[aln] Kosovo. Also in Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Slovenia, United States. 1,630,000 in Serbia. Population total all countries: 4,178,790. Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1998 Los Angeles Times). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bjanovac, 2 other municipalities (2009, Constitution, Article 10(2)). De facto provincial language in Kosovo. Alternate Names: Geg, Shqip, Shqyp Dialects: Gheg, Northeast, Gheg, Northwest. There is a transitional dialect zone which is neither Gheg Albanian nor Tosk Albanian [als]. It is spoken in a few towns and villages around the Shkumbin River such as Shpat and Sulovë. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg Comments: Muslim, Christian.
[bos] 135,000 in Serbia (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bujanovac, Medveda, Presevo (1991, Official Language Use Law No. 45, Article 3). Dialects: Ijekavían, Ikavian. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Influences from Turkish [tur] and Arabic [arb].
[hun] Vojvodine. 287,000 in Serbia (2002 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of national identity (2009, Constitution, Articles 10(2), 199). Statutory provincial language in Vojvodine (2009, AP Vojvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Magyar Classification: Uralic
[rmn] Balkans, Kosovo. Also in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Italy, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine. 120,000 in Serbia. 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi. Population total all countries: 617,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Arlija, Dzambazi, Tinners Romani. Arlija dialect (252,000–367,000 total) understood by Greek Romani and Dzambazi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Ethnic group: Jerlídes (Macedonia, southern Serbia). Muslim.
[rmo] Kosovo. Also in Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland. 31,000 in Serbia. 30,000 Serbian, 1,000 Manouche. Population total all countries: 318,920. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sinte, Sinti Dialects: Abbruzzesi, Serbian Romani, Slovenian-Croatian Romani. Mutual intelligibility between Croatian Romani, Slovenian Romani, and Serbian Romani. Possibly quite distinct from German [deu] varieties. Sinte is characterized by German influence. Not intelligible of Vlax Romani [rmy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sasítka Romá. Christian.
[rue] Voyvodina, concentrated in Ruski Krstur town. 30,000 in Serbia (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, AP Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Carpathian, Carpatho-Rusyn, Rusynski, Ruthenian Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East
[srp] Also in Albania, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, Libya, Macedonia, Montenegro (Montenegrin), Romania, Russian Federation, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United States, Zambia. 6,620,000 in Serbia (2002 census). Population total all countries: 9,262,890. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2006, Constitution, Article 10(1)). Alternate Names: Montenegrin Dialects: Shtokavski (Stokavian), Torlakian. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Previously considered a Serbo-Croat language. Torlakian spoken in south and east. Influence from Bulgarian [bul]. Some linguists consider it transitional between Shtokavski and Macedonian [mkd]. Christian.
Yugoslavian Sign Language
[ysl] Also in Slovenia. 30,000 users out of 60,000 deaf persons in former larger Yugoslavia (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Slovenian Sign Language Dialects: Serbian Sign Language. Origin from deaf schools in Austria and Hungary. Regional variants, but adequate comprehension. Efforts to standardize since 1979. Slovenian Sign Language [ysl] used in Slovenia is a dialect. Possibly includes Croatian Sign Language [csq] and sign languages in other Balkan states (2005 A. Bickford); further research is needed especially to determine if these are dialects of the same language or separate languages. Classification: Deaf sign language