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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Jablanica, Pcinja, and Toplica, districts; Kosovo region. 1,630,000 in Serbia. Population total all countries: 3,438,800. Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1998 Los Angeles Times). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bjanovac, 2 other municipalities (2009, Constitution, Article 10(2)). De facto provincial language in Kosovo. Alternate Names: Geg, Shqip, Shqyp Dialects: Gheg, Northeast, Gheg, Northwest. There is a transitional dialect zone which is neither Gheg Albanian nor Tosk Albanian [als]. It is spoken in a few towns and villages around the Shkumbin River such as Shpat and Sulovë. A member of macrolanguage Albanian [sqi]. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Aromanian
[rup] Belgrade City, Nis, and scattered urban communities in Vojvodine and Kosovo. 15,000 in Serbia ( Society of Aromanians). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Macedo Romania Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern

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Bosnian
[bos] Raska district: Novi Pazar and Tutin municipalities. 135,000 in Serbia (2002). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bujanovac, Medveda, Presevo (1991, Official Language Use Law No. 45, Article 3). Dialects: Ijekavían, Ikavian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Influences from Turkish [tur] and Arabic [arb].

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Bulgarian
[bul] Pirot district: Dmitrovgrad; Pcinja district: Bosiljgrad. 60,000 in Serbia (2006). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Novi Pazar, Sjenica, Tutin (1991, Official Language Use Law No. 45, Article 3). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern

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Croatian
[hrv] North Backa district: Bela Crkva municipality. 114,000 in Serbia (2006). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western

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Czech
[ces] North Banat district. 40,000 in Serbia (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bohemian, Cestina Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak

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Hungarian
[hun] Central Banat, North Backa, North Banat, South Backa, and West Backa districts; Vojvodine area. 287,000 in Serbia (2002 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of national identity (2009, Constitution, Articles 10(2), 199). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Magyar Classification: Uralic

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Belgrade City; Vojvodina Autnomous Province: Jablanica, Novi Sad, and Central Banat districts; scattered in Kosovo. 120,000 in Serbia. 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi. Population total all countries: 589,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Arli, Dzambazi, Tinners Romani. Arlija dialect (252,000–367,000 total) understood by Greek Romani and Dzambazi. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Ethnic group: Jerlídes (Macedonia, southern Serbia). Muslim.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Belgrade City; southern Serbia, Jablanica, Nis, Pcinja, and Pirot districts; scattered in Kosovo. 31,000 in Serbia. 30,000 Serbian, 1,000 Manouche. Population total all countries: 324,090. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sinte, Sinti Dialects: Abbruzzesi, Serbian Romani, Slovenian-Croatian Romani. Mutual intelligibility between Croatian Romani, Slovenian Romani, and Serbian Romani. Possibly quite distinct from German [deu] varieties. Sinte is characterized by German influence. Not intelligible of Vlax Romani [rmy]. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sasítka Romá. Christian.

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Romanian
[ron] South Backa district: Timoc valley. 200,000 in Serbia (1995 I. Bena). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Daco-Rumanian, Moldavian, Rumanian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern

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Romano-Serbian
[rsb] Sremska Mitrovica district. 172,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tent Gypsy Dialects: None known. Related to Serbian [srp] with influences from Romani. Classification: Mixed language, Serbian-Romani

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Rusyn
[rue] South Backa district: Ruski Krstur town, Vojvodine. 30,000 in Serbia (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Carpathian, Carpatho-Rusyn, Rusynski, Ruthenian Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East

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Serbian
[srp] 6,620,000 in Serbia (2002 census). Population total all countries: 8,638,906. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2006, Constitution, Article 10(1)). Alternate Names: Montenegrin Dialects: Shtokavski (Stokavian), Torlakian. A member of macrolanguage Serbo-Croatian [hbs]. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Previously considered a Serbo-Croat language. Torlakian spoken in south and east. Influence from Bulgarian [bul]. Some linguists consider it transitional between Shtokavski and Macedonian [mkd]. Christian (Orthodox).

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Serbo-Croatian
[hbs] Population total all languages: 15,704,186. Comments: Includes: Bosnian [bos] (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatian [hrv] (Croatia), Serbian [srp].

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Slovak
[slk] South Backa district: Vojvodine. 80,000 in Serbia (1996 W. Brown). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak

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Yugoslavian Sign Language
[ysl] Scattered. 10,000 in Serbia (2014 EUD). 10,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 30,000 signers (2014 European Forum of Sign Language Interpreters). 30,000 deaf and 90,000 hard of hearing (2013 Association of the Deaf and Hard Hearing). 47,500 (2014 IMB). Population total all countries: 11,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kosovar Sign Language (KosSL), Serbian Sign Language (Srpski Znakovni Jezik). Origin from deaf schools in Austria and Hungary. Regional variants, but adequate comprehension. Efforts to standardize since 1979. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, each area has tended to distinguish its variety from the others, with its own name. The ISO 639-3 standard has not yet been adjusted to reflect these changes, treating all sign languages in the former Yugoslavia (with the exception of Croatian Sign Language [csq]) as dialects of Yugoslavian Sign Language [ysl]. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Serbian Telecom employees learning Serbian Sign Language as an L2. Interpreters furnished in court. About 100 sign language interpreters (2014 European Forum of Sign Language Interpreters). 40 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian (Orthodox).

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