Romania

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Bucharest and Constanta departments. 480 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg

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Armenian
[hye] Cluj department. 760 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian

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Aromanian
[rup] Constanta and Tulcea departments; Dobrudja region; major cities like Bucharest;. 28,000 in Romania. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Macedo Romanian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Officially related to Romanians rather than classified as a minority.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Arad and Timis departments: Banat region. 6,750 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Palityan (Bogomil, Palitiani). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Constanta department: Dobruja. 22,000 in Romania (2006 A. Goriainov). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish Dialects: Central Crimean, Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Czech
[ces] Caras-Severin department: Gernic, Sumita, Ravensca, Bigar, Eibenthal settlements. 3,340 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak

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Gagauz
[gag] Constanta and Tulcea departments. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagauzi Dialects: Bulgar Gagauz, Maritime Gagauz. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] Transylvania area; Arad, Sibiu, Timis, Maramures, Salaj departments. 45,100 in Romania (2002 census). L2 users: 1,300,000 in Romania (European Commission 2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of national identity (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Dialects: Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German Comments: Over 70% of the 500,000 1988 population emigrated to Germany (Johnstone 1993). People known as Saxons.

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Greek
[ell] Bucharest, Constanta, Prahova, and Tulcea departments. 4,150 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic Comments: Karakatchan are Greek-speaking Romanian nomadic shepherds.

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Hungarian
[hun] Bihor, Brasov, Covasna, Cluj, Harghita, Mures, Satu Mare, and Sibiu provinces; Alba, Bistrita-Nasaud, Neamt, and Bacau provinces: small border areas. 1,450,000 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Harghita and Covasna counties (outright majoities); also in Mures, Sate Mare, Bihor and Salay counties (over 20% total county population) (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Magyar Dialects: Csángó, Mezoségi, Székely. Classification: Uralic

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Hungarian Sign Language
[hsh] Scattered. Transylvania region. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Transylvania was under Hungarian control until World War II. Christian (Orthodox).

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Italian
[ita] Timis department; historically in Transylvania region. 2,560 in Romania (2002 census). L2 users: 1,500,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Polish
[pol] Suceava department. 2,760 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Polski Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Scattered. Black Sea region. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ursári (Usari). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Many moved to Germany since 1989. Muslim.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Scattered. Transylvania. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Galician, Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Scattered. 242,000 in Romania (2002 census). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Gypsies in the world (1987 I. Hancock). Population total all countries: 484,780. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Danubian, Gypsy, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany Dialects: Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Eastern Vlax Romani (Bisa), Gabor, Ghagar, Grekurja (Greco), Kalderash (Coppersmith, Kelderashícko), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), North Albanian, Sedentary Bulgarian, Sedentary Romanian, Serbo-Bosnian, South Albanian, Ukraine-Moldavia, Zagundzi. Kalderash, Ursari, and Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are ‘Argintari’, silversmith and ‘Lingurari’, spoonmakers. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Russian Kalderash influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian [rus]; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]; Grekurja is probably Turkish [tur] influenced, distinct from Greek Romani dialect of Balkan Romani [rmn]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Ethnic groups: Chache, Kalderari, Lovári. Ethnonym: Roma. Christian.

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Romanian
[ron] Widespread. Muntenian dialect: Muntenia or Wallachia; other dialects north and west, including Transylvania. 19,900,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 23,681,610. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Daco-Rumanian, Moldavian, Rumanian Dialects: Banat, Bayash, Moldavian, Muntenian (Walachian), Transylvanian. Little dialect variation. Bayash are Gypsies whose dialect is based on Banat, but influenced by Balkan Romani [rmn] and Hungarian [hun]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Italian [ita], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Sardinian [sdn], 73% with Catalan [cat], 72% with Portuguese [por] and Rheto-Romance [roh], 71% with Spanish [spa]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Romanian Sign Language
[rms] Scattered. 24,600 in Romania (2014 EUD). 93,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Limbaj Mimico-Gestual Romanesc” (pej.), Limbajul Semenelor Romanesc, “LMGR” (pej.), LSR Dialects: Variation exists between the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Further assessment needed. No known relationship to other sign languages. (Eberle, Eberle, Cuceuan, and Cuceuan forthcoming). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: 33 working Sign language interpreters (2013 EUD). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Christian (Orthodox), Christian (Protestant).

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Romany
[rom] Population total all languages: 2,600,180. Comments: Includes: Balkan Romani [rmn] (Serbia), Baltic Romani [rml] (Poland), Carpathian Romani [rmc] (Czech Republic), Kalo Finnish Romani [rmf] (Finland), Sinte Romani [rmo] (Serbia), Vlax Romani [rmy], Welsh Romani [rmw] (United Kingdom).

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Serbian
[srp] Arad, Caras-Severin, Mehedinti, and Timis departments. 27,000 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Slovak
[slk] Arad, Bihor, Salaj, and Timis departments. 16,100 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak

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Turkish
[tur] Constanta and Tulcea departments: Dobruja region, southeast along the Danube. 28,700 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Osmanli Dialects: Danubian. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Muslim.

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Ukrainian
[ukr] Botosani, Maramures, Satu Mare, and Suceava departments; Also Arad, Timis, Caras-Severin departments; Tulcea department in southeast (Danube delta). 57,600 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Bucharest department. 1,100 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish

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