Pakistan

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Aer
[aeq] Lower Sindh Province, Jikrio Goth near Kunri, Deh area, Hyderabad, Jamesabad. 100 (1998). Women monolingual. Ethnic population: 330 Aer in Deh area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Jikrio Goth Aer, Jamesabad Aer. Lexical similarity: 78% with Katai Meghwar and Kachi Bhil—both dialects of Kachi Koli [gjk], 75%–77% with the Rabari dialect of Kachi Koli [gjk], 76% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Unusual interrogative word suggests possible historical connection with Western Rajasthani group. Speakers in Pakistan running out of marriage possibilities and may have to move to India. The Indian group is most influential. Other Aer people in Nawabshah, Sindh reportedly speak a different language, dress differently, and do not intermarry with this group. Hindu.

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Badeshi
[bdz] North-West Frontier Province; Bishigram valley upper reaches, east of Madyan, Swat Kohistan; small groups in Swat, Tirat and Pooran Chakesar valleys; Alai. No known L1 speakers. No known speakers for three or more generations. Ethnic population: 2,830 (2000). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Badakhshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Unclassified. Comments: Only dominant area languages now used: Torwali [trw], Pashto or Ushojo [ush]. Muslim.

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Bagri
[bgq] Sindh and Punjab provinces. 235,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). 100,000 in Sindh Province (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Bahgri, Baorias, Bawri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous. Distinct from Vaghri [vgr]. Nomadic.

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Balochi, Eastern
[bgp] Northeast Balochistan Province, northwest Sindh, southwest Punjab. 3,050,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). 5,000,000 including L2 users of all Balochi languages. Total users in all countries: 3,050,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Eastern Hill Balochi. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. A major language in Pakistan. Distinct from Western Balochi [bgn] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. A small body of literature. Muslim.

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Balochi, Southern
[bcc] South Balochistan and Sindh provinces, Karachi. 2,540,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 3,612,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Makrani. Dialects: Coastal Balochi, Kechi (Keci), Makrani (Lotuni). Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and fairly distinct from Western Balochi [bgn]. A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. Muslim.

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] Northwest Balochistan Province; Sindh Province, Dadu district. 1,080,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 2,016,840. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci. Dialects: Lashari, Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Strongly influenced by Farsi, but not intelligible with Farsi [prs]. A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. A small body of literature. Muslim.

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Balti
[bft] Primarily northeast Pakistan, Northern Areas Province, Hunza-Nagar district; Baltistan region, Skardu, Rondu, Shigar, Khapalu, Kharmang, and Gultari valleys. 327,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 347,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baltistani, Bhotia of Baltistan, Sbalti. Dialects: Chorbat is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 87%–100% among dialects, 78%–85% with Purik [prx]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Baluchi
[bal] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 8,679,640 Status: Comments: Includes: Eastern Balochi [bgp], Southern Balochi [bcc], Western Balochi [bgn].

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Bateri
[btv] North-West Frontier Province, south Kohistan district; Indus River east bank, some north of Besham, Batera area. 30,100 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 30,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batera Kohistani, Baterawal, Baterawal Kohistani, Bateri Kohistani. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Indus Kohistani [mvy] than to Kohistani Shina [plk], but distinct from both. Lexical similarity: 58%–61% with Indus Kohistani, 60% with Gowro [gwf], 54% with Chilisso [clh], 29% with Kohistani Shina [plk] and Torwali [trw], 27% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani.

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Bhaya
[bhe] Lower Sindh Province, Kapri Goth near Samaro, Khipro area, Jamesabad, Mirke goth, Mirpurkhas, Phuladia, and a few in Hyderabad. Possibly in India. 70 (1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Similarity of key morphemes: The possessive postposition with, g-, contrasts with all other languages in the area. Gender endings match Marwari [mve]. May be the same as Bhoyari dialect of Malvi [mup] in India. May be in Western Hindi group. Lexical similarity: 84% with Marwari [mve], 75% with Malhi dialect of Dhatki [mki], 73% with Bhat, 72%–73% with Goaria [gig], 70%–73% with Sindhi Meghwar dialect of Sindhi Bhil [sbn], 63%–72% with Mogi, 63%–71% with Sindhi Bhil [sbn], 70% with Urdu [urd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified.

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Brahui
[brh] South central, Quetta and Kalat region, east Balochistan and Sindh provinces. 2,210,000 in Pakistan (2011). Total users in all countries: 2,430,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birahui, Brahuidi, Brahuigi, Kur Galli. Dialects: Jharawan, Kalat, Sarawan. Kalat is standard dialect, Jharawan is lowland. Low percentage of lexical similarity with surrounding languages. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Burushaski
[bsk] Northern Areas Province, north Gilgit district areas, Hunza-Nagar and Yasin areas; scattered in Gilgit, Kashmir, and various cities. 96,800 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biltum, Brushaski, Burucaki, Burucaski, Burushaki, Burushki, Khajuna, Kunjut. Dialects: Nagar (Nagir), Hunza, Yasin (Werchikwar). Yasin is geographically separated from other dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–94% between Nagar and Hunza dialects, 67%–72% between Yasin and Hunza, 66%–71% between Yasin and Nagar. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Muslim.

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Chilisso
[clh] North-West Frontier Province, Kohistan district, Indus river east bank, Indus Kohistan, Koli, Palas area. 1,000 (1992 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiliss, Galos. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Indus Kohistani [mvy], 65%–68% with Gowro [gwf], 54% with Bateri [btv], 48%–56% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 26% with Torwali [trw], 25% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani.

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Dameli
[dml] North-West Frontier Province, south Chitral district, south of Drosh, Damel valley; 4 main and several smaller villages. 5,000 (Cacopardo and Cacopardo 2001), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Damedi, Damel, Damia, Damiabaasha, Gidoji, Gudoji. Dialects: 2 groups: Shinteri-Dondideri and Swati-Aspar, but no significant dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 44% with Gawar-Bati [gwt], Savi [sdg], and Palula [phl]; 33% with Kamviri [xvi]; 29% with Kati [bsh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kunar. Comments: Speakers probably of mixed origin. Language influenced by Nuristani languages. Muslim.

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Dari
[prs] North-West Frontier Province, Southeast Chitral, Shishi Koh Valley, Madaglasht village; Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Karachi, and other large cities. 1,000,000 in Pakistan. 2,000–3,000 in Madaglasht (Chitral), and many Afghan refugees (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Afghan Persian, Badakhshi, Farsi, Madaglashti, Tajik. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Madaglasht community in Chitral came from Badakhshan, Afghanistan 200 years ago. Other communities in Pakistan are primarily refugees or settlers from Afghanistan. Muslim.

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Dehwari
[deh] Central Balochistan Province, Kalat, and Mastung. 14,600 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Deghwari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Influenced by Brahui [brh].

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Dhatki
[mki] Lower Sindh Province, Tharparkar, and Sanghar districts. 132,000 in Pakistan (2000). 100,000 in Sind (1987). Total users in all countries: 148,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhati. Dialects: Eastern Dhatki, Southern Dhatki, Central Dhatki, Barage, Malhi. Varies considerably from northern Marwari [mve], though they claim to understand one another. Lexical similarity: 80%–83% with Marwari [mve] dialects, 88% with Dhatki of Rajasthan and Dhatki of Thar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Domaaki
[dmk] Northern Areas Province, Hunza-Nagar district; mainly Hunza valley, Mominabad village, Big Nagar, Punyal, Shishkat, Gilgit, Shishkat, Oshkandas east of Gilgit, and Bakor village. 340 (Matthias 2011), decreasing. Concentrated mostly in one village (Van Driem 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bericho, Dom, Doma, Dumaki. Dialects: None known. Loanwords from Shina [scl] and Burushaski [bsk], but not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Gilgit Shina [scl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western. Comments: Not all Doms speak Domaaki; most speakers concentrated in Mominabad and Hunza. Muslim.

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English
[eng] 12,500 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 17,000,000 in Pakistan (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gawar-Bati
[gwt] North-West Frontier Province, south Chitral district, Arandu area; along Kunar river south of Arandu. 1,960 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arandui, Gowar-Bati, Gowari, Narisati, Narsati, Satre. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kunar. Comments: Refer to themselves as Kohistani, as do other ethnolinguistic groups in the region. Muslim.

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Ghera
[ghr] Sindh Province, Hyderabad district; 1 colony, between main bus stop and railway station in Hyderabad city. 10,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bara, Sindhi Ghera. Dialects: None known. Quite different grammatically from Gurgula [ggg]; reportedly similar to Urdu [urd]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Gurgula [ggg], 70% with Urdu [urd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Comments: Almost totally urbanized;. Hindu.

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Goaria
[gig] Widespread in Sindh Province (except Karachi), lower Indus river valley between Hyderabad and Sukkur, including Moro, Badin, Larkana and Umerkot. 25,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Maybe the same as Sadri (Gawari) [sck] in India. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% with Jogi, 76%–80% with Marwari [mve] sweeper caste, 72%–78% with Marwari (Meghwar dialect) [mve], 70%–78% with Loarki [lrk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu.

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Gowro
[gwf] North-West Frontier, Kohistan district, Indus east bank, Kolai area, Mahrin village. 200 (1990), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gabar Khel, Gabaro. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65%–68% with Chilisso [clh], 62% with Indus Kohistani [mvy], 60% with Bateri [btv], 40%–43% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 25% with Torwali [trw], 24% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Ancestral language of the Gabar Khel, a clan residing primarily in Mahrin (Indus Kohistan). Different from Gawri, an alternate name for Kalami [gwc].

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Gujarati
[guj] Sindh and lower Punjab provinces. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gujari
[gju] Widespread in north Azad Kashmir Province; North-West Frontier Province, east Hazara district, Kaghan valley, scattered in south Chitral district, Swat Kohistan, Dir Kohistan; Punjab Province, Rawalpindi district; Islamabad; Northern Areas, Diamer district, Gilgit. 300,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). 2,910 in Chitral (1969), 20,000 in Swat Kohistan (1987), 200,000–700,000 in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gogri, Gojari, Gojri, Gujer, Gujjari, Gujuri, Gujuri Rajasthani, Kashmir Gujuri. Dialects: Western Gujari, Eastern Gujari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Some move seasonally with herds. Muslim.

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Gurgula
[ggg] Sindh Province, Bhens colony, Karachi; smaller urban centers of Mirpur Khas, Shahdadpur, Panj, Moro, Sabura and Tando Allahyar. 35,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marwari Ghera. Dialects: None known. Ghera [ghr] is quite different grammatically. Lexical similarity: 87% with Ghera [ghr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Balochistan Province, Quetta district; Qunduz area, Karachi and Islamabad. 157,000 in Pakistan (2000). Many recent refugees from Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Azargi, Hazara, Hezareh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Alternate names listed refer to the people. Group or regional names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad, Kabul. Muslim.

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Hindko, Northern
[hno] North-West Frontier Province, Hazara division, Mansehra and Abbotabad districts; Azad Kashmir Province, Muzaffarabad district, and Islamabad; Indus and Kaghan valleys and Indus valley tributaries. 1,880,000 (1981 census), increasing. Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,690,000 (2014 World Factbook). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hazara Hindko, Hindki, Kagani, Kaghani. Dialects: Abbottabad Hindko, Galiyat Hindko, Haripur Hindko, Mansehra Hindko (Muko-Tuko), Tanoli Hindko. Also related to Punjabi [pnb], Saraiki [skr], and Pahari-Potwari [phr]; which have all been called Greater Punjabi, forming part of Lahnda [lah]. Lexical similaritiy: 82%–92% with Northern Hindko dialects, 67%–82% with Northern and Southern Hindko [hnd] varieties. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim.

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Hindko, Southern
[hnd] Punjab Province, Attock district, to south Hazara division, North-West Frontier Province, further into Kohat and Peshawar districts; Islamabad. 625,000 (1981 census). Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,690,000 (2014 World Factbook). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Peshawar Hindko (Peshawari), Attock Hindko (Attock-Haripur Hindko), Kohat Hindko (Kohati), Rural Peshawar Hindko. The dialect in Dera Ismail Khan, sometimes called, Hindko, is reportedly more similar to Saraiki [skr]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim.

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Jadgali
[jdg] Southeast Balochistan Province, Lasbela district; southwest Sindh Province, Karachi district. 15,600 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 25,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Different from Jakati [jat] of Afghanistan and Ukraine. Muslim.

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Jandavra
[jnd] South Sindh Province, Hyderabad to east of Mirpur Khas. Reportedly also in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. 5,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jhandoria. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Bagri [bgq] and the Katai Meghwar dialect of Kachi Koli [gjk], 68% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Hindu.

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Jogi
[jog] Sindh province, Umerkot, Nabisar, Mirpurkhas, Tando Sain Dad, Tando Allahyar, Tando Jam, Tando Adam, Hyderabad, Hala, Khokhar Bughera, Taz Mori, Jusab Jang, Sato Mel, Matli, Badin, Karachi Habchopi, Thatta, Makli, Nagar Parkar. 50,000 (1996 R. Hoyle). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% with Goaria [gig], 69%–82% with Loarki [lrk], 70%–78% with Marwari (Southern) [mve]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: The Jogis may also identify themselves as Marwaris (came from Marwar area in Rajasthan India), or as Gujaratis.

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Kabutra
[kbu] Sindh Province, Umerkot, Kunri, and Nara Dhoro areas. 1,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nat, Natra. Dialects: Reported inherent intelligibility with Sansi [ssi] and the Sochi dialect of Sansi, and use Kabutra when speaking to them. Lexical similarity: 74% with the Sochi [ssi] language variety. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi. Comments: Speakers say 90% of the people remain in Zal area of Marwar, India. Hindu.

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Kacchi
[kfr] Sindh Province, notably in Karachi. 50,000 in Pakistan (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuchi, Cutch, Kachchhi, Kachchi, Kachi, Katch, Katchi, Kautchy, Kutchchi, Kutchie. Dialects: Jadeji. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kalami
[gwc] North-West Frontier Province, Swat district; upper Swat Kohistan, between Peshmal and Kalam north to Kalam area upper valleys, Dir Kohistan in Thal, Lamuti, Biar, and Rajkot villages. 100,000 (Baart and Sagar 2004), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bashgharik, Bashkarik, Baskarik, Dir Kohistani, Diri, Dirwali, Gaawro, Garwa, Garwi, Gawri, Gowri, Kalami Kohistani, Kohistana, Kohistani. Dialects: Kalam, Ushu, Thal, Lamuti (Lamti), Rajkoti (Patrak), Dashwa. Dialect differences do not hinder communication, except speakers of other dialects have difficulty with Rajkot. Lexical similarity: 90%–93% among main dialects; Rajkoti has 75% with Kalami; Dashwa has 77% with Kalami [gwc], and 74% with Rajkoti. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Most widely understood indigenous language in north Swat and Dir Kohistan. Muslim.

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Kalasha
[kls] North-West Frontier Province, south Chitral district; Southern Kalasha dialect: Urtsun valley; Northern Kalasha: Rumbur, Bumboret, and Birir valleys. 5,000 (Heegård Petersen 2006). 3,200 in Northern Kalasha area; unknown and decreasing number in Southern Kalasha area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalashamon, Kalashi. Dialects: Southern Kalasha (Urtsun), Northern Kalasha (Birir, Bumboret, Rumbur). Very little contact between northern and southern dialects of Kalasha, so there are difficulties in communication now. Lexical similarity: 75% southern dialect with northern dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Chitral. Comments: Originally Kalasha was the language of most of the southern Chitral district. Now Khowar [khw] is the predominant language, with earlier languages just used in villages of the side valleys. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kalkoti
[xka] North-West Frontier Province, Dir Kohistan, Kalkot village. 5,100 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kalami [gwc], 59% with Palula [phl], 60% with Savi [sdg]. Kalkoti, Palula and Savi form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Kamviri
[xvi] North-West Frontier Province, south Chitral district, Langorbat, Lamerot, Badrugal, and Urtsun valley. 2,000 in Pakistan (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamdeshi, Kamik, Lamertiviri, Shekhani. Dialects: Kamviri, Shekhani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Kashmiri
[kas] Azad Kashmir Province, south of Shina. 124,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cashmeeree, Cashmiri, Kacmiri, Kaschemiri, Keshuri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kashmiri.

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Kati
[bsh] North-West Frontier Province; eastern Kativiri dialect in Chitral district, Gobar in Lutkuh valley, Kunisht in Rumbur valley, Shekhanan Deh in Bumboret and Urtsun valleys. 6,010 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bashgali, Kata viri, Kativiri, Nuristani. Dialects: Eastern Kativiri (Shekhani), Western Kativiri, Mumviri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani. Comments: Eastern Kativiri dialect often called Shekhani in Pakistan, but different from Kamviri [xvi] dialect also called Shekhani in Southern Chitral.

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Khetrani
[xhe] Northeast Balochistan Province, Barkhan district. 15,600 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Saraiki [skr]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Influenced by Balochi. Muslim.

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Khowar
[khw] North-West Frontier Province, Chitral and Peshawar districts; Northern Areas, Gilgit district, Ghizr valley, Shandur pass to Gupis; Yasin and Ishkhoman valleys, north Swat valley, Ushu; probably in Rawalpindi and other northern cities. 270,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 289,200. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arniya, Chitrali, Chitrari, Citrali, Kashkari, Khawar, Patu, Qashqari. Dialects: North Khowar, South Khowar, East Khowar, Swat Khowar. Northern dialect considered more pure. Related to Kalasha [kls] but different. Lexical similarity: 86%–98% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Chitral. Comments: Muslim.

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Kohistani, Indus
[mvy] North-West Frontier, Kohistan district, west bank Indus river. 200,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khili, Kohistani, Kohistẽ, Mair, Maiyã, Maiyon, Shuthun. Dialects: Indus (Jijal, Mani, Pattan, Seo), Duber-Kandia (Duber, Khili, Manzari), Ranolia, Bankad. A separate language from nearby varieties: Bateri [btv], Chilisso [clh]. Lexical similarity: 88%–92% between dialects, 69%–71% with Chilisso [clh], 61%–63%% with Gowro [gwf], 58%–61% with Bateri [btv], 36%–41% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 26%–28% with Kalami [gwc] and Torwali [trw]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Mani and Manzari are not used for dialects, but are said to refer to brothers whose descendants settled in the 2 dialect areas.

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Koli, Kachi
[gjk] Lower Sindh Province, an area bordered by Sakrand and Nawabshah north, Matli south, and east beyond Mirpur Khas and Jamesabad, Tando Allahyar, and Tando Adam town areas. 100,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). 80,000–100,000 Kachi Koli, 5,000–6,000 Rabari, 10,000 Kachi Bhil, 50,000 Vagri, 10,000 Katai Meghwar, 1,000 Zalavaria Koli. Total users in all countries: 500,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kachi, Kachi Gujarati, Katchi, Kohli, Kolhi, Koli, Kori, Kuchi, Vagari, Vagaria. Dialects: Kachi, Rabari (Rahabari), Kachi Bhil, Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Katai Meghwar, Zalavaria Koli. Becoming more like Sindhi [snd]. Lexical similarity: Kachi dialect; 89% with Kachi and Rabari, 96% with Kachi Bhil, 86% with Vagri, 92% with Katai Meghwar, 88% with Zalavaria Koli, 78% with Gujarati [guj], 76% with Wadiyara Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: People with basically the same language are socially quite distinct. Hindu.

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Koli, Parkari
[kvx] Sindh Province, southeast tip bordering India, Tharparkar District, Nagar Parkar. Most lower Thar Desert, west as far as Indus River, bordered north and west by Hyderabad, to south and west of Badin. 275,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Parkari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77%–83% with Marwari Bhil [mve], 83% with Wadiyara Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Hindu.

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Koli, Wadiyara
[kxp] Sindh Province, bounded by Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar and Mirpur Khas north, Matli and Jamesabad south. 138,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wadaria, Wadhiara. Dialects: Mewasi (Mayvasi Koli), Wadiyara Koli, Nairya Koli, Tharadari Koli, Tharadari Bhil, Hasoria Koli, Hasoria Bhil, Rardro Bhil. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Some strict caste rules about intermarriage and interdining are changing; possibly ‘lower’ groups wishing to move up, and barriers in closed castes breaking down.

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Kundal Shahi
[shd] Azad Kashmir, Neelam district, Kundal Shahi village, 72 km from Muzaffarabad. 700 (Rehman and Baart 2005). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apeen Bol, “Rawri” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Shina [scl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: The language is spoken by the Qureshi ethnic group.

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Lahnda
[lah] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 116,643,400 Status: Comments: Includes: Inku [jat] (Afghanistan), Khetrani [xhe], Northern Hindko [hno], Pahari-Potwari [phr], Saraiki [skr], Southern Hindko [hnd], Western Punjabi [pnb].

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Lasi
[lss] Southeast Balochistan Province, Las Bela district, north-northwest of Karachi. 11,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lassi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Influenced by Balochi. Muslim.

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Loarki
[lrk] Sindh Province, rural. 20,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Probably the same as Gade Lohar [gda] in Rajasthan, India, a Rajasthani language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Jogi [jog], 80% with Marwari [mve]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Alternate people names are: Loar, Lohar, Gadlia, Gadolia Rajput, Gadolia Rajput Loar, Karia, Sisudia Rajput, Sisudia Loar. Hindu.

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Marwari
[mve] Northern Marwari dialect: south Punjab and north Sindh provinces, north of Dadu and Nawabshah; Southern Marwari: Sindh and south Punjab provinces, between Tando Mohammed Khan and Tando Ghulam Ali south, Dadu and Nawabshab north. 220,000. 100,000 Northern Marwari, 120,000 or more Southern Marwari (1998). The latter 100,000 Marwari Bhil, 10,000 Marwari Meghwar, 12,000 to 13,000 Marwari Bhat. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jaiselmer, Marawar, Marwari Bhil, Marwari Meghwar, Merwari, Rajasthani. Dialects: Northern Marwari, Southern Marwari, Marwari Bhil, Marwari Meghwar, Marwari Bhat. Northern and Southern Marwari mutually inherently intelligible. May or may not be different from Marwari of India [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 79%–83% with Dhatki [mki], 87% between Southern and Northern Marwari, 78% with Marwari Meghwar and Marwari Bhat dialects. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: ‘Rajasthani’ is a linguistic cover term for a group of languages. Speakers tend to be urban and educated. Northern Bhil tribes: Marwari-Thori, Gulguli, Shikari, Jogi, Sochi. Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Memoni
[mby] Scattered in Sindhi Province, Karachi. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sindhi [snd] and Gujarati [guj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Reportedly 500–600 years ago Memoni speakers moved from a Sindhi-speaking area to a Gujarati-speaking area. Muslim.

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Od
[odk] Widespread in Sindh and in south Punjab provinces. 58,400 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oad, Oadki, Odki. Dialects: Resembles Marathi [mar] with Gujarati [guj] features and borrowings from Marwari [mve] and Punjabi. Lexical similarity: 86%–88% among dialects in Dadu, Shikarpur, and Pithoro, 70%–78% with Marwari [mve], Dhatki [mki] and Bagri [bgq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.

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Ormuri
[oru] Kaniguram, a pocket in Mahsud Pashto area northwest of Dera Ismail Khan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas Province, South Wazirstan agency. 6,000 in Pakistan (2004 R. Burki). Total users in all countries: 6,050. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baraki, Baraks, Bargista, Ormui, Ormur, Urmuri. Dialects: Kanigurami, Logar. Lexical similarity: 27% with Waneci [wne], 25%–33% with Pashto dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi.

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Pahari-Potwari
[phr] All but far north in Azad Kashmir Province; Punjab Province, Rawalpindi, Gujarat, and Jhelum districts; Islamabad; North-West Frontier Province, Abbottabad district. 2,500,000 in Pakistan (Lothers and Lothers 2007). Total users in all countries: 3,541,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali, Pothohari, Potohari, Potwari. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Mirpuri. ’Pahari’, hill language; Potwari is the language of the Pothwar Plateau. A chain of related varieties with Punjabi [pnb], Hindko [hno], [hnd], and Saraiki [skr], also called Greater Punjabi. Degree of similarity to Western Pahari varieties in India unknown. Lexical similarity: 76%–84% among varieties called, Pahari, Potwari, and some called Hindko in Mansehra, Muzzaffarabad, and Mirpuri in Jammu. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim.

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Pakistan Sign Language
[pks] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Isharon Ki Zubann. Dialects: Some regional variation in vocabulary. Related to Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]; may be identical to Indian Sign Language [ins]. Classification: Sign language.

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Palula
[phl] North-West Frontier Province, Chitral district, lower east Chitral river, Ashret and Biori, 12 villages; some in main valley, Kalkatak, and Shishi Koh valley, Purigal; reportedly some in Dir Kohistan. Ashreti dialect: Ashret Valley; Northern Palula dialect: Biori Valley, Kalkatak, and Purigal. 10,000 (Liljegren 2008). Population of Ashret and Biori Valleys is almost completely monolingual (Liljegren 2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biyori, Dangarikwar, Palola, Phalulo, Phalura. Dialects: Ashreti, Northern Palula. No, or limited, intelligibility of Kalkoti [xka] and Savi [sdg]. Lexical similarity: 92% with Ashreti and Northern Palula dialects, 56%–58% with Savi [sdg] in Afghanistan, 38%–42% with Kohistani Shina [plk]. Palula, Kalkoti [xka] (spoken in Dir Kohistan) and Savi [sdg] (spoken in Afghanistan) form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group (Liljegren 2008). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Pashto, Central
[pst] Northern Balochistan Province; North-West Frontier, Bannu and Karak districts; Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Wazirstan agencies and Lakki Marwat and Tank regions; some border areas, Punjab Province, Bhakkar district. 6,520,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahsudi, Waziri. Dialects: Waciri (Waziri), Bannuchi (Bannochi, Bannu). Lexical comparison and interviews indicate this is distinct from Northern Pashto [pbu] and Southern Pashto [pbt]. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Pashto, Northern
[pbu] Afghanistan border; most of North-West Frontier Province, Peshawar district and Yusufzai area; Federally Administered Tribal Areas Province, mainly central and northern areas; into Punjab Province, Mianwali district. 18,700,000 in Pakistan (2013 SIL). Ethnic population: Possibly 49,600,000 Pashto in all countries. Total users in all countries: 21,038,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pakhto, Pashtu, Pushto, Yousafzai Pashto, Yusufzai Pashto. Dialects: Ningraharian Pashto, Northeastern Pashto, Eastern Afghan Pashto. Much similarity with Northwestern Pashto in Afghanistan. Subdialects of Northeastern Pashto are Kohat (Khatak), Yusufzai (Peshawar), Afridi, Shinwari, Mohmand, Shilmani. Lexical similarity: 80% between Northeastern and Southwestern Pashto. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Balochistan Province, Quetta, Mastung, Pishin, Ziarat, Sibi, and Loralai districts, and adjacent areas; North-West Frontier and Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Dera Ismail Khan; Punjab Province, Dera Ghazi Khan. 4,580,000 in Pakistan (2013 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pashtu, Pushto, Pushtu, Quetta-Kandahar Pashto. Dialects: Southeastern Pashto, Quetta Pashto. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Punjabi, Western
[pnb] Punjab province: Lahore, Kasur, Shekhupura, Nankana, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Narowal districts. 88,500,000 in Pakistan (2014 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 90,512,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lahanda, Lahnda, Lahndi, Panjabi, Panjabi Proper, Punjabi, Punjapi, Shahmukhi. Dialects: Bathi, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Doab, Majhi, Malwa, Powadhi, Lahori, Punjabi Proper. A continuum of related varieties between Eastern Punjabi [pan] in India and Western Punjabi, and ‘Lahnda’. Lahnda (originally called Western Panjabi by Grierson) is a label for the dialect continuum between Hindko [hno] [hnd], Pahari-Potwari [phr], and Saraiki [skr]; Lahnda varieties are 70%–85% lexically similar to Punjabi [pan]. Lexical similarity: 70%–85% with Punjabi [pan]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Pushto
[pus] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 38,291,300 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Pashto [pst], Northern Pashto [pbu], Southern Pashto [pbt] (Afghanistan).

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Sansi
[ssi] North Sindh Province, Karachi. Sochi dialect: throughout Sindh Province. 15,600 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhilki. Dialects: Sochi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi. Comments: Non-indigenous. Bhils by caste. Immigrated from India in 1947. Hindu, Muslim.

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Saraiki
[skr] Punjab Province: Attock, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Bhakkar, Chakwal, Chiniot, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Hafizabad, Jhang, Khanewal, Khushab, Layyah, Lodhran, Mandi Bahauddin, Mianwali, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Okara, Pakpattan, Rahim Yar Khan, Rajanpur, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh, and Vehari districts; Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province: Dera Ismail Khan and Tank districts; Sindh Province: Ghotki, Jacobabad, Kashmore, Khairpur, and Sukkur districts; Balochistan Province: Barkhan, Jaffarabad, Jhal Magsi, Nasirabad, and Sibi districts. 20,000,000 in Pakistan (2013). Total users in all countries: 20,068,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bahawalpuri, Seraiki, Siraiki. Dialects: Dervi (Derawali), Multani (Khatki), Sindhi-Saraiki, Shahpuri, Riasati, Mianvali, Jhangvi. Dialects blend together into Punjabi east and Sindhi [snd] south. Until recently it was considered a dialect of Panjabi. 80% intelligibility of Dogri [dgo]. Lexical similarity: 85% with Sindhi [snd]; 68% with Dhatki [mki], Od [odk], and Sansi [ssi]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim, Hindu.

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Savi
[sdg] North-West Frontier Province, Kunar valley; Dir, many in refugee camps near Timargarha; Chitral, near Drosh; a few in Jalalabad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sau, Sauji, Sawi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Shina
[scl] Northern Areas Province, Gilgit, Diamer, and Baltistan districts, scattered villages in Yasin and Ishkoman valleys, Punial, Gilgit, Haramosh, lower Hunza Valley, Chilas area, Darel and Tangir valleys, Astor Valley, Satpara, Kharmang, Kachura, and other small valleys; North-West Frontier Province, east Kohistan district, Sazin, Harban; Azad Kashmir Province, east Neelum district. 528,000 in Pakistan (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Total users in all countries: 562,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokpa, Shinaki, Sina. Dialects: Gilgiti (Bagrote, Bunji, Gilgit, Haramosh, Hunza-Nagar, Punial, Rondu), Astori (Astor, Dras, Gurezi, Kharmangi, Satpara), Chilasi Kohistani (Chilas, Darel, Harban, Sazin, Tangir). Gilgit functions as the language standard. Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% within Gilgiti (Northern) dialect subgroup, 81%–96% with Astori (Eastern) subgroup, 84%–98% with Chilas (Diamer) subgroup. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Shina, Kohistani
[plk] North-West Frontier Province, Kohistan district, east bank Indus river, Jalkot, Palas, and Kolai valley areas. 352,000 (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kohistani, Kohistyo, Palasi-Kohistani. Dialects: Palasi (Palas), Jalkoti (Jalkot), Kolai (Koli). A somewhat divergent variety of Shina linguistically and socially. Reportedly similar to Shina [scl] of Chilas, but more distant from Gilgit [scl] dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Sindhi
[snd] Widepread in Sindh Province, lower reaches, Indus river; Karachi, Hyderabad; Balochistan Province, Lasbela and Khuzdar districts. 22,100,000 in Pakistan (2014 World Factbook). Ethnic population: 26,000,000 (2014 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 23,845,500. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Sindh. Dialects: Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Vicholo (Central Sindhi, Viccholi, Vicholi), Macharia, Dukslinu (Hindu Sindhi), Sindhi Musalmani (Muslim Sindhi), Shikari Bhil, Katiawari Kachi. Some southern Bhil groups speak dialects of Sindhi. 100,000 in rural Sindh originally from Kathiawar Peninsula in India are Muslims, exhibit widespread bilingualism in Sindh, and are almost completely assimilated with the Sindhi people. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Shikari (hunter) Bhils are a nomadic group of 2,000 to 3,000 who live in south Sindh Province, centered around Badin, and have adopted the Sindhi language. Muslim, Hindu.

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Sindhi Bhil
[sbn] Sindh Province, Mohrano, Badin-Matli-Thatta, and Ghorabari (on west). Sindhi Meghwar scattered from Badin-Matli to Tando Allahyar area. 56,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Sindhi Bhil, Mohrano, Badin, Sindhi Meghwar. Badin dialect is reportedly similar to Sindhi [snd]. Lexical similarity: 82% between the Mohrani dialect and Sindhi; 89% between Sindhi Bhil [sbn] and Sindhi Meghwar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Sindhi or Dhatki orthographies are acceptable. Hindu, Muslim.

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Torwali
[trw] North-West Frontier Province, Swat district; Bahrain dialect: upper Swat district, both sides of Swat river, from just north of Madyan up to Asret, located between Mankjal and Peshmal; Chail dialect: primarily 2 villages in the Chail valley, 5–8 km east of Madyan. 80,000 (Lunsford 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Torwalak, Torwali Kohistani, Turvali. Dialects: Bahrain, Chail. Lexical similarity: 44% with Kalkoti [xka] and Kalami [gwc], 89% with Bahrain and Chail dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Muslim.

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Urdu
[urd] Widespread. 14,700,000 in Pakistan (2014 World Factbook). L2 users: 94,000,000 in Pakistan (1999). Total users in all countries: 162,642,730 (as L1: 68,619,830; as L2: 94,022,900). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(1)). Alternate Names: Bihari. Dialects: Intelligible with Hindi, but formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian. Dakhini dialect of Urdu [urd] in India has fewer Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu. Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Comments: Muslim.

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Ushojo
[ush] North-West Frontier Province, Swat district, upper reaches of Bishigram valley, east of Madyan, 12 villages. 2,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ushuji. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Kolai Shina [plk], 48% with Palas Shina [plk], 42% with Gilgiti Shina [scl], 35% with Chail Torwali [trw], 31% with Palula [phl], 27% with Bateri [btv], 23% with Kalami [gwc], 22% with Kalkoti [xka]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Not known by linguists until 1989. Reportedly came from Kolai, Indus Kohistan several hundred years ago via Ushu, Swat, hence the name Ushojo. Muslim.

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Vaghri
[vgr] Sindh Province, in Sukkur, Karachi, Nawabshah, Sakrand, Hala, Sanghar, Tando Adam, Tando Mohammed Khan, Badin, Matli, Tando Ghulam Ali, Digri, Noakot, Jang Sai, Mirpur Khas, and Tando Allahyar. 3,660 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bavri, Salavta, Vaghri Koli. Dialects: None known. Reportedly related to Kukar people’s language who live near Chanesar Halt, Mehmoodabad in Karachi. Lexical similarity: 78% with Wadiyari Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Urbanized. Hindu.

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Wakhi
[wbl] North-West Frontier Province, northernmost Chitral district, Baroghil area, in glacier area; Northern Areas Province, Ghizer, Gilgit, and Hunza-Najar districts; Shimshal, Chupursan, upper Yarkhun, and upper Ishkoman valleys; Gojal dialect: upper Hunza valley, Gulmit to Chinese and Afghanistan borders. 20,000 in Pakistan (2008), increasing. 4,500–6,000 Gojal, 2,000 Ishkoman, 200 Yasin, 900 Yarkhun (1992), plus refugees. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khik, Khikwar, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi. Dialects: Gojal, Ishkoman, Yasin, Yarkhun. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Comments: Muslim.

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Waneci
[wne] Northeastern Balochistan Province, Harnai area. 108,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chalgari, Tarino, Vanechi, Wanechi, Wanetsi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71%–75% with Southern Pashto [pbt], 63%–72% with other Pashto varieties, 27% with Ormuri [oru]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Yidgha
[ydg] North-West Frontier, Chitral district, Upper Lutkuh valley, west of Garam Chishma. 6,150 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lutkuhwar, Yidga, Yudga, Yudgha. Dialects: No significant dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 56%–80% with Munji [mnj] in Afghanistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Comments: Muslim.

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