[cmn] 1,210,000 in Singapore (2010 census). L2 users: 880,000 in Singapore. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Alternate Names: Guoyu, Huayu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: 2,505,209 ethnic Chinese (2000 census).
Chinese, Min Bei
Chinese, Min Dong
Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 333,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,860,000 (2010 census). Includes 1,120,000 Hokkien, 562,000 Teochew, 178,0000 Hainanese. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Min Nam, Southern Min Dialects: Hainanese, Hokkien (Amoy, Fujian, Fukienese, Xiamen), Teochew (Chaochow, Chaozhou, Taechew). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
[zlm] 414,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution, Article 153A(2)), not dominant despite status. Alternate Names: Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu Dialects: Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: Local Malay [zlm] in Singapore is distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Malay [zsm] by its sociolinguistic status as a vernacular, as well as by various linguistic features. Muslim (Sunni).
[mbf] Mainly Katong District, east coast and surrounding Geylang and Jao Chiat districts. 10,000 in Singapore (Pakir 1986). Population total all countries: 12,000. Ethnic population: 250,000 (1986). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baba, Chinese Malay, Straits Malay Dialects: None known. It developed after 15th century from Low Malay with many Min Nan Chinese [nan] borrowings. Regional variants between Malacca and Singapore. Partially intelligible with Standard Malay [zsm]. It is generally believed that Baba of Malaysia is more, refined, and that of Singapore more, rough. Most learn Standard Malay and English in school. Distinct from Peranakan Indonesian [pea]. Baba in Melaka, Malaysia speak a Hokkien-influenced Malay creole; those in Penang, Malaysia speak a localized version of Hokkien [hnh] (2006, Tan Chee Beng). Classification: Creole, Malay based
[zsm] Few L1 speakers. L2 speakers include ethnic Malays and some others, particularly the older generation. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Comments: In Singapore, Standard Malay [zsm] exists in a diglossic relationship with Local Malay [zlm].
Singapore Sign Language
[sin] 3,140 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,000 (1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chingalese, Singhalese, Sinhalese Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian Comments: Great difference between the literary and colloquial language. Buddhist.
[tam] 111,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 189,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: Hindu.