Sudan

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Acheron
[acz] Janub Kurdufan state: Saraf Aj-Jaamous area, east of Moro hills. 20,000 (2006 R. Norton). 9,830 speakers in home area (2006 R. Norton). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aceron, Achurun, Asheron, Garme Dialects: Gandok (Eastern Acheron), Garong, Gathuk (Western Acheron). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Afitti
[aft] Shamal Kurdufan state: east Jebel ed Dair, main center is Sidra. 4,000 (de Voogt 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Affitti, Dinik, Ditti, Unietti Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59% with Ama [nyi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang

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Aka
[soh] An Nil al Azraq state: Jebel Silak, southwest of Ingessana hills. 300 (Bender 1983). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fa-C-Aka, Jebel Silak, Jebels Sillok, Sillok Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo Comments: Heavily Arabicized and influenced by Berta [wti]. A remnant group (Bender 1983).

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Ama
[nyi] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Nyimang hills area, Mandal hills, Kalara, Koromiti, Nitil, Al Fous, Kakara, Hajar Sultan, Salara, Tundia, Fuony, and other villages. 70,000 (1982 SIL). Elderly and young children are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Inyimang, Nyima, Nyiman, Nyimang, Nyuwing Dialects: Ama, Mandal (Male). 80% similarity between Ama and Mandal dialects. Lexical similarity: 59% with Afitti [aft]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Nyimang Comments: Called Nyuwing by some Hill Nubian languages; people on the Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling [dil], but now only speak Ama.

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Andaandi
[dgl] Ash Shamaliyah state: Dongola district; north boundary with Nobiin [fia] language area is Burgeg. 70,000 (2014 M. Jaeger). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dongola, Dongolawi, Dongolawi Nubian, Dongolese Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mattokki dialect of Kenzi [xnz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Dongolawi Comments: Ethnonym: Danaagla or Dongola Nubian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)), writing, formal speech use only. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Not intelligible with Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd] or Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga].

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. 15,000,000 in Sudan (1991). Population now divided between Sudan and South Sudan. Population total all countries: 16,867,000. L2 users: Used as an L1 or L2 by over 29 million people in Sudan (2013 A. Persson). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language.Used as an L2 by all other language groups in Sudan. Alternate Names: Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic Dialects: Ja’ali, Khartoum, North Kordofan Arabic, Shukri, Western Sudanese. Western Sudan Spoken Arabic and Khartoum Arabic dialects have little compatibility (Kaye 1988). A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Written form rarely used; Standard Arabic [arb] used instead.

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Baygo
[byg] Janub Darfur state: southeast of Nyala, east Kube hills, Jebel Beygo. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 850 (1978 GRN). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baigo, Bego, Beigo, Beko, Béogé, Beygo Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju Comments: May have been the same as Njalgulgule [njl].

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Bedawiyet
[bej] Al Bahr al Ahmar state; Kassala, Nahr an Nil, and Al Qadarif states, southeast River Nile. 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1992). Population total all countries: 1,186,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedja, Beja, Tu Bdhaawi, Tu-Bedawie Dialects: Beni-Amir, Bisharin (Bisariab), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Hadendoa (Hadendiwa, Hadendowa). Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North Comments: Beja is the Arabic name. Not related to Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [ayl] or Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [avl].

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Berta
[wti] An Nil al Azraq state: Ethiopia border area, Kurmuk and Geissan districts, south Roseires district. 180,000 in Sudan (Osman 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barta, “Beni Shangul” (pej.), Burta, Gwami, Wetawit Dialects: Bake, Fadashi, Mayu, Shuru, Undu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Berta

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Berti
[byt] Shamal Darfur state: Tagabo hills. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern

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Birked
[brk] Shamal Darfur state: between Jebel Harayt and Rizaykat (Arab) country, north of Nyala; Shamal Kurdufan: south of El Obeid. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birgid, Birguid, Birkit, Birqed, Kajjara, Murgi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kadaru [kdu], 51% with Midob [mei]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Birked

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Burun
[bdi] An Nil al Azraq state: north Kurmuk district. 18,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borun, Cai, Lange Dialects: Abuldugu (Bogon, Mugo-Mborkoina), Maiak, Mufwa (Mopo), Mughaja (Mugaja, Mumughadja), Ragreig. Some southern dialects intelligible with Mabaan [mfz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Burun Comments: 3 cultural sections: Northern, comprising Cerkom (Serkum), Morkuny (Baldugu), Mayica (Magaja); Eastern, comprising Gengar (Kurmuk), Jorak (Jorok), Redwak (Regareg); South-West, comprising Mayak, Mofo (Mufu).

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Dagik
[dec] Janub Kurdufan state: Mesakin hills, Reikha (Tolabe), Taballa, Kamlela (Togaro), Tosari, and Buram (Thobu) villages. 11,700 including Ngile [jle] speakers (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagig, Masakin, Masakin Dagig, Masakin Gusar, Thakik Dialects: Adobu, Arreme, Tosari. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ngile [jle] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ruwa.

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Dair
[drb] Shamal Kurdufan state: west and south of Jebel Dair. 1,000 (1978 GRN). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dabab, Daier, Thaminyi Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified

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Daju, Dar Fur
[daj] Janub Darfur State, Daju hills 40 km northeast of Nyala; Gharb Darfur state: Geneina district; Lagowa dialect: Janub Kurdufan state: Lagawa, Dar el Kabira (Kidong), Silecce, Warina, Jebel Miheila, Nyukri, and Tamanyik area villages. 80,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beke, Dagu, Daju Ferne, Fininga, Nyala-Lagowa Dialects: Lagowa (Lagawa), Nyala. Lexical similarity: 83% with Nyala and Lagowa dialects, 74% with Daju Dar Sila [dau], 62% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju

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Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] Gharb Darfur state: Habilla district. 7,000 in Sudan (2009 T. Alaki). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bokor, Bokorike, Bokoruge, Mongo-Sila, Sila, Sula Dialects: Mongo, Sila. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju

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Dilling
[dil] Janub Kurdufan state: Dilling town and surrounding hills, including Kudur. 5,300 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Delen, Warkimbe Dialects: Debri, Dilling. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dilling and Debri dialects; 93% with Kadaru [kdu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified Comments: The Dilling people call themselves Warki; those of Kudur call themselves Kwashe. People of Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling, but now speak Ama [nyi] and only use Dilling for ceremonies.

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Domari
[rmt] Scattered in urban centers, such as Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, and Al Wahdah. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Main clans in Sudan: Halabi and Ghajar.

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El Hugeirat
[elh] Janub Kurdufan and Shamal Kurdufan states: El Hugeirat hills, Sija, Bija, Shenshin, and Baboy villages; area divided by border. 50 (2007 SIL), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: El Hagarat Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified

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English
[eng] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution Article 8(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Janub Darfur, Sinnar, An Nil al Azraq and Al Qadarif states: Blue Nile river towns; possibly Shamal Kurdufan and Janub Kurdufan states, scattered. 90,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fellata Dialects: Gombe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Migration originally from Sokoto, Adamawa, and Gombe in Nigeria, Maasina in Mali, Liptaako and Jelgooji in Burkina Faso, also the Wodaabe lineage, and from Cameroon. Influenced by Arabic.

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Fur
[fvr] Gharb Darfur, Janub Darfur, and Shamal Darfur states; some villages in east Sudan. 744,000 in Sudan (2004 SIL). Population total all countries: 745,800. Ethnic population: 900,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dala, For, Fora, Fordunga, Forok, Forta, Furakang, Furawi, Kadirgi, Konjara, Korra, Kungara, Kurka, Lali, Onage, Yerge Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur Comments: Called Furawi by Arabs; Forta by Masalit; Yerge by Daju Dar Sila; Onage by Daju Dar Fur; Forok by Tama; Korra by Zaghawa; Kadirgi by Birgid; Kurka by Meidob; Dala by Kara; Lali by Gula.

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Gaam
[tbi] An Nil al Azraq state: Baw district, Jebel Tabi and outlying hills. 67,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaahmg, Ingassana, Ingessana, Kamanidi, Mamedja, Mamidza, Metabi, Muntabi, Tabi Dialects: Buwahg (Buek), Kukur (Gor), Kulang (Bau, Kulelek), Soda (Tao). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Gaam Comments: Called Ingassana, Ingessana by Arabs. Clan groups: Agadi, Bagis, Beek, Bulmut, Kilgu, Kukuli, Mugum, Sidak.

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Ganza
[gza] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, between Yabus and Daga rivers, Dahmoh, Tugubele, Korbum, Darsoma, and Yeshkab villages. 2,600 in Sudan (2007 A. Krell). Population total all countries: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma, Koma-Ganza Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West

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Gbaya
[krs] Janub Darfur state: Radom district, Kafia Kingi and south. 6,000 total in Sudan and South Sudan (2014 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh

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Ghulfan
[ghl] Janub Kurdufan state: Ghulfan Kurgul and Ghulfan Morung hills south of Dilling; villages: Tarda, Ninya, Kurgul, Moring, Dabri, Katang, Shigda, Karkandi, Ota, and Namang. 16,000 (Stevenson 1984), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gulfan, Uncunwee, Wunci, Wuncimbe Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Kadaru [kdu] (Jabal Sitta), then to Dilling [dil] and Wali [wll]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Uncu.

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Gula
[kcm] Janub Darfur state: Kafia Kingi. 200 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kara, Kara of Sudan, Yamegi Dialects: Gula (Goula), Nguru (Bubu, Koyo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara Comments: Different from Kara [kah] of Central African Republic, Kare [kbn] of Chad, or Gula [glu] of Chad.

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Gule
[gly] An Nil al Azraq state: Damazin district, Jebel Gule, San and Roro hills. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Anej, Fecakomodiyo, Hamej Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman

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Gumuz
[guk] An Nil al Azraq state: east Er Roseires district, Famaka and Fazoglo areas on the Blue Nile; Sinnar state: Dinder district, north along Ethiopia border. 40,000 in Sudan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Debatsa, Deguba, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Mendeya, Shankillinya, Shanqilla Dialects: Dakunza (Degoja, Dugunza, Dukuna, Dukunza, Ganza, Gunza), Dekoka, Dewiya, Disoha (Desua), Gombo, Jemhwa, Kukwaya, Modea, Sai, Sese (Saysay). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz Comments: A section in Sudan call themselves Kadallu.

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Hausa
[hau] Al Khartum and An Nil al Azraq states; scattered in Khartoum, along Blue Nile river; Kordofan. 80,000 in Sudan (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

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Heiban
[hbn] Janub Kurdufan state: Heiban and Abul towns. 4,410 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abul, Ebang Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Laro [lro]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru

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Jumjum
[jum] An Nil al Azraq state: west Kurmuk district on South Sudan border, Wadega, Jebels Tunga and Terta areas. 25,000 in Sudan (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wadkai.

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Kadaru
[kdu] Janub Kurdufan state: Jibaal as Sitta hills between Dilling and Delami. 25,000 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kadaro, Kadero, Kaderu, Kodhin, Kodhinniai, Kodoro Dialects: Dabatna (Kaaral), Kadaru (Kodur), Kafir (Ka’e), Kuldaji (Kendal), Kurtala (Ngokra), Kururu (Tagle). Dialects spoken by six clan groups living on six separate hills. Western form used by the Berko people at Habila (southwest of Jebel Sitta, neighboring the Ghulfan) may be another dialect or a separate language. Lexical similarity: 93% with Dilling [dil], 92%–87% with Debri [dil], 60% with Birked [brk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Tamya.

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Kanga
[kcp] Janub Kurdufan state: Miri hills, west and southwest of Kadugli; Kufa village cluster southeast of Miri, northeast of Lima, and north of Kanga. Kufa-Lima dialect: Kufa, Toole (center), Lenyaguyox, Bilenya, Dologi, and Lima, Kilag, and Mashaish villages, 15 km west of Kadugli. 8,000 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Abu Sinun, Chiroro-Kursi, Kanga, Krongo Abdalla, Kufa-Lima. Lexical similarity: 85% with the Tumma dialect of Katcha-Kadugli-Miri [xtc] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Scattered, in Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, and Janub Kurdufan states, as well as other regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri Dialects: Dagara, Fadawa, Guvja, Kabari (Kuvuri), Kaga (Kagama), Kwayam, Lare, Maiduguri, Mao, Ngazar, Njesko, Sugurti, Temageri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Known as Bornu in Sudan.

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Karko
[kko] Janub Kurdufan state: Karko hills, 35 km west of Dilling, includes Dulman. 7,000 (2004 A. Farah). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Garko, Karme, Kithonirishe Dialects: Karko, Kasha, Shifir. Varieties spoken by the Ilaki on Abu Junuk to the west (1,000) and by the Tamang at El Tabaq southwest of Katla (800) may be dialects or separate languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kaak. The Ama [nyi] call them Karme.

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Katcha-Kadugli-Miri
[xtc] Janub Kurdufan state. Katcha dialect: Katcha, Tuna, Kafina, Dabakaya (Donga), Belanya, and Farouq villages, south of Kadugli; Kadugli dialect: Kadugli, Murta, Kulba, ’Daalimo, Thappare and Takko villages; Miri dialect: Miri Bara, Miri Guwa, Umduiu, Nyimodu, Luba, Kadoda, Kya, Tulluk, Hayar al-Nimr, Kuduru, Kasari, and Sogolle villages, west of Kadugli. 75,000 (2004 SIL). 30,000 Katcha and Kadugli (2004), 4,000 Miri. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Damba, Kadugli (Dakalla, Dhalla, Kudugli, Morta, Talla, Toma Ma Dalla), Katcha (Dholubi, Tolubi), Miri, Tumma. Stevenson (1984) treats them as dialects of one language. Ruhlen (1987) and Schadeberg (1989) treat them as separate. Samir Bulus says that Tumma is dialect of Katcha. Lexical similarity: 85% among Katcha, Kadugli, and Miri dialects, 88% between Kadugli and Damba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Katla
[kcr] Janub Kurdufan state: Katla hills southwest of Dilling. Katla dialect: Bombori, Kateik, Kiddu, Kirkpong, Karoka, and Koldrong; Julud dialect: Karkarya, Karkando, Kolbi, Kambai, Rumber, Octiang, Sabba, Tolot, Kary, Kitanngo, Kimndang, Kabog, Koto Kork, Kabosh, and Kabog North. 25,000 (2009). Population for Julud. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Akalak, Kalak Dialects: Julud, Katla. Julud speakers understand almost everything spoken in Katla, and some Tima [tms]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla

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Keiga
[kec] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Demik, northwest of Kadugli; Ambong area, Ambong, Ambongadi, Kandang, Kuluwaring, Tingiragadi, Lakkadi, Taffor, Arungekkaadi, Bila Ndulang, Roofik, and Saadhing villages; Lubung area, Kuwaik, Tungunungunu, Miya Ntaarang, Miya Ntaluwa, Miya Ndumuru, and Semalili villages; Tumuro area, Koolo, Kayide, Jughuba, and Tumuro villages. 6,070 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aigang, Demik, Keiga-Al-Kheil, Keiga-Timero, Yega Dialects: Demik (Rofik), Keiga (Aigang). Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Kadugli languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Kelo
[xel] An Nil al Azraq state: Geissan district, Jebel Tornasi, Keeli village, and Beni Sheko. 200. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kelo-Beni Sheko, Ndu-Faa-Keelo, Tornasi Dialects: Beni Sheko, Kelo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo

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Ko
[fuj] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 2,680 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fungor, Fungur, Kau Dialects: Kau (Ko), Nyaro. Nyaro and Kau may be the same dialect. Lexical similarity: 67% with Warnang [wrn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern

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Koalib
[kib] Janub Kurdufan state: Delami area. Nguqwurang dialect: Umm Berumbita and Turum; Ngunduna dialect: Koalib hills area; Nginyukwur: Nyukwur, Umm Heitan and Hadra; Ngirere: Abri area villages scattered on the plain. 44,300 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abri, Kawalib, Kowalib, Lgalige, Ngirere, Nirere, Rere Dialects: Ngemere, Nginyukwur, Ngirere, Ngunduna, Nguqwurang. Lexical similarity: 75% with most similar Heiban languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Rere

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Komo
[xom] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers area. 10,000 in Sudan (1979 W. James). Population total all countries: 18,530. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Como, Gokwom, Hayahaya, Koma of Daga, Madiin Dialects: Beilla, Chali. Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 52% with Uduk [udu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman Comments: Called Aru in Uduk [udu].

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Krongo
[kgo] Janub Kurdufan state: Krongo hills, Tabanya, Toroji and Angolo; Damaguto, Dimadragu, Dimodongo, Dar, and Buram. 21,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimodongo, Kadumodi, Korongo, Kurungu, Tabanya Dialects: Fama-Teis-Kua. Lexical similarity: 85% with Tumtum [tbr]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Lafofa
[laf] Janub Kurdufan state: central Eliri hills. 5,140 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Jebel El Amira (El Amira), Jebel Tekeim (Jebel, Tegem, Tekeim), Lafofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Tegem

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Laro
[lro] Janub Kurdufan state: Laro (Alleira) hills north of Heiban town; villages: Oya, Rodong (Hajar Medani), Hajar Baco, Gunisaia, Serif, Tondly, Reli, Lagau (Serfinila), Getaw (Hajar Tiya), Orme (Ando). 40,000 (Kuku 2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Laru, Leera, Liira, Ngwullaro, Yillaro Dialects: Yidundili-Yigoromany, Yilaru. Lexical similarity: 90% with Heiban [hbn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru Comments: Laru is the locally preferred name. Al-Leira is the Arabic name.

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Logol
[lof] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 2,600. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lukha Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Otoro [otr] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Logol

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Logorik
[liu] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Liguri and hills 15 km northeast of Kadugli. 2,000 (Welmers 1971). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Liguri Dialects: Liguri, Saburi, Tallau (Talau, Talo, Tilow). Lexical similarity: 64% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 57% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju

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Lumun
[lmd] Janub Kurdufan state: Limon hills, Toromathan, To’ri, and Canya’ru villages. 15,000 (2014 SIL). Home area population 9,500 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuku-Lumun, Lomon Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Masalit
[mls] Gharb Darfur state: Geneina and Habila districts; Janub Darfur state: scattered. Northern Masalit dialect: north and east of Geneina. 350,000 in Sudan (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 410,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kana Masaraka, Massalit, Mesalit Dialects: Dialect in West Darfur differs from that in South Darfur. Lexical similarity: 36% with Karanga [kth], 42% with Maba [mfz], 45% with Marfa [mvu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Masalit Comments: Many fled to Chad due to war in Darfur (2011).

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Midob
[mei] Shamal Darfur state: Mellit district, Malha area; Al Khartum state: scattered throughout, and Omdurman district, Gezirat Aba island; An Nil al Abyad state. 50,000 (1993 R. Werner). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meidob, Meidob Nubian, Midobi, Tid, Tidda, Tid-N-Aal Dialects: Kaageddi, Shelkota (Shalkota), Urrti (Uurti). Lexical similarity: 51% with Birgid [brk] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Western

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Molo
[zmo] An Nil al Azraq state: Jebel Malkan. 100 (1988 M. Bender), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malkan Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo

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Moro
[mor] Janub Kurdufan state: Moro hills. 30,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhimorong Dialects: Laiyen, Nderre, Nubwa, Ulba, Umm Dorein (Longorban), Umm Gabralla (Toberelda), Werria. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tira [tic] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western Comments: Schools may not exist due to the war.

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Nding
[eli] Janub Kurdufan state: East Nuba hills, south Eliri range. 400 (Welmers 1971). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eliri Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: was 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Nding

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Ngile
[jle] Janub Kurdufan state: Mesakin hills. Masakin Tuwal dialect: Masakin and Togosilu villages; Daloka dialect: Daloka and El Aheimar villages. 11,700 (Stevenson 1984). Including Dagik [dec] speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daloka, Darra, Masakin, Mesakin, Taloka Dialects: Daloka (Taloka), Masakin Tuwal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu Comments: Masakin Tuwal call their language Arra; Dagik [dec] call it Agosilu; Daloka called Angire by Masakin Tuwal.

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Nobiin
[fia] Ash Shamaliyah state: Wadi Halfa district, Burgeg to Wadi Halfa; possibly east of Khartoum city, New Halfa area. 295,000 in Sudan (1996). Population total all countries: 605,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fiadidja-Mahas, Mahas-Fiadidja, Mahas-Fiyadikkya Dialects: Mahas (Mahasi, Mahass). Lexical similarity: 67% with Kenzi [xnz], but not intelligible of it. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Northern

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Otoro
[otr] Janub Kurdufan state: Otoro hills south of Heiban town. 10,000 (2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhitoro, Kawama, Kawarma, Litoro, Utoro Dialects: Dogoridi, Dorobe, Dugujur, Dukwara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Utoro

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Shatt
[shj] Janub Kurdufan state: Shatt Daman, Shatt Safia, and Shatt Tebeldia; Abu Hashim and Abu Sinam areas. 30,000 (2014 T. Stirtz). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caning Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Liguri [liu], 62% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Eastern Daju Comments: Ethnonym: Shatt, dispersed or scattered, applied by Arabic speakers to various inhabitants of the Kordofan Hills. Distinct from Thuri (Shatt) [thu] in the Lwo group.

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Shwai
[shw] Janub Kurdufan state: 20 km west of Heiban town. 3,500 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ludumor, Shirumba, Shuway Dialects: Cerumba (Shirumba), Ndano, Shabun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Shirumba

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Tagoi
[tag] Janub Kurdufan state: Moreb, Tagoi, Turjok, Tumale, Tuling, Tukum, and Turum. 13,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tagoy Dialects: Moreb, Tagoi, Tumale. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad

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Talodi
[tlo] Janub Kurdufan state: Talodi town, Tasomi and Tata villages. 1,500 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajomang, Gajomang, Jomang Dialects: Dialects nearly identical. Lexical similarity: 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Jomang

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Tama
[tma] Gharb Darfur state. Mileere dialect: Jabal Muun area, Salia town; Erenga dialect: Sirba area, Abu Suruj, Saraf Jidad, Bir Dagig, Kondobe, Budiflo, Tord, Shitkol, Muburung, Goboron, Agar, Immed Marloga, Gezin, Giilint, Zere, Kuma Mardok, Rigilmur, Abu Shadra, Matinoor, and Kengrem; Janub Darfur state: west of Nyala. 5,000 in Sudan (1970). Population known for Mileere only. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Erenga, Mileere (Milerinka), Murase, Tama. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor Comments: In Arabic, Mileere dialect is called Jabaal, speakers called Misiriya aj-Jabal.

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Tegali
[ras] Janub Kurdufan state: Tegali and Rashad hills and Rashad town. 35,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tagale, Tegele, Tekele, Togole Dialects: Rashad (Kom, Kome, Ngakom), Tegali, Tingal (Kajaja, Kajakja). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad Comments: Tegali and Rashad dialects are nearly identical.

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Temein
[teq] Janub Kurdufan state: between Jebels Ghulfan Morung and Julud, Tukur, Nekring, Kwiye, Tokoing, Tulu, Farik, and Kuris villages. 13,000 (2006). 6,000 in home area villages; 7,000 in other towns in Sudan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rone, Ronge, Temainian Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tese [keg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein

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Tese
[keg] Janub Kurdufan state: Keiga Jirru, and 6 villages northeast of Kadugli. 1,400 (Welmers 1971). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keiga Girru, Keiga Jirru, Teis-Umm-Danab Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Temein [teq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Temein

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Tigré
[tig] Al Bahr al Ahmar state: Tokar district, between Eritrea border and Tokar. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khasa, Xasa Dialects: Mansa’ (Mensa). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North

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Tima
[tms] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Tima village, 15 km southwest of Katla, north of Lagawa. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lomorik, Lomuriki, Tamanik, Yibwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla Comments: Though classified as a Kordofanian language (Greenberg 1963), Tima appears to constitute a linguistic isolate together with Katla [kcr] (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007).

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Tira
[tic] Janub Kurdufan state: hills between Kauda and Talodi. 40,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lithiro, Thiro, Tiro Dialects: Kinderma (Kanderma), Tira El Akhdar (Tira Dagig), Tira Lumum (Luman), Tira Mandi. Slight variations among dialects. Lexical similarity: 75% with Moro [mor] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western Comments: Schools may not exist due to the war.

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Tocho
[taz] Janub Kurdufan state: 15 villages near Saraf aj Jamus, and Delabaya. 2,650 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Home area population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tacho, Toicho Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Torona
[tqr] Janub Kurdufan state: Limon hills. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho

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Tulishi
[tey] Janub Kurdufan state: Lagawa and northeast at Jebels Tulishi, Kamdang, Laati, Lawwa, Ntukungnge, Aabiisa, Nattilongke, Aliyooro Manadaha, Thudhi, and Kirakaati villages. Dar el Kabira dialect: 25km southwest of Lagawa. 2,500 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kuntulishi, Thulishi, Tulesh Dialects: Dar El Kabira (Logoke, Minjimmina, Truj, Turuj), Kamda (Kamdang), Tulishi. Dar el Kabira and Kamdang dialects are reportedly similar. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Tumtum
[tbr] Janub Kurdufan state: Kurondi south of Eliri Hills. Talassa dialect: north Eliri hills; Tumtum dialect: west Talodi hills. 7,300. 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Karondi (Korindi, Kurondi), Talassa (Talasa), Tumtum. Lexical similarity: 85% with Krongo [kgo] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kadugli-Krongo

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Uduk
[udu] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, from Belila north, south to Yabus river. 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the two not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kwanim Pa.

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Wali
[wll] Janub Kurdufan state: 12 km northeast of Katla. 9,000 (2007 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Walari, Walarishe Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wele.

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Warnang
[wrn] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 1,100 (1956 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Werni Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Ko [fuj] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern

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Yulu
[yul] Janub Darfur state: Habbaniya area. 3,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara

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Zaghawa
[zag] Shamal Darfur and Gharb Darfur states, scattered. 180,000 in Sudan (Osman 2006). Population total all countries: 274,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beria, Beri-Aa, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua Dialects: Kube, Tuba (Bideyat), Wagi (Twer). Wagi is the main dialect in Sudan. Ethnic subgroups are Kobe, Dor, and Anka, with slight dialect differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Beri. Arabic exonyms: Zaghawa and Bideyat.

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