provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Kapampangan, Pampango, Pampangueño. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Pampangan.

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Pangasinan
[pag] Luzon, Pangasinan Province. 1,160,000 in Philippines (1990 census). Total users in all countries: 1,162,140. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pangasinan Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran.

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Paranan
[prf] Luzon, Isabela Province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town and inland to San Mariano. 15,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Palanan, Palanenyo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pahanan Agta [apf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon. Comments: Christian.

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Porohanon
[prh] Central Visayas, Cebu Province, Camotes Islands (Pacijun, Poro, Ponsoon) between Cebu and Leyte. 23000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camotes. Dialects: None known. Barely intelligible with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). Reportedly more similar to Masbatenyo [msb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral.

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Ratagnon
[btn] Mindoro Occidental Province, southern extreme tip, including Ilin islands; Mindoro Oriental Province, southern tip, Bulalacao municipality. 2 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aradigi, Datagnon, Lactan, Latagnun, Latan. Dialects: Ratagnon, Santa Teresa. Reportedly similar to Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan.

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Romblomanon
[rol] Romblon and Sibuyan Islands, northeast of Tablas Island (San Agustin), north of Panay. 94,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Romblon. Dialects: Sibuyanon, Romblon, Bisaya’. Sibuyan Island has 70% intelligibility of Inakeanon [akl], 73% of Hiligaynon [hil], 94% of the Romblon dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Romblon.

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Sama, Balangingih
[sse] Western Mindanao, Sulu archipelago northeast of Jolo, Zamboanga coast peninsula and islands and Basilan island. Northern Sama dialect: Luzon, White Beach near Subic bay; Lutangan dialect: Olutangga island. Possibly on Luzon and Palawan. 80,000 in Philippines (2007). Total users in all countries: 85,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baangingi’, Balanguingui, Bangingi, Bangingih, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sama, Sama Bangingih, Samal. Dialects: Lutangan (Lutango), Sibuco-Vitali (Sibuku), Sibuguey (Batuan), Balangingi, Daongdung, Kabinga’an. Most Lutangan understand Bangingih Sama, the prestige dialect. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 71%, 83% of Lutangan, 85% of Sibuco-Vitali. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lutangan, 75% with Sibuco-Vitali. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Balangingi is the prestige dialect of Northern Sama. Muslim.

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Sama, Central
[sml] Muslim Mindinao autonomous region, Sulu andTawi-Tawi provinces, Siasi, Tabawan, Bonggao Sitangkai, Cagayan de Sulu island; Basilan island, Maluso, Malamawi, Bohe’ Lobbong; Zamboanga del Sur Province, Rio Hondo, Batuan Lumbayaw, Taluk Sangay, Sanggali; Zamboanga del Norte Province, Olutangga; Davao City, Isla Verde, and Sasa; Cagayan de Oro; Visayas, Cebu and Tagbilaran; Palawan, Puerto Princesa; Batangas. 90,000 in Philippines (2000). 30,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 105,000. Total users in all countries: 105,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Bajaw” (pej.), Central Sinama, Orang Laut, Sama Dilaut, Samal, Siasi Sama, Sinama. Dialects: Sama Deya, Sama Dilaut, Sama Siasi, Sama Laminusa, Sama Tabawan. Intelligibility of Bangingih Sama [sse] 79%. Lexical similarity: 47% with Inabaknon [abx], 62% with Yakan [yka], 76% with Pangutaran Sama [slm], 77% with Balangingi [sse], 72–78% with Southern Sama [ssb], 59% with West Coast Bajau [bdr], 66% with Mapun [sjm], 48–51% with Indonesian Bajau [bdl], 25% with Cebuano [ceb], 45% with Tausug [tsg] (Pallesen 1985). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sama, Pangutaran
[slm] Western Mindanao, west central Sulu, Pangutaran island, west of Jolo; south Palawan, Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. 35,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siyama. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 65%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Western Sulu Sama. Comments: Muslim.

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Sama, Southern
[ssb] Muslim Mindanao autonomous region, southern Sulu, Tawi-Tawi Island Province, Tawi-Tawi, Simunul, Sibutu, and other major islands. 200,000 in Philippines (2007 SIL), increasing. 20,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 260,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sama Tawi-Tawi, Sinama, Southern Sinama, Tawi-Tawi Sinama. Dialects: Sibutu’ (Sibutu), Simunul, Tandubas, Obian, Balimbing, Bongao, Sitangkai, Languyan, Sapa-Sapa, Sama Sibutu. Sibutu intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Simunul dialect 89%. Simunul intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Sibutu dialect 80%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Simunul is central, prestige dialect. Bongao dialect from political, economic center of Southern Sama. Muslim.

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Sambal
[xsb] Luzon, Zambales Province, north, 5 towns; Tarlac Province, western border; Pangasinan Province, 2 villages, Palawan Island, Quezon, Panitian village. 70,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Zambales province. Alternate Names: Sambali, Sambalì, “Tina” (pej.), “Tina Sambal” (pej.). Dialects: Santa Cruz, Masinloc, Iba. 70% intelligibility with Botolan [sbl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Christian.

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Sambal, Botolan
[sbl] Luzon, Zambales Province, Botolan and Cabangan municipalities. Affected by Mount Pinatubo eruption. 32,900 (2000 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aeta Negrito, Ayta Hambali, Botolan Zambal, Hambali. Dialects: Ayta Hambali (Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan. Among themselves, Ayta Hambali reportedly use some words that are similar to Ayta Mag-anchi [sgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Central Luzon, Sambalic.

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Sangil
[snl] Mindanao, Davao del Sur Province, off of extreme southern tip, Balut island. 15,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sanggil, Sangiré. Dialects: Sarangani, Mindanao. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sangir [sxn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Sangir
[sxn] Mindanao, Davao del Sur Province, off of extreme southern tip, Sarangani island. 55,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sangihé, Sangirese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sorsoganon, Northern
[bks] Luzon, Sorsogon Province, Sorsogon city, Casiguran and Juban. 85,000 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northern Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bicolano, Sorsogon, Masbate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan.

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Sorsoganon, Southern
[srv] Luzon, south Sorsogon Province. 185,000 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol Sorsogon, Gubat, Sorsogon, Waray, Southern Sorsogon. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Masbatenyo [msb] 63%–91%; of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga) 71%–82%; of Filipino [fil] 85%–91%. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Gubat.

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Spanish
[spa] Mainly in Manila and other large cities; Chavacano-speaking areas. 2,660 in Philippines (1990 census). L2 users: 2,560,000 in Philippines (Instituto Cervantes 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Subanen, Central
[syb] Mindanao, east Zamboanga Peninsula; Sulu Archipelago; Zamboanga del Norte Province, easternmost half; Zamboanga del Sur Province, large area west of Molave-Pagadian line; Zamboanga Sibugay Province, kabasalan, Siay, and Diplahan municipalities. 140,000 (2000), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sindangan Subanun. Dialects: Eastern Kolibugan (Eastern Kalibugan). Intelligibility of Southern Subanen [laa] 71%. Lexical similarity: 79% with Western Subanen [suc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern. Comments: Value their language. Traditional religion.

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Subanen, Eastern
[sfe] Mindanao, Zamboanga del Norte Province, Don Victoriano Chiongban municipality, western slopes of Mount Malindang; Misamis Occidental Province, border area west of Mount Malindang; Zamboanga del Sur Province, northeast corner. 7,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guinselugnen, Salugnen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern.

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Subanen, Northern
[stb] Mindanao, Zamboanga del Norte Province, Sergio Osmeña and Mutia municipalities; inland from Dipolog and Dapitan cities; Misamis Occidental Province, Northern Subanen: Jose Dalman (Linasan), Katipunan, La Libertad, Manukan (Linay and Pangandaw), Pinan, Polanco, President Manuel Roxas, Rizal (Disoy) Siayan (Dumugok), and Sibutad. 85,400 (2010 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 85,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tuboy Subanon. Dialects: Dapitan, Salog (Salug), Dikayu, Miatan, Piyau. 63% intelligibility of Central Subanen [syb], 40% of Southern Subanen [laa]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Central Subanen [syb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Subanen, Southern
[laa] Mindanao, Zamboanga Sibugay Province, peninsula east of Sibuguey bay, Malangas city; Zamboanga del Sur Province, peninsula west of Illana bay, Margosatubig city. 25,000 (1978 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lapuyen, Margosatubig, Subanen, Subanun, Lapuyan. Dialects: None known. Southern Subanen speakers understand Central Subanen [syb] (85%), but not vice versa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern.

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Subanon, Kolibugan
[skn] Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula, Zamboanga del Sur Province, head of Sibuguey bay from Kabasalan west to Ipil and inland; Zamboanga del Norte Province, Sulu Sea, coastal band from Liloy to near Kanapun, second area further southwest, from Siocon to Sibuco; Zamboanga City, south from north provincial border to Curuan. 20,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Calibugan, Kalibugan, Kolibugan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Western Subanon [suc], but limitations on inherent intelligibility between them. Lexical and grammatical differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern. Comments: Culture and attitudes separate Kolibugan from Western Subanon [suc]. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Subanon, Western
[suc] Mindanao, Zamboanga del Norte Province facing Sulu sea, from Labason town to southern border, mostly inland, on western slopes, Zamboanga Peninsula; Zamboanga Sibugay Province, Ipil, Rosseler T Lim, and Tungawan municipalities, eastern slopes of peninsula. 125,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siocon. Dialects: Siocon, Western Kolibugan (Western Kalibugan). Lexical similarity: 89% between Siocon and Western Kolibugan dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon. Comments: Christian.

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Sulod
[srg] Capiz Province, Tapaz; Iloilo Province, Lambunao; Antique Province, Valderrama, Panay. 14,000 (1980 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukidnon, Mondo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine.

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Surigaonon
[sgd] Mindanao, Surigao del Norte, north Agusan del Norte, north Surigao del Sur provinces. 400,000 (2009 W. Hall). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jaun-Jaun, Sinurigao, Waya-Waya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tandaganon [tgn]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 81% with Agusan Manobo [msm], 69% with Butuanon [btw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South.

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Tadyawan
[tdy] East central Mindoro Orientale Province, Lake Naujan south. 4,150 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balaban, Pula, Tadianan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, North Mangyan.

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Tagabawa
[bgs] Mindanao, North Cotabato and Davao del Sur provinces, Mount Apo slopes west of Davao city. 43,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Tagabawa Bagobo, Tagabawa Manobo. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Tigwa Manobo [mbt] 45%; low comprehension of Cebuano [ceb]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Sarangani Manobo [mbs]; 34% with Giangan [bgi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South. Comments: The official name is Tagabawa.

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Tagakaulo
[klg] South Mindanao, mainly Davao del Sur Province, west shore, Davao Gulf, from Digos south to Bugis and inland; also in Sultan Kudarat (Colombia municipality) and South Cotabato (Tampakan) provinces. 83,000 (2000 census). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kalagan, Tagakaulu, Tagakaolo. Dialects: None known. About 85% intelligibility with Mansaka [msk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tagalog
[tgl] Widespread; Manila, most of Luzon, and Mindoro. 21,500,000 in Philippines (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 24,748,230. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Dialects: Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Puray, Tanay-Paete, Tayabas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Used as basis for the development of Filipino [fil]. Christian.

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Tagbanwa
[tbw] Palawan, scattered communities from about 120 km south to 60 km north on both sides of Puerto Princesa island. 10,000 (2002 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aborlan Tagbanwa, Apurawnon, Tagbanua. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 66%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 77%. Lexical similarity: 65% with Central Palawano [plc], 71% with Batak [bya], 54% with Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tagbanwa, Calamian
[tbk] North Palawan Province, Coron, Busuanga, Culion, and Linapacan municipalities (Calamian and Linapacan Groups), Palawan Island, northeast coast, 3 Tagbanwa communities. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Unggoy” (pej.). Dialects: Baras, Kinalamiananen (Kinaramiananen), Binuswanganen, Tinalaanen, Inawanwaanen, Lininipaknen, Binatuanen. Baras dialect on Palawan Island 94% intelligibility with Calamian Tagbanwa. Lexical similarity: 80% with Calamian and Baras dialects; typologically unusual phenomenon with regard to pronoun ordering and marking. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Kalamian. Comments: Christian.

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Tagbanwa, Central
[tgt] South China seacoast, northwest Palawan Province, Taytay minicipality, Malipu bay area. 2,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane) 29%, of Calamian Tagbanwa 56%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 61%. Lexical similarity: 56% with Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane), 57% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk], 48% with Cuyonon [cyo], 40% with Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Tandaganon
[tgn] Mindanao, central Surigao del Sur, Tandag, Tago, Bayabas, and Cagwait towns. 100,000 (2009 B. Hall). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naturalis, Tagon-on. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Surigaonon [sgd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South.

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Tausug
[tsg] Jolo, Sulu Archipelago; Palawan island; Basilan island, Zamboanga city and environs. 900,000 in Philippines (2000 SIL), increasing. 250,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,062,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of provincial identity in Sulu and Tawi-Tawi provinces. Alternate Names: Bahasa Sug, Jolohano, Moro Joloano, Sinug, Sinug Tausug, Sulu, Suluk, Tausog, Taw Sug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Comments: Muslim.

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Tawbuid, Eastern
[bnj] Central Mindoro island, large area, Mindoro Occidental Province; Mindoro Oriental Province, adjacent border area. 1,130 (2002 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangon, Barangan, Batangan, Binatangan, Fanawbuid, Suri, Tabuid, Taubuid, Tiron. Dialects: None known. Western Tawbuid [twb] is distinct. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid.

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Tawbuid, Western
[twb] Central Mindoro, Mindoro Occidental Province, mainly Sablayan and Calintaan municipalities. 6,810 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batangan Taubuid, Fanawbuid, Western Taubuid. Dialects: None known. Eastern Tawbuid [bnj] is distinct. Reportedly most similar to Buhid [bku]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tboli
[tbl] Southwest Mindanao, South Cotabato Province, Mount Busa area and west; Sarangani Province, Celebes seacoast, Katabau west to provincial border; Sultan Kudarat Province, Kraun area and Bagumbayan minicipality. 95,300 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Tagabili” (pej.), T’boli, Tiboli. Dialects: Central Tboli, Western Tboli, Southern Tboli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic, Tboli. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tiruray
[tiy] Mindanao, Maguindanao Province southwest, Datu Blah T. Sinsuat, North Upi, and south Upi minicipalities; Sultan Kudarat Province northwest, Lebak municipality. 50,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Teduray, Tirurai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bilic.

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Waray-Waray
[war] Eastern Visayas, all of Samar island, and associated islands, Samar, Eastern Samar, and Northern Samar provinces; eastern half, Biliran Province; Leyte Province, Leyte town east, Carigara bay, south to Tacloban, continuing along Leyte gulf shore south, inland area west to highlands. 2,560,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Samar, Leyte islands (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Binisaya, Samaran, Samareño, Samarenyo, Samar-Leyte, Waray. Dialects: Waray, Samar-Leyte, Northern Samar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Samar-Waray.

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Yakan
[yka] Sulu Archipelago, Basilan, and small surrounding islands; Sakol island; west Mindanao, Zamboanga east coast. Concentrated away from the coast. 106,000 (1990 census), increasing. 86,900 in Basilan Province. 35,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Basilan province. Alternate Names: Yacan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw. Comments: Land division in families and increasing population pushes young people to seek employment in cities or other countries. Muslim.

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Yogad
[yog] Luzon, Isabela Province, Echague and nearby towns. 16,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Ilocano [ilo], 66% with Itawit [itv], 63% with Ibanag [ibg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic.

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