Romania

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] 480 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg

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Armenian
[hye] 760 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian

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Aromanian
[rup] Southeast, especially Dobrudja (75%); major cities like Bucharest and Constanta. 28,000 in Romania. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Macedo Romanian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Officially related to Romanians rather than classified as a minority.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Romanian Banat. Palityan also in Bulgaria and Hungary. 6,750 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Palityan (Bogomil, Palitiani). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Northern Dobruja region. 22,000 in Romania (2006 A. Goriainov). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish Dialects: Central Crimean, Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Southern Crimean. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Czech
[ces] 3,340 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak

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Gagauz
[gag] Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagauzi Dialects: Bulgar Gagauz, Maritime Gagauz. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] Transylvania. 45,100 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Dialects: Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German Comments: Over 70% of the 500,000 1988 population emigrated to Germany (Johnstone 1993). People known as Saxons.

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Greek
[ell] 4,150 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic Comments: Karakatchan are Greek-speaking Romanian nomadic shepherds.

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Hungarian
[hun] Trans-Carpathian provinces. 1,450,000 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Harghita and Covasna counties (outright majoities); also in Mures, Sate Mare, Bihor and Salay counties (over 20% total county population) (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Magyar Dialects: Csángó, Mezoségi, Székely. Classification: Uralic

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Italian
[ita] 2,560 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

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Polish
[pol] 2,760 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Polski Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Lechitic Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Black Sea region. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ursári (Usari). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Many moved to Germany since 1989. Muslim.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Transylvania. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Galician, Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Also in Albania, Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom. 242,000 in Romania (2002 census). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Gypsies in the world (1987 I. Hancock). Population total all countries: 540,780. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Danubian, Gypsy, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany Dialects: Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Eastern Vlax Romani (Bisa), Ghagar, Grekurja (Greco), Kalderash (Coppersmith, Kelderashícko), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), North Albanian, Sedentary Bulgaria, Sedentary Romania, Serbo-Bosnian, South Albanian, Ukraine-Moldavia, Zagundzi. Kalderash, Ursari, and Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are ‘Argintari’, silversmith and ‘Lingurari’, spoonmakers. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Russian Kalderash influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian [rus]; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]; Grekurja is probably Turkish [tur] influenced, distinct from Greek Romani dialect of Balkan Romani [rmn]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Ethnic groups: Chache, Kalderari, Lovári. Ethnonym: Roma. Christian.

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Romanian
[ron] Moldavian in Moldova northeast; Muntenian in Muntenia, or Wallachia southeast; other dialects north and west, including Transylvania. Also in Australia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova (Moldovan), Mozambique, Russian Federation, Serbia, Sweden, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan. 19,700,000 in Romania (2002 census). Population total all countries: 23,623,890. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Daco-Rumanian, Moldavian, Rumanian Dialects: Banat, Bayash, Moldavian, Muntenian (Walachian), Transylvanian. Little dialect variation. Bayash are Gypsies whose dialect is based on Banat, but influenced by Balkan Romani [rmn] and Hungarian [hun]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Italian [ita], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Sardinian [sdn], 73% with Catalan [cat], 72% with Portuguese [por] and Rheto-Romance [roh], 71% with Spanish [spa]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Romanian Sign Language
[rms] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Limbaj Mimico-Gestual Romanesc Dialects: There are substantial dialectal differences in variety used in Transylvania (centered around Cluj-Napoca), as compared to Valachia and Moldova. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Christian.

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Romany
[rom] Population total all countries: 3,017,920. Comments: Member languages are: Balkan Romani [rmn] (Serbia), Baltic Romani [rml] (Poland), Carpathian Romani [rmc] (Czech Republic), Kalo Finnish Romani [rmf] (Finland), Sinte Romani [rmo] (Serbia), Vlax Romani [rmy], Welsh Romani [rmw] (United Kingdom)

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Serbian
[srp] 27,000 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Slovak
[slk] 16,100 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak

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Turkish
[tur] Southeast along the Danube. 28,700 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Osmanli Dialects: Danubian. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Muslim.

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Ukrainian
[ukr] 57,600 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] 1,100 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish

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