Paraguay

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Aché
[guq] Canindeyú Department, Chupa Pou, Kontuwy, Kontuwywe, and Arroyo Bandera; Caaguazú Department, Cerro Moroti; Alto Paraná Department, Puerto Barra; Caazapá Department, Ypetimi. 1,000 (2006 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,420. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ache-Guayaki, Axe, “Guaiaqui” (pej.), “Guayakí” (pej.), “Guoyagui” (pej.) Dialects: Ache gatu, Ache purä, Ache wa, Ñacunday River Ache (“Ache irollä” (pej.)). 3 dialects remaining, Ache purä is dormant. High Intelligibility between Ache gatu and Ache wa, only Ñancunday River Ache’s intelligibility is low for the other two dialects. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ayoreo
[ayo] Boquerón Department, Campo Loro, Ebetogue, Jesudi, and Tunocojai; Alto Paraguay Department, Guidaichai, Isla Alta, Cucaani, and Arocojnadi. Also in Bolivia. 2,600 in Paraguay (2009 UNAP), increasing. 1,500 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 4,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayoré, Garaygosode, Guarañoca, Guidaigosode, Koroino, Moro, Morotoco, Poturero, Pyeta Yovai, Samococio, Sirákua, Takrat, Totobiegosode, Yanaigua Dialects: Tsiracua. Classification: Zamucoan Comments: Partially nomadic. Christian.

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Chamacoco
[ceg] Alto Paraguay Department (Ybytoso), Karchabalut, Misión Santa Teresita, Puerto Caballo, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza, and Inihta; Alto Paraguay Department (Tomárãho), Puerto María Elena, and Pitiantuta. 1,800 (2007 R. Perik). Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ishiro, Jeywo, Yshyro Dialects: Chamacoco Bravo, Tomaraho. Classification: Zamucoan Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Emok
[emo] East Chaco, near Asunción. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Toba, Toba-Emok Classification: Mascoyan, Mascoy

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German, Standard
[deu] 166,000 in Paraguay. 19,000 L1 speakers of Plautdietsch [pdt]. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Guana
[gva] Concepción Department, San Lázaro district, Valle Mi on Apa river banks; Alto Paraguay Department, on the Riacho Mosquito. 230 (2002 census). No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cashquiha, Kaskihá Dialects: Echoaldi (Chararana, Echonoana), Layana (Niguecactemigi). Similar to Sanapaná [sap]. Classification: Mascoyan Comments: Guana, like Nhandeva [nhd], is a catch-all name and this group should not be confused with Guanas of other countries.

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Guarani
[grn] Population total all countries: 4,939,180. Comments: Member languages are: Ava Guaraní [nhd], Eastern Bolivian Guaraní [gui] (Bolivia), Mbyá Guaraní [gun] (Brazil), Paraguayan Guaraní [gug], Western Bolivian Guaraní [gnw] (Bolivia)

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Guaraní, Ava
[nhd] East Paraguay, Central, Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Concepción, and Amambay departments. Also in Argentina (Chiripá), Brazil (Chiripá). 2,060 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 15,900. Ethnic population: 6,920 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava, Chiripá, Tsiripá, Txiripá Dialects: Apapocuva. Similar to Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Most are from Apapocuva group, described by ethnographers. Fewer Spanish loanwords than Guaraní [gug]. Glossonym: Chiripá in Paraguay, Nhandeva in Brazil. Ñandeva is used in the Chaco to refer to Tapiete [tpj], a different but related language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Caaguazú, Guairá, San Pedro, Concepción, and Canindeyú departments, and scattered. 5,000 in Paraguay (2008 CTI), decreasing. Ethnic population: 14,300 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ka’yngua, Mbua, Mbyá, Mbya-apytere Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Some Chiripá may live among them. Special vocabulary, ‘ayvu porã’, used for ritual purposes. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Paraguayan
[gug] Widespread. Also in Argentina. 4,650,000 in Paraguay (1995), decreasing. Only a few elderly monolingual speakers. Population total all countries: 4,850,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory national language (2010, No. 4251, Language Law, Article 3). Alternate Names: Avañe’e Dialects: Jopará (Yopará). One Chiripá speaker [nhd] indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him. Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish [spa] loanwords, used by 90% of the population in Asunción area. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chiriguano [gui], 75% with Mbyá [gun]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Christian.

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Guarayo
[gui] Boquerón Department, Macharetti, Santa Teresita-Guaraní Occidental, Santa Teresita, Manjui, Yvopey, Barrio Guaraní, San Agustín, and Guaraní Occidental; San Pedro Department, Palomita; Concepción Department. 2,530 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, Guaraní Occidental, Guasurango Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní Comments: Different from Guarayo [gyr] of Bolivia or Huarayo (Ese Ejja) [ese] of Peru and Bolivia.

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Lengua
[leg] Presidente Hayes, Boquerón, and Concepción departments. 15,000 (2007 R. Perik). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Northern Lengua (Eenlhit, Enlhet, Lengua Norte, Powok, Vowak), Southern Lengua (Enxet, Lengua Sur). Differences between the 2 dialects mainly phonological and orthographic. Classification: Mascoyan

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Maka
[mca] Itapúa Department, Ita Paso; Alto Paraná Department, Micro Centro; Central Department, Comunidad Maká (Corumba Kue); Presidente Hayes Department, Villa Hayes and Kenkukek. 1,500 (2000 A. Chemhey). 40% monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Enimaca, Enimaga, Maca, Macá, Maká, Mak’á Classification: Matacoan Comments: Christian.

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Manjui
[crq] Boquerón Department, Santa Rosa and Colonia 22; Mcal, Estigarribia, Pedro P. Pena, Campo Loa, Platanilia, Yakaquash, Filadelfia, and Neuland. 650 in Paraguay (2011 J. Hunt). 480 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chorote, Choroti, Inkijwas, I’no’, Manjuy Dialects: Choroti (Chorote), Yofuáha, Yowúwa. Classification: Matacoan Comments: Paraguayan speakers do not recognize the Argentinian name Iyo’wujwa Chorote. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maskoy Pidgin
[mhh] Puerto Victoria. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Mascoian based Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf]. Probably no remaining speakers.

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Ñandeva
[tpj] Boquerón Department, Barrio Obrero, Colonia 5, Laguna Negra-Belén, Laguna Negra-Canaán, Laguna Negra-Damasco, Laguna Negra-Emaús, Laguna Negra-Jerusalén, Laguna Negra-Ko Pyahu, Laguna Negra-Timoteo, Pykasu, Santa Teresita-Santa Elena, Santa Teresita-San Lázaro, Santa Teresita-Virgen del Carmen, Ñu Guasu, Mariscal Estigarribia, and Siracua; Presidente Hayes Department, Nich’a Toyish, Novoctas, Fischat-Misión San Leonardo, Yalve Sanga-Jope, Yalve Sanga-Caná, and Abundancia. Also in Argentina (Tapieté), Bolivia (Tapieté). 2,270 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,520. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guasurango, Guasurangue, Ñanagua, Nandeva, Tapiete, Tirumbae, Yanaigua Dialects: Linguistically between Eastern Bolivian Guarani [gui] and Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nivaclé
[cag] Chaco region, Presidente Hayes and Boquerón departments. Also in Argentina. 13,700 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik). Population total all countries: 13,920. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, Axluslay, “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupí” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Churupí” (pej.), Nivaklé Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Mataguayo languages are less similar than Mascoy languages in Paraguay (Fasold 1984). Classification: Matacoan

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Pai Tavytera
[pta] Amambay, Concepción, Canindeyú, and San Pedro departments. 600 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,030 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ava, Pai, Tavytera Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Kaiwá [kgk] of Brazil. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní

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Paraguayan Sign Language
[pys] Throughout Paraguay. 15,000 (2009 L. Parks), increasing. Paraguayan deaf community: about 15,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas del Paraguay, Lengua de señas paraguaya, LSPY Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Local deaf people indicate that early roots of LSPY were influenced by Uruguayan Sign Language.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Chaco and east: Filadelfia, Menno Colony, Loma Plata, and Neuland. 40,000 in Paraguay (Salminen 2007). 19,000 who speak Plautdietsch and Standard German. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Christian.

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Sanapaná
[sap] Presidente Hayes Department, Laguna Pato-Lolaico, Laguna Pato-La Palmera, Laguna Pato-Pato Kue-Salado, Laguna Pato-Kuñatai, Nueva Promesa-Aldea 1, Nueva Promesa-Aldea 2, Nueva Promesa-Aldea 3, Nueva Promesa-Aldea 4, Nueva Promesa-Aldea 5, Nueva Promesa-Aldea 6, Xamok Kasek-Estancia Salazar, Karanda’y Puku, Anaconda, and La Esperanza. 6,810 (2007 R. Perik). Some elderly monolinguals. 2,590 Sanapana, 4,220 Angaite. Ethnic population: 6,800. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kilyakmok, Lanapsua, Quiativis, Quilyacmoc, Saapa, Sanam Dialects: Angaite (Angate), Covavitis (Covahloc), Enlit (Enlhet), Sanapana. 90% or more inherent mutual intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% with Northern Lengua [leg]. Classification: Mascoyan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] Mainly Asunción, urban areas. 3,500,000 in Paraguay (2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 140(2)), co-official with Paraguayan Guarani. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Toba Qom
[tob] San Pedro Department, Boquerón-Arasapety and Urukuy-Las Palmas; Presidente Hayes Department, Cerrito-Cerriteño, Cerrito-Rosarino, Cerrito-Río Verde, Naiñec, and San José. 1,510 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emok-Lik, Qom, Takshika, Toba-Qom Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf] and Toba-Pilagá [plg].

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Toba-Maskoy
[tmf] Alto Paraguay Departament, Riacho Mosquito, Castilla, San Isidro-Km 39, María Auxiliadora-Km 40, Livio Fariña-Pueblito, and Boquerón Kue; Presidente Hayes Department, Casanillo-Campo Aroma, Casanillo-Aldea Campo Rayo, Casanillo-Aldea Capiatá, Casanillo-Aldea Casanillo, Casanillo-Aldea Linda Vista, Casanillo-San Rafael, Pozo Amarillo, and Estancia Laguna Porã. 1,680 (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. All women and young children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,060 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cabanatit, Enenxet, Machicui, Quilyilhrayrom, Toba of Paraguay Classification: Mascoyan, Mascoy Comments: Different from Toba Qom [tob], Toba-Pilagá [plg] of Argentina, or Maskoy Pidgin [mhh].

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