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Bengali
[ben] 600 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 80,000 (2006 People’s Daily). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] 69,000 in Singapore (1980). Ethnic population: 233,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hokka, Ke, Kechia, Kehia, Kek, Khek Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 1,210,000 in Singapore (2010 census). L2 users: 880,000 in Singapore. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Alternate Names: Guoyu, Huayu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: 2,505,209 ethnic Chinese (2000 census).

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Chinese, Min Bei
[mnp] 4,000 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 11,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Min Pei Dialects: Hokchia (Hockchew). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] 34,200 in Singapore (2000). Ethnic population: 54,200 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow, Guxhou). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 333,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,860,000 (2010 census). Includes 1,120,000 Hokkien, 562,000 Teochew, 178,0000 Hainanese. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Min Nam, Southern Min Dialects: Hainanese, Hokkien (Amoy, Fujian, Fukienese, Xiamen), Teochew (Chaochow, Chaozhou, Taechew). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] 14,100 in Singapore (2000). Ethnic population: 25,600 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Henghua (Hinghua, Xinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] 121,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 409,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Guangfu, Yue, Yueh Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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English
[eng] 1,100,000 in Singapore (2010 census). L2 users: 2,000,000 in Singapore (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Gujarati
[guj] 4,120 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gujerathi, Gujerati Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Hindu.

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Hindi
[hin] 13,100 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani

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Javanese
[jav] 800 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 88,600 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djawa, Jawa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Comments: Muslim.

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Madura
[mad] 900 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 14,300 (1985). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Madhura, Madurese Dialects: Bawean (Boyanese). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese Comments: Muslim.

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Malay
[zlm] 414,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution, Article 153A(2)), not dominant despite status. Alternate Names: Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu Dialects: Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Local Malay [zlm] in Singapore is distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Malay [zsm] by its sociolinguistic status as a vernacular, as well as by various linguistic features. Muslim (Sunni).

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Malay, Baba
[mbf] Mainly Katong District, east coast and surrounding Geylang and Jao Chiat districts. 10,000 in Singapore (Pakir 1986). Population total all countries: 12,000. Ethnic population: 250,000 (1986). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baba, Chinese Malay, Straits Malay Dialects: None known. It developed after 15th century from Low Malay with many Min Nan Chinese [nan] borrowings. Regional variants between Malacca and Singapore. Partially intelligible with Standard Malay [zsm]. It is generally believed that Baba of Malaysia is more, refined, and that of Singapore more, rough. Most learn Standard Malay and English in school. Distinct from Peranakan Indonesian [pea]. Baba in Melaka, Malaysia speak a Hokkien-influenced Malay creole; those in Penang, Malaysia speak a localized version of Hokkien [hnh] (2006, Tan Chee Beng). Classification: Creole, Malay based

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Few L1 speakers. L2 speakers include ethnic Malays and some others, particularly the older generation. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: In Singapore, Standard Malay [zsm] exists in a diglossic relationship with Local Malay [zlm].

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Malayalam
[mal] 26,300 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alealum, Malayal, Malayalani, Malean, Maliyad, Mallealle, Mopla Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam Comments: Christian.

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Orang Seletar
[ors] North coast; opposite the coast of Malaysia. 880 in Singapore (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay

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Panjabi, Eastern
[pan] 5,670 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 14,000 (1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi Comments: Sikh.

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Sindhi
[snd] 3,970 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi

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Singapore Sign Language
[sls] 3,000 (2007 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Contact Signing (Pidgin Signed English), Natural Sign Language. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Sinhala
[sin] 3,140 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,000 (1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chingalese, Singhalese, Sinhalese Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian Comments: Great difference between the literary and colloquial language. Buddhist.

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Tamil
[tam] 111,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 189,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: Hindu.

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Telugu
[tel] 600 in Singapore (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu

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