[rup] Southeast, especially Dobrudja (75%); major cities like Bucharest and Constanta. 28,000 in Romania. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Macedo Romanian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Officially related to Romanians rather than classified as a minority.
[deu] Transylvania. 45,100 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Dialects: Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German Comments: Over 70% of the 500,000 1988 population emigrated to Germany (Johnstone 1993). People known as Saxons.
[hun] Trans-Carpathian provinces. 1,450,000 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Harghita and Covasna counties (outright majoities); also in Mures, Sate Mare, Bihor and Salay counties (over 20% total county population) (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Magyar Dialects: Csángó, Mezoségi, Székely. Classification: Uralic
[rmy] Also in Albania, Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom. 242,000 in Romania (2002 census). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Gypsies in the world (1987 I. Hancock). Population total all countries: 540,780. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Danubian, Gypsy, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany Dialects: Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Eastern Vlax Romani (Bisa), Ghagar, Grekurja (Greco), Kalderash (Coppersmith, Kelderashícko), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), North Albanian, Sedentary Bulgaria, Sedentary Romania, Serbo-Bosnian, South Albanian, Ukraine-Moldavia, Zagundzi. Kalderash, Ursari, and Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are ‘Argintari’, silversmith and ‘Lingurari’, spoonmakers. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Russian Kalderash influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian [rus]; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]; Grekurja is probably Turkish [tur] influenced, distinct from Greek Romani dialect of Balkan Romani [rmn]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Ethnic groups: Chache, Kalderari, Lovári. Ethnonym: Roma. Christian.
[ron] Moldavian in Moldova northeast; Muntenian in Muntenia, or Wallachia southeast; other dialects north and west, including Transylvania. Also in Australia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova (Moldovan), Mozambique, Russian Federation, Serbia, Sweden, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United States, Uzbekistan. 19,700,000 in Romania (2002 census). Population total all countries: 23,623,890. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Daco-Rumanian, Moldavian, Rumanian Dialects: Banat, Bayash, Moldavian, Muntenian (Walachian), Transylvanian. Little dialect variation. Bayash are Gypsies whose dialect is based on Banat, but influenced by Balkan Romani [rmn] and Hungarian [hun]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Italian [ita], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Sardinian [sdn], 73% with Catalan [cat], 72% with Portuguese [por] and Rheto-Romance [roh], 71% with Spanish [spa]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Christian.
Romanian Sign Language
[rms] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Limbaj Mimico-Gestual Romanesc Dialects: There are substantial dialectal differences in variety used in Transylvania (centered around Cluj-Napoca), as compared to Valachia and Moldova. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Christian.
[rom] Population total all countries: 3,017,920. Comments: Member languages are: Balkan Romani [rmn] (Serbia), Baltic Romani [rml] (Poland), Carpathian Romani [rmc] (Czech Republic), Kalo Finnish Romani [rmf] (Finland), Sinte Romani [rmo] (Serbia), Vlax Romani [rmy], Welsh Romani [rmw] (United Kingdom)