Paraguay

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Aché
[guq] Separate shared enclaves (3); north, Caaguazu and Alto Parana departments, northwest of Itaouyry; and central, Lake Del Rio Yguazu area; Caaguazu, Guaira, and Paraguari departments, area between Colonel Oviedo and Colonel Villaricca; south enclave entirely within Alto Parana Department, Narranja and Iruno districts; dialects: Chupa Pou, Kontuwy, Kontuwywe, Arroyo Bandera, Cerro Moroti, Puerto Barra, Ypetimi. 1,000 (2006 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,420. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ache-Guayaki, Axe, “Guaiaqui” (pej.), “Guayakí” (pej.), “Guoyagui” (pej.) Dialects: Ache gatu, Ache purä, Ache wa, Ñacunday River Ache (“Ache irollä” (pej.)). 3 dialects remaining, Ache purä is dormant. High Intelligibility between Ache gatu and Ache wa, only Ñancunday River Ache’s intelligibility is low for the other two dialects. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Angaité
[aqt] Presidente Hayes Department, La Patria. 3,690 (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kovalhvok, Koyaqteves Classification: Mascoyan

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Ayoreo
[ayo] Alto Paraguay Department, Guidaichai, Isla Alta, Cucaani, and Arocojnadi; Boqueron Department, Campo Loro, Ebetogue, Jesudi, and Tunocojai. 2,600 in Paraguay (2009 Universidad Nacional de Asunción), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,300. 1,500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayoré, Garaygosode, Guarañoca, Guidaigosode, Koroino, Moro, Morotoco, Poturero, Pyeta Yovai, Samococio, Sirákua, Takrat, Totobiegosode, Yanaigua Dialects: Tsiracua. Classification: Zamucoan Comments: Partially nomadic. Christian.

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Chamacoco
[ceg] Alto Paraguay Department (Ybytoso), Karchabalut, Misión Santa Teresita, Puerto Caballo, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza, and Inihta; Alto Paraguay Department (Tomárãho), Puerto María Elena, and Pitiantuta. 1,600 (Fabre 2007). Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ishiro, Jeywo, Yshyro Dialects: Chamacoco Bravo, Tomaraho. Classification: Zamucoan Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant), traditional religion.

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Enlhet
[enl] Boqueron Department, Filadelfia; Presidente Hayes Department, Paratodo and north; also in Alto Paraguay Department. 7,220 (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eenlhit, Lengua Norte, Powok, Vowak Classification: Mascoyan Comments: Christian.

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Enxet
[enx] Presidente Hayes Department, Lolita and east to the Paraguay river. 5,840 (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua Sur Classification: Mascoyan

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German, Standard
[deu] Alto Parana, Boqueron, and Guaira departments. Some settlements in the Chaco area. 166,000 in Paraguay. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

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Guana
[gva] Concepcion Department, San Lázaro district, Valle Mi on Apa river banks; Alto Paraguay Department, on the Riacho Mosquito. 28 (Crevels 2007). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 84 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cashquiha, Kaskihá Dialects: Echoaldi (Chararana, Echonoana), Layana (Niguecactemigi). Reportedly similar to Sanapaná [spn] and Angaité [aqt]. Classification: Mascoyan Comments: Guana, like Nhandeva [nhd], is a catch-all name and this group should not be confused with Guanas of other countries.

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Guarani
[grn] Population total all languages: 4,939,180. Comments: Includes: Ava Guaraní [nhd], Eastern Bolivian Guaraní [gui] (Bolivia), Mbyá Guaraní [gun] (Brazil), Paraguayan Guaraní [gug], Western Bolivian Guaraní [gnw] (Bolivia).

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Guaraní, Ava
[nhd] East central Paraguay; Alto Parana, Canindeyu, Caaguazu, Caazapa, and San Pedro departments. 2,060 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 15,900. Ethnic population: 6,920 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava, Chiripá, Tsiripá, Txiripá Dialects: Apapocuva. Reportedly similar to Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Most are from Apapocuva group, described by ethnographers. Fewer Spanish loanwords than Guaraní [gug]. Glossonym: Chiripá in Paraguay, Nhandeva in Brazil. Ñandeva is used in the Chaco to refer to Tapiete [tpj], a different but related language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Widespread, east central and south. 5,000 in Paraguay (2008 CTI), decreasing. Ethnic population: 14,300 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ka’yngua, Mbua, Mbyá, Mbya-apytere Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Some Chiripá may live among them. Special vocabulary, ‘ayvu porã’, used for ritual purposes. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Paraguayan
[gug] Widespread. 4,650,000 in Paraguay (1995), decreasing. Population total all countries: 4,850,000. 2,500,000 monolinguals (2002 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, No. 4251, Language Law, Article 3). Alternate Names: Avañe’e Dialects: Jopará (Yopará). One Chiripá speaker [nhd] indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him. Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish [spa] loanwords, used by 90% of the population in Asunción area. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chiriguano [gui], 75% with Mbyá [gun]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant).

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Guarayo
[gui] Boqueron Department, Macharetti, Santa Teresita-Guaraní Occidental, Santa Teresita, Manjui, Yvopey, Barrio Guaraní, San Agustín, and Guaraní Occidental; San Pedro Department, Palomita; Concepcion Department. 2,530 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, Guaraní Occidental, Guasurango Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní Comments: Different from Guarayo [gyr] of Bolivia or Huarayo (Ese Ejja) [ese] of Peru and Bolivia.

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Maka
[mca] Paraguai river, northeast of Asuncion; Central Department, Comunidad Maka (Corumba Kue); Presidente Hayes Department, Villa Hayes and Kenkukek; Cordillera and San Pedro departments; possibly in Itapua Department, Ita Paso; Alto Parana Department, Micro Centro. 1,500 (2000 A. Chemhey). 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Enimaca, Enimaga, Maca, Macá, Maká, Mak’á, Towolhi Classification: Matacoan Comments: Christian.

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Manjui
[crq] Boqueron Department, Santa Rosa and Colonia 22; Mcal, Estigarribia, Pedro P. Pena, Campo Loa, Platanilia, Yakaquash, Filadelfia, and Neuland. 650 in Paraguay (2011 J. Hunt). 480 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chorote, Choroti, Inkijwas, I’no’, Manjuy Dialects: Choroti (Chorote), Yofuáha, Yowúwa. Classification: Matacoan, Chorote Comments: Paraguayan speakers do not recognize the Argentinian name Iyo’wujwa Chorote. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ñandeva
[tpj] Boqueron Department, Toledo area; Alto Paraguay Department, northwest; some in Presidente Hayes Department; dialects: Barrio Obrero, Colonia 5, Laguna Negra-Belén, Laguna Negra-Canaán, Laguna Negra-Damasco, Laguna Negra-Emaús, Laguna Negra-Jerusalén, Laguna Negra-Ko Pyahu, Laguna Negra-Timoteo, Pykasu, Santa Teresita-Santa Elena, Santa Teresita-San Lázaro, Santa Teresita-Virgen del Carmen, Ñu Guasu, Mariscal Estigarribia, and Siracua. 110 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Population total all countries: 360. Ethnic population: 1,830 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guasurango, Guasurangue, Ñanagua, Nandeva, Tapiete, Tirumbae, Yanaigua Dialects: None known. Linguistically between Eastern Bolivian Guarani [gui] and Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nivaclé
[cag] Chaco region, southeast Boqueron and western Presidente Hayes departments. 13,700 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik). Population total all countries: 13,920. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, Axluslay, Axluxlay, “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupí” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Churupí” (pej.), Nivaklé Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Mataguayo languages are less similar than Mascoy languages in Paraguay (Fasold 1984). Classification: Matacoan

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Pai Tavytera
[pta] Amambay, San Pedro, Concepcion, and Canindeyu departments. 600 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,030 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ava, Pai, Tavytera Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kaiwá [kgk] of Brazil. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní

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Paraguayan Sign Language
[pys] Scattered. 15,000 (2009 L. Parks), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas del Paraguay, Lengua de señas paraguaya, LSPY Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Local deaf people indicate that early roots of LSPY were influenced by Uruguayan Sign Language.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Chaco and east; Boqueron and Presidente Hayes departments; Filadelfia, Menno Colony, Loma Plata, and Neuland. 40,000 in Paraguay (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Christian.

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Sanapaná
[spn] Alto Paraguay and Boqueron departments; Presidente Hayes Department, between Anaconda to the north and La Palmera to the south. 2,270 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kelya’mok, Saapa’ang Dialects: 90% or more inherent mutual intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% with Enlhet [enl]. Classification: Mascoyan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] Mainly Asuncion, urban areas. 365,000 in Paraguay (2014). L2 users: 4,000,000 in Paraguay (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 140(2)), co-official with Paraguayan Guarani. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Toba Qom
[tob] San Pedro Department, Boquerón-Arasapety and Urukuy-Las Palmas; Presidente Hayes Department, Cerrito-Cerriteño, Cerrito-Rosarino, Cerrito-Río Verde, Naiñec, and San José. 760 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 780 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emok-Lik, Qom, Takshika, Toba-Qom Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf] and Toba-Pilagá [plg].

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Toba-Maskoy
[tmf] Alto Paraguay Department, Puerto Guarani area south; Concepcion and Presidente Hayes departments, confluence, Apa and Paraguai rivers; dialects: Riacho Mosquito, Castilla, San Isidro-Km 39, María Auxiliadora-Km 40, Livio Fariña-Pueblito, and Boquerón Kue, Casanillo-Campo Aroma, Casanillo-Aldea Campo Rayo, Casanillo-Aldea Capiatá, Casanillo-Aldea Casanillo, Casanillo-Aldea Linda Vista, Casanillo-San Rafael, Pozo Amarillo, and Estancia Laguna Porã. 1,680 (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. All women and young children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,060 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cabanatit, Enenxet, Machicui, Quilyilhrayrom, Toba of Paraguay Classification: Mascoyan, Mascoy Comments: Different from Toba Qom [tob], Toba-Pilagá [plg] of Argentina.

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