Poland

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Belarusan
[bel] 220,000 in Poland (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Byelorussian, White Russian Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East

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Esperanto
[epo] Scattered internationally. Most widely in central and eastern Europe; east Asia: China and other countries; areas of South America; southwest Asia. L2 users: 2,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eo, La Lingvo Internacia Classification: Constructed language Comments: Developed 1872–1885 by L. L. Zamenhof of Warsaw, Poland, for intercommunication among L1 speakers of other languages.

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German, Standard
[deu] Opolskie, Lower Silesian, and Silesian provinces. 500,000 in Poland (1998). L2 users: 7,330,000 in Poland (European Commission 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Opolskie and Silesian provinces (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Articles 2(2), 9). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Kashubian
[csb] Pomeranian province: near Baltic coast, lower Vistula left bank; west of Gdansk bay; narrow strip inland, southwest from Gdynia. 50,000 in Poland (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1993 T. Salminen). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 19). Alternate Names: Cashubian, Cassubian, Kaszubski Dialects: Kashubian Proper, Slovincian. German [deu] influences in the language. Transitional dialects between Kashubian Proper, the Slovincian dialect, and Polish [pol]. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic Comments: Most of ethnic group speak regional variety of Polish [pol] (1993 T. Salminen).

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Lithuanian
[lit] Podlaskie province. 30,000 in Poland. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Podlaskie Province (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Baltic, Eastern

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Polish
[pol] 36,600,000 in Poland (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 38,636,480. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1997, Constitution, Article 27). Alternate Names: Polnisch, Polski Dialects: Upper Silesian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Polish Sign Language
[pso] Scattered. 38,000 (2014 IMB). 50,000 signers (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: PJM, Polski Jezyk Migowy Dialects: Various regional dialects. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Instruction for parents of deaf children. Many sign language classes for hearing people. Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Prussian
[prg] Warmian-Masurian province. No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 50. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Old Prussian Dialects: None known. Other extinct Baltic languages are: Selonian, Yotvingian, Semigallian, Curonian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Baltic, Western

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Romani, Baltic
[rml] Central and south Baltic region. 30,000 in Poland. Population total all countries: 38,360. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Estonian Romani, Latvian Romani (Lettish Romani), North Russian Romani, Polish Romani, White Russian Romani. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Ethnic groups: Pólska Foldítka, Romá. Christian.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Lesser Poland, Silesian, and Subcarpathian provinces: along border with Ukraine (historical Galicia); one dialect in south Poland border region with Hungary. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Galician, Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sinti, Tsigane Dialects: Manuche (Manouche). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 5,000 in Poland. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Rusyn
[rue] Southeast, along Slovak border, Lemko region. Ethnic population: 11,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lemko Dialects: Lemko. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East

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Silesian
[szl] Silesian province. 60,000 (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Szlonzokian Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic Comments: Different from Upper Silesian, a dialect of Polish [pol].

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Silesian, Lower
[sli] Lower Silesian province. 12,000 in Poland. Population total all countries: 22,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Upper Schlesisch Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German Comments: Different from Upper Silesian, a dialect of Polish [pol].

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Ukrainian
[ukr] 150,000 in Poland. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East Comments: Christian.

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Wymysorys
[wym] Silesian and Lesser Poland provinces: border area; Wilamowice village. 70 (2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wilamowicean Dialects: None known. Wymysorys appears to derive from 12th century Middle High German, with strong influences from Low German, Dutch, Frisian, Polish, and Old English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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