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Abaza
[abq] Karachayevo-Cherkesiya and Stavropol’skiy Kray. 37,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 47,880. Ethnic population: 43,300 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ashuwa Dialects: Ashkaraua (Ashkar, Ashxar), Bezshagh, Tapanta. Some dialects partially intelligible of Abkhaz [abk]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin Comments: Muslim.

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Adyghe
[ady] Adygeya Republic, Kransnodarskiy Kray, Karachayevo-Cherkesiya, and Stavropol’skiy Kray. 117,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 491,800. 0 monolinguals ( Ministry of Education, Adygea Republic). Ethnic population: 129,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Adyghea (1995, Constitution, Adyghea Republic, Article 2). Alternate Names: Adygei, Adygey, Circassian, Kiakh, Kjax, Lower Circassian, West Circassian Dialects: Abadzex (Abadzakh, Abadzeg), Bezhedukh (Bzedux, Bzhedug, Chemgui, Temirgoj), Natuzaj (Natukhai), Shapsug (Sapsug), Xakuchi. Reportedly similar to Kabardian [kbd]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Some literature. Muslim (Sunni).

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Aghul
[agx] Southeast Dagestan Republic, Agulsky and Kurakhsky districts; Moscow; Stavropol region. 29,300 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 34,200 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aghul-ch’al, Agul Dialects: Agul, Fit’e, Gequn (Burkikhan), Keren, Koshan (Q’ushan), Tsirkhe. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Akhvakh
[akv] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Akhvakhsky district, 6 villages; Kakhib county. 3 villages. 210 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,930 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: ’Aqwalazul, Ashvado, Axvax, Ghahvalal Dialects: Kaxib, Northern Akhvakh, Southern Akhvakh (Tlyanub, Tsegob). Diverse dialects. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Aleut
[ale] Kamchatka, Commander (Komandor) Islands, Bering island, Nikolskoye settlement. 350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Mednyj Aleut [mud]. Ethnic population: 480 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Unangan, Unangany, Unanghan Dialects: Beringov (Atkan, Bering). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut Comments: From 1820 to 1840 dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Komandor Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s-1980s children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Aleut, Mednyj
[mud] Kamchatka, Commander (Komandor) Islands, Copper island. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Aleut [ale]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Attuan, Copper, Copper Island Aleut, Copper Island Attuan, Creolized Attuan, Medny Classification: Mixed language, Russian-Aleut Comments: From 1820–1840, dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Commander Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s–1980s, children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Altai, Northern
[atv] Altay, Altayskiy Kray, and Khakasiya; Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, Mongolia and China border. 57,400 (2010 census). 2,000 Tuba, several thousand Kumandy, 2,000 Chalkan (Salminen 2007). Census includes Southern Altai [alt]. Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Southern Altai [alt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Telengit, Telengut, Teleut Dialects: Chalkan, Kumandy, Tuba. No comprehension of Southern Altai [alt]. Considered a separate language. Teleut may be a separate language. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Altai, Southern
[alt] Altay, Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, Mongolia and China border. 57,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Northern Altai [atv]. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Altai Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Altai, Oirot, Oyrot Dialects: Altai Proper (Altai-Kizhi, Altaj Kizi, Maina-Kizhi, Southern Altai), Talangit (Chuy, Talangit-Tolos, Telengit), Teleut. No intelligiblility of Northern Altai [atv]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Different from Oirat [xal] (Kalmyk-Oirat), a Mongolian language. Traditional religion.

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Alutor
[alr] Kamchatka District, northeast Kamchatka peninsula, Vyvenka and Khailino villages; 2 families in Rekinniki; some in Tilichiki and Tymlat; some scattered. 25 (2010 census), decreasing. Some monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aliutor, Alyutor, Olyutor Dialects: Alutorskij (Alutor Proper). Considered a dialect of Koryak [kpy] until recently. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor Comments: In 1950s–1970s, children were sent to boarding schools.

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Andi
[ani] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Botlikhsky district. 9 villages. 5,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,800 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andii, Andiy, Qandisel, Qwannab Dialects: Gagatl, Kvanxidatl, Lower Andi/South Andi, Munin, Rikvani, Upper Andi/North Andi (Andi, Ashali, Chanho, Gagtl, Gunho, Rikvani, Zilo). Dialects appear quite divergent. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Archi
[aqc] Southern Dagestan Republic, Arsha community upper Risor river. 8 villages. 970 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Archib, Archin, Archintsy, Archsel, Arshashdib Dialects: None known. One of the most divergent Lezgian (Lezgic) languages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Archi Comments: Muslim.

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Avar
[ava] Western Dagestan, Terek and Sulak river areas; some in Chechnya. 715,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 761,960. Ethnic population: 912,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Avaro, Bolmac, Khundzuri, Maarul Dagestani Dialects: Antsukh (Ancux), North Avar (Andian Avar, Bolmats, Khunzakh, Salatav, Unkratl), Qarakh (Bacadin, Karakh), Qusur, South-East Avar (Andalal, Andalal Shulanin, Andalal Untib), South-West Avar (Batlukh, Hid Kaxib, Hid Keleb), Zaqatal (Char). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Avar Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Azerbaijani, North
[azj] Southern Dagestan Republic, south Caucasus mountains, Caspian coast. 473,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 603,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani

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Bagvalal
[kva] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district, Khushtada, Tlondoda, Kvanada, and Gimerso; Akhvakhsky district, Tlissi and Tlibisho; a few other communities. 1,450 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagulal, Bagvalin, Bagwalal, Barbalin, Kvanada, Kvanadin Dialects: Kvanada-Himerso, Tlissi-Tlibisho, Tlondoda-Khushtada. Reportedly similar to Tindin [tin]. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Bashkort
[bak] Bashkortostan Republic, Chelyabinskaya Oblast’, Kurganskaya Oblast’, and Sverdlovskaya Oblast’; between Volga river and Ural mountains; beyond the Urals. 1,150,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 1,221,340. Ethnic population: 1,590,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bashkortostan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bashkir, Basquort Dialects: Burzhan (Western Bashkir), Kuvakan (Mountain Bashkir), Yurmaty (Steppe Bashkir). Reportedly similar to Tatar [tat]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Bezhta
[kap] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, Bezhta, Tlyadal, and Khasharkhota villages. 6,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 6,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bazht’, Bazht’al, Bechitin, Bexita, Bezheta, Bezhita, Bezhituri, Bezhti, Kapucha, Kapuchin, Kapuchin-Gunzib, Kapuchuri, Khvanal, Kiburabi, Kupuca Dialects: Bezhta proper, Khocharkhotin, Tlyadaly. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic Comments: Khvanal is Avar [ava] name for both Bezhta and Hunzib [huz]. Muslim.

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Bohtan Neo-Aramaic
[bhn] Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Originally in Anatolia, Ottoman Empire, east of Tigris River (present-day southeastern Turkey). Fled to Russia during World War I. Christian.

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Botlikh
[bph] Western Dagestan Republic, Botlikh and Miarsu villages. 210 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 3,500 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Botlix, Buykhadi Dialects: Botlikh, Zibirkhalin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Buriat
[bua] Population total all languages: 329,100. Comments: Includes: China Buriat [bxu] (China), Mongolia Buriat [bxm] (Mongolia), Russia Buriat [bxr].

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Buriat, Russia
[bxr] Republic of Buryatiya, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Zabaykalsky; Siberia, east of Lake Baikal, bordering on Mongolia. 219,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 461,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Buriat Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Northern Mongolian Dialects: Alar, Barguzin, Bohaan, Bokhan, Ekhirit-Bulagat, Ninzne-Udinsk, Oka, Selengin, Tunka, Unga. Less influenced by Russian [rus] east of Lake Baikal; more similar to Mongolia. Literary dialect differs considerably from those in Mongolia and China, which are influenced by other languages. Khori is the main dialect in the Russian Federation. Speakers in Russian Federation appear to understand each other well. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat Comments: Heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Chamalal
[cji] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district. 8 villages; Chechnya Republic. 500 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1990 A. Kibrik). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camalal, Chamalin Dialects: Gadyri (Gachitl-Kvankhi), Gakvari (Agvali-Richaganik-Tsumada-Urukh), Gigatl (Hihatl), Kwenkhi, Tsumada. Dialects quite distinct. Gigatl (Hihatl) and Chamalal proper (with Gadyri, Gakvari, Tsumada and Kwenkhi dialects) are considered to be sublanguages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Chechen
[che] Chechnya Republic, Ingushetiya, Dagestan, and Stavropol’skiy Kray; north Caucasus, most in rural areas. 1,350,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,361,000. 233,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,430,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Chechen Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Galancho, Nokchiin Muott, Nokhchiin Dialects: Akkin (Aux), Cheberloi, Itumkala (Shatoi), Kistin, Melkhin, Ploskost. Chechen partially intelligible with Ingush [inh]. Melkhi transitional dialect to Ingush. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush Comments: Many Russians, Ingush, Ossetins, and other peoples live among them. From 1944–1957, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia losing 25%–50% of the population, much land, economic resources, and civil rights. They have been largely removed from productive lowlands. Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Sufi).

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Chukchi
[ckt] Northeast Siberia, Chukchi peninsula, Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Sakha (Yakutiya), and Kamchatka. 5,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chuchee, Chukcha, Chukchee, Chukot, Luoravetlan Dialects: Chaun, Enmylinskij, Enurmin, Nunligranskij, Pevekskij, Uellanskij, Xatyrskij, Yanrakinot. Closely related to Alutor [alr], Kerek [krk] and Koryak [kpy]. Itelmen [itl] is more distantly related. Chukchi may be mutually intelligible with some varieties of Koryak (1988 B. Comrie). Literary dialect and gender dialects also exist. Gender differences largely phonological. Women’s dialect largely ignored in language development. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Chukot Comments: School at Anadyr. Chukchi in Magadan area are nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Chulym
[clw] Khakasiya, north of Altay mountains, Chulym river basin, Ob river tributary. 44 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 360 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chulim, Chulym Tatar, Chulym-Turkish, Melets Tatar Dialects: Lower Chulym, Middle Chulym. Reportedly similar to Shor [cjs]; some consider them one language. The government considers them separate. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian Comments: Spoken in villages. Also spoken by the Kacik (Kazik, Kuarik).

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Chuvash
[chv] Chuvashiya Republic, east of Moscow, near Volga river. About half live in towns. 1,043,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,077,420. Ethnic population: 1,440,000 (2010 census). L2 users: 200,000 in Russian Federation. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Chuvash Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bulgar Dialects: Anatri, Viryal. The only extant language in Bolgar branch of Turkic. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Bolgar Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dargwa
[dar] Southern Dagestan Republic. 486,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 492,490. Ethnic population: 589,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dargi, Dargin, Dargintsy, Khiurkilinskii, Uslar Dialects: Akusha (Akkhusha, Urakha-Akhush, Urkarax), Chirag, Cudaxar (Tsudakhar), Dejbuk, Itsari, Kajtak (Kaitak, Kaytak, Xajdak), Kubachi (Kubachin, Kubachintsy, Ughbug), Muirin, Sirxin, Uraxa-Axusha, Xarbuk. Kaytak, Kubachin, Itsari, and Chirag may be separate languages from Dargwa. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Dargi Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Dido
[ddo] Southern Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, several villages. 11,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,500 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cez, Didoi, Tsez, Tsezy, Tsuntin Dialects: Sahada. Sahada most distinct. May be a separate language. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic Comments: Muslim.

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Dolgan
[dlg] Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Dudinka and Khatange counties; perhaps in Sakha. 1,050 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,890 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Contact language on Tajmyr Peninsula spoken by Evenki [evn], Nganasan [nio], and long-term Russian residents. Different from Yakut [sah]. Traditional religion.

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Domari
[rmt] 500 in Russian Federation (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Karachi, Luli, Maznoug. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Muslim.

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Enets, Forest
[enf] Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Potapovo (mostly), Dudinka, and other Taimyr settlements. 40 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bay Enets, Pe-Bae, Yenisei Samoyedic Dialects: None known. Forest and Tundra Enets [enh] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets

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Enets, Tundra
[enh] Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Vorontsovo and Karepovsk settlements; some nomads near Tukhard. 40 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madu, Somatu, Yenisei Samoyedic Dialects: None known. Tundra and Forest Enets [enf] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets

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Erzya
[myv] Penzenskaya Oblast’, Orenburgskaya Oblast’, Samarskaya Oblast’,Ul’yanovskaya Oblast’, and Saratovskaya Oblast’. 36,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 119,330. Ethnic population: 57,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erzia, Mordvin, Mordvin-Erzya Dialects: None known. Quite different from Moksha [mdf]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Even
[eve] Half of all Evens scattered in Sakha (Yakutiya); Magadanskaya Oblast’, Khabarovski District. 5,660 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 21,800 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eben, Ewen, Ilqan, Lamut, Orich Dialects: Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Lamunkhin, Okhotsk, Ola, Sakkyryr, Tompon, Upper Kolyma. Many dialects. Arman has no remaining speakers. Ola (basis for literary Even) not accepted by dialect speakers. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Even Comments: Many dialects divided into two main groups: Western and Eastern Even. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Evenki
[evn] Siberia, most in Sakha (Yakutiya), and Krasnoyarskiy Kray; also in Irkutskaya Oblast’, Buryatiya, Zabaykalsky, and Amurskaya Oblast’; Pacific coast settlements, Magadanskaya Oblast’, Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Khabarovskiy Kray, Kamchatka, and Sakhalinskaya Oblast’. 4,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 38,400 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Avanki, Avankil, Chapogir, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Solon, Tungus Dialects: Aldan Timpton, Ayan-Maya, Baykit, Cemdalsk, Cis-Baikalia, Ilimpeya, Jeltulak, Kalar, Kur-Urmi, Lower Nepa Tungir, Manegir, Nakanna, Nepa, Podkamennaya Tunguska, Poligus, Sakhalin, Sym, Tokko, Tokmo-Upper Lena, Tommot, Tuguro-Chumikan, Tutoncana, Uchama, Uchur, Vanavara, Yerbogocen, Zeya-Bureya. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Evenki Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Finnish
[fin] Ingria region, Saint Petersburg area. 38,900 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 51,900 (2002 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Some living in the Russian Federation, originally from the area of Ingria, call themselves Ingrian Finns. They are distinct from the Ingrians (Izhor), who speak a Finnic language, Ingrian (Izhorian) [izh]. Christian.

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Ghodoberi
[gdo] Southwestern Dagestan Republic, Botlikhsky district, Godoberi, Zibirkhali and Beledi. 130 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 430 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Godoberi, Godoberin Dialects: Godoberi, Zibirkhali. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Muslim.

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Gilyak
[niv] Sakhalinskaya Oblast’, Nekrasovka and Nogliki villages, Rybnoe, Moskalvo, Chir-Unvd, Viakhtu, and other villages; Khabarovskiy Kray, Amur river area, Aleyevka village. 200 (2010 census). A few hundred active users (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,650 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nivkh, Nivkhi Dialects: Amur, East Sakhalin Gilyak, North Sakhalin Gilyak. Amur and East Sakhalin dialects have difficult inherent mutual intelligibility. North Sakhalin is between them linguistically. Classification: Language isolate

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Hinukh
[gin] Southwestern Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, Ginukh. 5 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 440 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ginukh, Ginukhtsy, Ginux, Hinuq, Hinux Dialects: None known. Close to Tsez (Dido) [ddo], but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic Comments: Hinukh men marry Dido women. Hinukh women marry men from other ethnic groups. Muslim.

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Hunzib
[huz] Southern Dagestan Republic, Tsuntinsky district, Nakhada, Gunzib and Garbutl; Kizilyurtovksy district, Stalskoe. 1,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,420. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enzeb, Gunzib, Khunzal, Khunzaly, Xunzal Dialects: None known. Separate from Bezhta [kap] (1989 B. Comrie) but reportedly very similar to it. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic Comments: Muslim.

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Ingrian
[izh] Baltic; Leningradskaya Oblast’ and Sankt-Peterburg; Kingisepp and Lomonosov areas. 120 (2010 census). L1 speakers should not be confused with Ingrian Finns, who speak Finnish [fin]. Ethnic population: 820 (1989 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ingermanlandian, Inkeroisen, Izhor, Izhorian Dialects: Khava, Lower Luzh, Oredezh (Upper Luzh), Soykin. Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl]. Oredezh dialect is extinct. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian.

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Ingush
[inh] North Caucasus; Ingushetiya Republic, Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya, Kabardino-Balkariya, and Chechnya. 306,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 322,900. Ethnic population: 445,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Ingushetia (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Galgay, Ghalghay, Ingus, Kisti, Kistin Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with Chechen [che], more so with contact. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ghalghay. 1944–1957 deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia, losing 25% to 50% of the population. Lost much land, economic resources, and civil rights. Removed from Vladikavkaz in late 1992, but many returned. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni).

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Itelmen
[itl] Kamchatka Peninsula, west coast, Tigil region, Kamchatka District, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij. 80 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,200 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Itelymem, Kamchadal, Kamchatka, Western Itelmen Dialects: Sedanka, Xajrjuzovo. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Southern Comments: 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Traditional religion.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] Dagestan Republic, Makhachkala, Majalis, Derbent, Buinaksk, and Kizlyar, south of Pyatigorsk; North Ossetia-Alania, Mozdok; Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, Nalchyk; Chechnya, Grozniy. 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Tat [ttt]. Population total all countries: 96,010. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Hebrew Tat, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, Lahji, Mountain Jewish, Musulman Tats, Tati Dialects: North Tat, South Tat. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat Comments: Tat is not an ethnic name. It is a Turkic term for nomads. Ethnonym: Bik, known as Mountain Jews. Ethnic autonym: Juwri or Juhuri. Tradition says they lived in the Caucasus since 722 A.D. Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Jewish.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kabardino-Balkariya Republic, Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya and Stavropol’skiy Kray. 516,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,628,500. 36,700 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 590,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Beslenei, East Circassian, Kabard, Kabardino-Cherkes, Kabardo-Cherkess, Upper Circassian Dialects: Baksan, Beslenei (Beslenej), Cherkes, Greater Kabardian, Kuban, Lesser Kabardian, Malka, Mozdok. Reportedly similar to Adygey [ady]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Kalmyk-Oirat
[xal] Kalmykiya Republic, Astrakhanskaya Oblast’, and Stavropol’skiy Kray; Volga-Don steppes northwest of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus; Dörböt dialect: mostly west Kalmykia; Torgut dialect: mostly east, lower Volga region,Province. 80,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 360,500. Ethnic population: 183,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: European Oirat, Kalmack, Kalmuck, Kalmuk, Kalmytskii Jazyk, Khalli, Oirat, Qalmaq, Volga Oirat, Western Mongolian Dialects: Buzawa, Dörböt (Derbet, Dörbet, Dörböd), Oirat (Oyrat), Sart Qalmaq, Torgut (Torghoud, Torghud, Torguud, Torguut). Diverged from other Mongolian languages. Called Kalmyk in the Russian Federation; Oirat in China and Mongolia; in the United States, Kalmyk not heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Different from other varieties in China called Oirat [xal], which are sometimes called Asiatic Oirat. In Mongolia, some scholars consider Oirat to be a dialect of Halh Mongolian [khk]. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat Comments: The modern literary language is mainly based on the Torgut dialect, though it incorporates a large number of concessions to Dörböt. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Kamas
[xas] Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Sayan mountains, Abalakovo village. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1989 (Salminen 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kamassian Dialects: Kamassian, Koibal (Khoibal). Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed Comments: Originally in Siberia. Different from the Kamassian dialect of Khakas [kjh].

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Karachay-Balkar
[krc] South Karachayevo-Cherkesiya and Kabardino-Balkariya Republic. 305,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 310,730. Ethnic population: 314,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balkarian, Balqar, Karacaylar, Karachai, Karachaitsy, Karachay, Karachayla Dialects: Balkar, Karachay-Baksan-Chegem. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian Comments: Balkar and Karachay almost identical. Muslim (Sunni).

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Karagas
[kim] Siberia, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Nizhneudinsk district, Alygdzher, Nerkha, and Verkhnyaya Gutara villages. 93 (2010 census). Less than 40 fluent speakers, same number of passive speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 760 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kamas, Karagass, Sayan Samoyed, Tofa, Tofalar Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Christian.

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Karata
[kpt] West Dagestan Republic, Akhvakhsky district. 9 villages. 260 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,790 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karatai, Karatin, Kirdi Dialects: Karata proper (Anchix, Archo, Chabakaroi, Enkhelo, Ratsitl), Tokita (Tokitin). Karatin and Tokitin dialects are quite different. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Karelian
[krl] Kareliya Republic, Murmanskaya Oblast’, and Leningradskaya Oblast’; some in Tverskaya Oblast’, mainly Tolmachi area, Maksatikha and Ves’yegonsk. 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Ludian [lud]. Population total all countries: 35,600. Ethnic population: 60,800 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karelian Proper, Karel’skiy Jazyk, Karely, Severno-Karel’skij, Sobstvenno-Karel’skij-Jazyk Dialects: Northern Karelian, Novgorod, Southern Karelian, Tver (Kalinin). Ludian [lud] and Livvi-Karelian [olo] are separate languages. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Two language nests started in 1999 and 2002 in northwestern county center of Kalevala (Salminen 2007).

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Kerek
[krk] Kamchatskaya Oblast’, Cape Navarin, Chukchi villages. No known L1 speakers (Salminen 2007). 3 elderly speakers in 1991 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4 (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Khatyrka (Xatyrskij), Mainypilgino (Majna-Pil’ginskij). Formerly considered a dialect of Chukchi [ckt]. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor

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Ket
[ket] Upper Yenisei valley, Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Turukhansk, and Baikitsk regions; Sulomai, Bakhta, Verkhneimbatsk, Kellog, Kangatovo, Surgutikha, Vereshchagino, Baklanikha, Farkovo, Goroshikha, and Maduyka villages; eastern Siberia, east of Khanti [kca] and Mansi [mns] language areas. 210 (2010 census). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,220 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Imbatski-Ket, Yenisei Ostyak, Yenisey Ostiak Classification: Yeniseian Comments: Traditional way of life has changed. Traditional religion.

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Khakas
[kjh] Khakasiya Republic, north of Altai mountains; Krasnoyarskiy Kray, north; Kemerovskaya Oblast’; scattered throughout Russia. 42,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 42,610. 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 73,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Khakassia Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Abakan Tatar, Hakass, Khakhass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar Dialects: Beltir, Kachin (Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Kamass (Kamassian), Koibal (Xoibal), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Sagai (Sagaj, Saghai), Shor. Kamass dialect is extinct (Salminen 2007). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Fewer young people speak Khakas than previous generations, but more children study it in school than 20 years ago. Traditional religion, Christian (Orthodox).

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Khanty
[kca] Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, and Tomskaya Oblast’; east past the Mansi [mns] language area, along Ob river. 9,580 (2010 census). Mostly speakers of Northern Khanty, 2,000 speakers of Eastern Khanty and probably no speakers left in Southern Khanty (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 30,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hanty, Khant, Khanti, Ostyak, Xanty Dialects: Eastern Khanti, Northern Khanti, Southern Khanti, Vach (Vasyugan). Intelligibility difficult between geographically distant dialects. 3 dialect groups; ‘Vach’, archaic. Dialect used in writing rejected by many speakers. Classification: Uralic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khvarshi
[khv] Southwest Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district, Khvarshi, Inkhokvari, Santlada, Kvantlada, and Khonokh villages. 1,740 (2010 census). 1,000 Inxokvari speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,870 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atl’ilqo, Khvarshin, Xvarshi Dialects: Inxokvari (Inkhokvari), Xvarshi proper. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Sometimes Xvarshi and Inxokvari are treated as two separate languages. Muslim.

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Komi
[kom] Population total all languages: 219,100. Comments: Includes: Komi-Permyak [koi], Komi-Zyrian [kpv].

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Komi-Permyak
[koi] Permskiy Kray, west of central Ural mountains, south of Komi-Zyrian area. 63,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 94,500 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kama Permyak, Komi-Perm, Komi-Permyat, Permyak Dialects: North Permyak (Kochin-Kam), South Permyak (Inyven), Zyudin. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Zyrian [kpv] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi Comments: Some literature available. Ancient literary and cultural traditions. More densely populated and mixed, higher education, and more assimilated to national culture than Komi-Zyrian. Christian, traditional religion.

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Komi-Zyrian
[kpv] Near the Arctic Sea; Komi Republic, Arkhangel’skaya Oblast’, and Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug; south of Yurak [yrk], west of Vogul (Mansi) [mns] language areas. 156,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 228,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of national identity (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Komi Dialects: Yazva. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Permyak [koi] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Korean
[kor] 42,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Language isolate

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Koryak
[kpy] Kamchatka, north half of peninsula, south of the Chukchi [ckt] language area; also in Magadanskaya Oblast’. 1,670 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,950 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chavchuven, Nymylan Dialects: Apokinskij (Apukin), Cavcuvenskij (Chavchuven), Gin, Itkan, Kamenskij (Kamen), Palan, Paren, Xatyrskij. Koryak and Alutor [alr] border not yet been defined. Chachuve (Northern Koryak) and Alutor now separated. Alutor formerly considered a dialect of Koryak. Classification of other dialects unclear. Chavchuven, Palan, and Kamen dialects apparently not inherently intelligible. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor Comments: Chavchuven used by reindeer herding tribes, all others use Nymylan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kumyk
[kum] Dagestan Republic, north and east plain. 426,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 426,550. Ethnic population: 503,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki Dialects: Buinaksk, Khaitag, Khasavyurt, Podgorniy, Terek. Dialects quite divergent. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian Comments: Different from Kumux dialect of Lak [lbe]. Muslim (Sunni).

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Lak
[lbe] Central Dagestan Republic. 146,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 153,170. Ethnic population: 179,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kazikumukhtsy, Laki Dialects: Arakul, Ashtikulin, Balxar-Calakan (Balkar-Tsalakan), Kayalin-Mashikin, Kumux (Kumkh), Pervotsovkrin, Shali, Shandi, Vicxin (Vitskhin), Vixlin (Vikhlin). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lak Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Lezgi
[lez] Southeast Dagestan Republic, west of Caspian sea coast; central Caucasus. 402,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 788,720. Ethnic population: 474,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kiurinsty, Lezghi, Lezgian, Lezgin Dialects: Kiuri (Gelkhen, Giliar, Güne, Qurah, Yarki), Quba (Kuba), Samur (Akhty, Dashagyl-Filfil, Doquzpara, Fiy, Jaba, Qurush). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Livvi-Karelian
[olo] Kareliya Republic, Olonetsky, western Pryazhinsky, and southwest Kondopozhsky districts; also in Leningradskaya Oblast’. 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Karelian[krl] and Ludian [lud]. Population total all countries: 30,770. Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karelian, Livvi, Livvikovian, Livvikovskij Jazyk, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl] and Finnish [fin]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Ludian [lud] is transitional between Livvi-Karelian and Veps [vep]. Distinct from Karelian and Ludian.

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Ludian
[lud] Republic of Kareliya, central Kondopozhsky and eastern Pryazhinsky districts; Olonetsky district, Mikhaylovskoye region; also in Leningradskaya Oblast’. 3,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ludic, Lüüdi, Lüüdikiel, Lyudic, Lyudikovian Dialects: None known. Ludian is transitional between Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Veps [vep]. Separate from Karelian [krl] and Livvi-Karelian [olo]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic

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Mansi
[mns] Western Siberia, Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug and Sverdlovskaya Oblast’; Komi-Zyrian [kpv] language area to the west of the Urals; between Ural and Ob rivers. 940 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,300 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mansiy, Vogul, Vogulich, Voguly Dialects: Eastern Vogul (Eastern Mansi, Kondin), Northern Vogul (Northern Mansi, Ob’, Sos’va, Sosyvin, Sygva, Upper Lozyvin), Western Vogul (Lower Lozyvin, Middle Lozyvin, Pelym, Vagily, Western Mansi). Mostly Northern Vogul speakers; probably only a handful of elderly speakers of Eastern Vogul; Western Vogul is probably extinct; Southern Vogul was extinct before 1950 (Salminen 2007). Reportedly most similar to Hungarian [hun]. Classification: Uralic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mari
[chm] Population total all languages: 509,090. Comments: Includes: Hill Mari [mrj], Meadow Mari [mhr].

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Mari, Hill
[mrj] Mariy-El Republic, south of the Volga; Nizhegorodskaya Oblast’. 30,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Gorno-Mariy, High Mari, Mari-Hills, Western Mari Dialects: Kozymodemyan, Yaran. Lexical, phonological, and morphological differences with Meadow Mari [mhr]. A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mari, Meadow
[mhr] Mariy-El Republic, east of the Volga; Bashkortostan, Sverdlovskaya Oblast’, Kirovskaya Oblast’, and Permskiy Kray. 470,000 in Russian Federation (2012 T. Salminen). Population total all countries: 479,090. Ethnic population: 548,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Eastern Mari, Low Mari, Lugovo Mari, Mari, Mari-Woods Dialects: Grassland Mari (Meadow Mari, Sernur-Morkin, Volga, Yoshkar-Olin). A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari Comments: In many publications the term, Eastern Mari, is reserved for the diaspora groups outside the Republic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moksha
[mdf] Mordoviya Republic, Nizhegorodskaya Oblast’, and Penzenskaya Oblast’. 2,030 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,770 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mokshan, Mordoff, Mordov, Mordvin-Moksha Dialects: None known. Very different from Erzya [myv]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin Comments: There are Moksha villages where people speak hardly any other language except Moksha. Christian.

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Mongolian, Halh
[khk] Republic of Buryatiya. 8,830 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,500 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol Dialects: Dariganga, Khalkha (Halh), Ujumuchin, Urat. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper Comments: Halh is basis for literary Mongolian. Buddhist.

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Nanai
[gld] Khabarovskiy Kray, extreme far east, confluence of Amur and Ussuri rivers, scattered in Ussuri valley, Sikhote-Alin, centered in Amur valley below. 1,350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,390. Ethnic population: 12,000 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gold, Goldi, Heche, Hezhe, Hezhen, Nanaj Dialects: Akani, Birar, Kila, Kuro-Urmi, Samagir, Sunggari, Torgon, Ussuri. Quite distinct dialects. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj Comments: Traditional religion.

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Negidal
[neg] Khabarovskiy Kray, Kamenka and Im; Paulina Osipenko region, lower reaches of Amur river. 74 (2010 census). Only a few fully fluent (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 510 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: El’kan Beye, Elkembey, Ilkan Beye, Neghidal, Negidaly Dialects: Nizovsk, Verkhovsk. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Negidal Comments: From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Contacts and intermarriage with the Ulch, Nanai, and Nivkh in the Amur area. Traditional religion.

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Nenets
[yrk] Northwest Siberia, north Dvina river mouth tundra area to Yenisei river delta, scattered in Kola peninsula; Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, and Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug; also in Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Komi, and Arkhangel’skaya Oblast’. 21,900 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 44,600 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nenec, Nenetsy, Nentse, Yurak, Yurak Samoyed Dialects: Forest Yurak, Tundra Yurak. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed Comments: Mainly nomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nganasan
[nio] Siberia, Taimyr peninsula, Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Duinka region, Ust-Avam and Volochanka villages; Khatang region, Novaya village; northernmost people in Russia, near Yakut [sah], Dolgan [dlg], Nenets [yrk], and (Tundra) Enets [enh] language areas. 130 (2010 census). A group of about 100 lead a semi-nomadic life in Dudypta river region near Ust’-Avam (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 860 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nya, Tavgi Samoyed Dialects: Avam (West Nganasan), Khatang. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed Comments: 2 ethnic groups: Avam and Vadeyev. From 1960s–1980s resettled in villages formerly used as winter quarters or trading posts along migratory routes in 1940s. Previous intermittent contact with Tundra Enets and Nenets, and formerly officially were considered part of them. Resettlement brought close contact with Russian, Ukrainian [ukr], Belarusian [bel], and Tatar [tat]. Traditional religion.

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Nogai
[nog] Northern Caucasus, Karachay-Cherkessia Republic; Dagestan Republic, Nogay, Tarumovka, Kizlyar, and Babayurt districts; Chechnya Republic, Shelkovskaya district; Stavropol District, Neftekumsk, Mineral’nyye Vody, and Kochubeyevskoye counties. 87,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 87,410. Ethnic population: 104,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karanogai, Kubanogai, Nogaitsy, Nogalar, Nogay, Noghai, Noghay, Noghaylar Dialects: Black Nogai (Kara), Central Nogai, White Nogai (Kuba). Slight dialect differences. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Oroch
[oac] Eastern Siberia, Khabarovskiy Kray, along rivers that empty into Tatar channel; Amur river near Komsomolsk-na-Amure; Vanino region, Datta and Uska-Orochskaya settlements; some among Nanai [gld] language speakers. 8 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 600 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Orochi Dialects: Orichen, Tez (Tazy). Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe Comments: Russians, Ukrainians, and Evenki live among them. Formerly officially considered part of Udihe. Different from Orok [oaa]. Traditional religion.

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Orok
[oaa] Sakhalinskaya Oblast’, Poronajsk district, Poronajsk town, Gastello and Vakhrushev settlements; Nogliki district, Val village, Nogliki settlement. 47 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 50. Ethnic population: 300 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Oroc, Uilta, Ujlta, Ulta Dialects: Poronaisk (Southern Orok), Val-Nogliki (Nogliki-Val, Northern Orok). Significant dialect differences. Formerly officially considered part of Nanai [gld]. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj Comments: Scattered. Relinquished traditional way of life. Different from Oroch [oac]. Prevalent intermarriage with Russians, Nivkh, Nanai, Evenksi, Negidal, and Korean people.

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Ossetic
[oss] Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya and Kabardino-Balkariya; north of Ossetic in Georgia. 451,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 577,450. Ethnic population: 529,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Ossetia-Alania (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Osetin, Ossetian Dialects: Digor, Iron. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Orthodox), Muslim (Sunni).

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 128,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes all gypsy languages. Ethnic population: 205,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalderash Dialects: Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Vlax speakers from Russia are called Rusurja. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). About 300,000 Gypsies from the former Soviet Union speak a variety of Romani, Lomavren, or Domari as L1 or L2 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Christian.

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Russian
[rus] 137,000,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 167,332,230. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 68(1)). Alternate Names: Russki Dialects: North Russian, South Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East Comments: Christian.

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Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Moscow and Saint Petersburg are major centers. Widespread with significant dialect variation. 121,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Reported historical connections to sign languages in Austria and France, but not obvious from extensive wordlist comparison (Bickford 2005). Very similar to sign languages in Ukraine and Moldova. Internal dialect variation appears significant but needs further survey. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: First school for the deaf opened at Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg in 1806.

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Rutul
[rut] Southern Dagestan Republic. 30,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 47,400. Ethnic population: 35,200 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chal, Mukhad, Myhynnynydy-ch’el, Rutal, Rutultsy, Rutuly Dialects: North Rutul (Asar-Kala, Ixrek, Luchek, Muxrek, Rutul, Shinaz, Vrush), South Rutul (Borch, Khnov). Dialects not sharply defined. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic Comments: Dialect groups may be treated as separate languages (Koryakov 2006). Muslim (Sunni).

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Saami, Akkala
[sia] Murmanskaya Oblast’, southwest Kola peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 2003. Ethnic population: 100 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ahkkil, Babino, Babinsk Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Skolt Saami [sms]. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern

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Saami, Kildin
[sjd] Murmanskaya Oblast’, central Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Skolt Saami [sms] and Ter Saami [sjt]. Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). Number includes all Saami. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Kildin Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Saami Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] Murmanskaya Oblast’, north and west Kola peninsula, Petsamo area. 350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Ter Saami [sjt]. 20 speakers (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kolta, “Lapp” (pej.), Lopar, “Russian Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Skolt, “Skolt Lappish” (pej.) Dialects: Notozer, Yokan. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami. Christian.

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Saami, Ter
[sjt] Murmanskaya Oblast’, eastern Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Skolt Saami [sms]. 6 elderly speakers in the early 1990s (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). 1,770 includes all Saami. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, “Ter Lappish” (pej.) Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Selkup
[sel] Tomskaya Oblast’, Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Krasnoyarskiy Kray; northern dialect: Krasnoselkup region, Ratta, Krasnoselkupskaya Tolka, and Krasnoselkup villages; Purovsk region, Tolka Purovskaya village; Krasnoyarsk District, Farkovo; Turukhan river basin; Baikha; southern dialect: north Tomskaya Oblast’ area villages. 1,020 (2010 census). Central Selkup: 200 speakers, Northern Selkup: 1,000 to 1,500 speakers, Southern Selkup: less than 100 speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 3,900 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Selkups, Chumyl’ Khumyt, Northern Selkups, Ostyak Samoyed, Shöl Khumyt, Shösh Gulla, Syusugulla Dialects: Narym (Central Selkup), Srednyaya Ob-Ket (Southern Sel’kup), Taz (Northern Sel’kup, Tazov-Baishyan), Tym (Kety). Dialect continuum with difficult or impossible intelligibility between extremes. Southern speakers separated geographically from others. Northern Selkup literature not usable by Southern and Central. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed Comments: Formerly lingua franca for Ket, Evenki, Nenets, and Khanty. Traditional religion.

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Serbian
[srp] 11,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Bosnian [bos] and Croatian [hrv]. Ethnic population: 9,670 Serbo-Croatian (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Shor
[cjs] Kemerovskaya Oblast’, scattered in Russian Federation. 2,840 (2010 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aba, Kondoma Tatar, Kuznets Tatar, Mras Tatar, Shortsy, Tom-Kuznets Tatar Dialects: Kondoma, Mrassa (Mrasu). Some sources combine Shor and Chulym [clw]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Different from Shor dialect of Khakas [kjh]. Study of Shor revived; language association formed; chair of Shor created at Pedagogical University in Novokuznetsk (1996 I. Nevskaya). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Slavonic, Old Church
[chu] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern

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Tabassaran
[tab] Southern Dagestan Republic. 126,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 126,900. Ethnic population: 146,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ghumghum, Tabasaran, Tabasarantsy Dialects: North Tabasaran (Khanag), South Tabasaran. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Northern Caucasus (Daghestan Republic); large community in Moscow. 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Judeo-Tat [jdt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati Dialects: Northern Tats. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat

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Tatar
[tat] Tatarstan and Bashkortostan republics; Saint Petersburg and Moscow to eastern Siberia. 4,280,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population may include L2 speakers. Population total all countries: 5,406,110. Ethnic population: 5,310,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Tatarstan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Tartar Dialects: Eastern Tatar, Middle Tatar (Kazan), Western Tatar (Misher). Eastern Tatar is divided into 3: Tobol-Irtysh, Baraba, and Tom. Tobol-Irtysh is divided into 5: Tyumen, Tobol, Zabolotny, Tevriz, and Tara (Tumasheva). Mixed dialects are: Astrakhan, Kasimov, Tepter, and Ural (Poppe). 43,000 Astrakhan (L1 speakers) have shifted to the Middle dialect. Kasim (5,000 L1 speakers) is between Middle and Western Tatar. Tepter (300,000 L1 speakers) is reportedly between the Tatar and Bashkort [bak] languages. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian Comments: Different from Crimean Tatar (Crimean Turkish [crh]). Muslim (Sunni), Christian.

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Tatar, Siberian
[sty] Tyumenskaya, Omskaya, and Novosibirskaya oblasts. 101,000 (2012 M. Sagidullin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kazan Tatar Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tatar [tat]. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian

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Tindi
[tin] Western Dagestan Republic, Tsumadinsky district, Tindi, Angida, Aknada, Echeda, and Tissi villages. 2,150 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tindal, Tindin Dialects: Angidin-Aknadin, Tindin-Echendin. Bagvalal [kva] closely related, but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic Comments: Muslim.

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Tsakhur
[tkr] Southern Dagestan Republic, Rutulsky district. 13 villages. 10,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,800 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caxur, Tsakhury, Tsaxur, Yikbi, Yiqny Miz Dialects: Gelmets-Mikik (Gelmets-kurdul, Kirmico-Lek, Mikik), Tsakh (Jinagh, Mishkesh, Mukhakh-Sabunchi, Muslakh, Suvagil, Tsakh-Qum). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic Comments: Most widely scattered smaller ethnic group. Muslim.

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Tuva
[tyv] Southern Siberia near Mongolia border; Tyva Republic and Krasnoyarskiy Kray. 254,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 283,400. Ethnic population: 268,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Tuva Republic. Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tofa, Tokha, Tuba, Tuvan, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tyva, Uriankhai, Uriankhai-Monchak, Uryankhai Dialects: Central Tuvin, Northeastern Tuvin (Todzhin), Southeastern Tuvin, Tuba-Kizhi, Western Tuvin. Sharp dialect differences. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Until 1944 Tuva was an independent state. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Udihe
[ude] Siberia far east; Khabarovskiy Kray, Lazo area, Gvasiugi settlement; Nanai [gld] language area, Arsenievo settlement; Primorskiy Kray, Pozharsky area, Krasny Yar, Olon, and Sobolinyi settlements; Ternei area, Agzu settlement; Krasnoarmeisky area, Roschino, Dalniy Kut, and Melnichnoye settlements. 100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kiakala, Tazy, Ude, Udegeis, Udeghe, Udehe Dialects: Aniuy, Bikin, Iman, Khor, Khungari, Kur-Urmi, Samarga. Dialect differences not great. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe Comments: Resettled in artificial villages in Russian-speaking [rus] region with Ukrainian and Nanai people. Children sent to boarding schools. Hezhe, in China may refer to this. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Udmurt
[udm] Near Ural Mountains, Udmurtiya and Tatarstan; 1,000 km northeast of Moscow, bounded by Kama and Cheptsa rivers. 324,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population total all countries: 339,800. Ethnic population: 554,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Votiak, Votyak Dialects: North Udmurt (Besermyan, Udmurt), South Udmurt (Southwestern Udmurt). Classification: Uralic, Permian Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ulch
[ulc] Khabarovskiy Kray, Ulch county, Amur river and tributaries, Tatar channel coast; Bulava, Dudi, Kalinovka, Mariinskoe, Nizhnaya Gavan, Savinskoe, Mongol, Solontsy, Kolchom, Sofiyskoe, Tur, and Ukhta; Bogorodskove is capital. 150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,770 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hoche, Hol-Chih, Olch, Olcha, Olchis, Ulcha, Ulchi, Ulych Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj Comments: Close contact with Russian [rus], Ukrainian [ukr], Nanai [gld], Nivkh [niv] (Gilyak), Negidal [neg], and others.

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Veps
[vep] Among Russian speakers, Leningradskaya Oblast’ and Vologodskaya Oblast’; boundary area, Kareliya. 3,610 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,940 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chudy” (pej.), “Chuhari” (pej.), “Chukhari” (pej.), Vepsian Dialects: Central Veps, Prionezh (North Veps), Southern Veps. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian.

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Vod
[vot] Leningradskaya Oblast’, Saint Petersburg area, Kingisepp. 68 (2010 census). Last speakers of East Vod dialect died in the 1960s. Ethnic population: 73. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vodian, Vote, Votian, Votic, Votish Dialects: East Vod, West Vod. Intelligible with Standard Estonian [ekk] of the northeast coast. Classification: Uralic, Finnic

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Yakut
[sah] Near Arctic Sea, middle Lena river, Aldan and Kolyma rivers, 3,220 km; Sakha (Yakutiya), Magadanskaya Oblast’, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Khabarovskiy Kray, and Krasnoyarskiy Kray. 450,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 478,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sakha Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Sakha, Yakut-Sakha Dialects: Dolgan, Middlekolymskyi, Olemkinskyi, Vilyiskyi. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yug
[yug] Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Turukhan area, Vorogovo settlement. 1 (2010 census). Listed in census under Ket [ket]. Ethnic population: 19 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sym-Ket, Yugh Classification: Yeniseian

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Yukaghir, Northern
[ykg] Sakha (Yakutiya), lower Kolyma county, Andryushkino and Kolymskoye. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Ethnic population: 1,600 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jukagir, Northern Yukagir, Odul, Tundra, Tundre, Wadul, Yukagir Dialects: None known. Distinct from Southern Yukaghir (Kolyma) [yux]. May be distantly related to Altaic or Uralic. Classification: Yukaghir Comments: In 19th century their territory shrank due to merging clans, military clashes, assimilation with the Even, and later, collectivization. From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding school. Ethnic autonym: Odul. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yukaghir, Southern
[yux] Magadanskaya Oblast’, upper Kolyma county, Nelemnoye and Zyryanka; also in Kamchatka. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Ethnic population: 1,600. Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Forest Yukagir, Jukagir, Kolym, Kolyma, Odul, Southern Yukagir, Yukagir Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Classification: Yukaghir Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Bering Sea coast, Wrangel island; Providenie region, Chaplino, Novo-Chaplino and Providenie villages. 510 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Naukan Yupik [ynk]. Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Asiatic Yupik, Bering Strait, “Eskimo” (pej.), Siberian Yupik, Yoit, Yuit, Yuk, Yupik Dialects: Aiwanat, Chaplino, Noohalit (Peekit), Wooteelit. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik Comments: School at Anadyr. Sirenik [ysr] is a separate, but now extinct, language. Traditional religion.

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Yupik, Naukan
[ynk] Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Laurence, Lorino, and Whalen villages, scattered. 510 (2010 census). Census includes Central Siberian Yupik [ess]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Naukan, Naukanski Dialects: 60%–70% intelligibility of the Chaplino dialect of Central Siberian Yupik [ess]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik

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Yupik, Sirenik
[ysr] Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Chukot peninsula, Sireniki village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Old Sirenik, Sirenik, Sirenikski, Vuteen Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik

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