[ako] South and southwest areas, on Tapanahoni and Sipaliwini rivers, in Trio villages Tëpu and Kwamalasamutu, and in Palumeu. 10 (Carlin and Arends 2002). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Akoerio, Akuliyo, Akuri, Akurijo, Akuriyo, Oyaricoulet, Triometesem, Triometesen, Wama, Wayaricuri Dialects: Related to, but not inherently intelligible with, Trió [tri]. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó Comments: Contacted in 1969.
[arw] Coastal area, several villages between coast and about 30 km inland, mainly on the savanna. Also in French Guiana, Guyana, Venezuela. 700 in Suriname (1980 census). Very few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,450. Ethnic population: 2,050 in Suriname (1980 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arowak, Lokono Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean
[car] North coast. 1,200 in Suriname (Carlin 2001). Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibí, Kalihna, Kali’na, Kalinya, Kari’nja, Maraworno Dialects: Aretyry, Murato (Myrato, Western Carib), Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib). Classification: Cariban Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kari’na. Glossonym: Kara’ibs in Dutch, Galibí in French, Caribe in Spanish, Carib in English.
Eastern Maroon Creole
[djk] Near Brokopondo, east along Marowijne and Tapanahony rivers, northeast along Cottica river. Aluku dialect: French Guiana border; Paramaccan dialect: Northeast. Also in French Guiana. 15,500 in Suriname. 10%–20% monolingual. 14,400 Aukan, 33 Aluku, 1,160 Paramaccan (1980 census). Population total all countries: 33,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Businenge Tongo, Businengee Tongo, Eastern Maroon Creole, Nenge, Nenge Tongo, Nengee Tongo Dialects: Aluku (Aloekoe, Boni), Aukan (Aukaans, “Djoeka” (pej.), “Djuka” (pej.), Ndjuká, Ndyuka, Njuká, Okanisi), Paramaccan (Pamaka). Ndyuka, Aluku and Paramaccan are highly mutually intelligible dialects; Kwinti [kww] is slightly less intelligible with them. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka Comments: The society was formed by escaped slaves. Subsistence and economy is Amerindian; social culture and religion are West African. Aluku has more French influence than Paramaccan does. Spelling of Ndyuka without the initial nasal is considered derogatory. Aukan is English, Aukaans is Dutch. In early 1900s an Aukaner named Afaka developed a syllabic writing system, but few learned to read it, and it was not officially endorsed. 12 clans. In the 1980s and 1990s many went to Paramaribo. Traditional religion, Christian.
Guyanese Creole English
[hns] Coastal. Also in Guyana, Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago. 150,000 in Suriname (1986). Population total all countries: 165,600. Ethnic population: 160,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Sarnami Hindustani (Aili Gaili, Sarnami Hindi), Trinidad Bhojpuri. More similar to Bhojpuri [bho] than Hindi [hin]. Similar dialect to Trinidad-Tobago. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Based on Bhojpuri [bho], with influences from Awadhi [awa], and loans from Sranan [srn], Dutch [nld], and English [eng]. Hindu, Muslim, Christian.
[jvn] Coastal. Also in French Guiana. 60,000 in Suriname (1986). Ethnic population: 71,900 (2004 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Suriname Javanese Dialects: Significantly different from Javanese [jav] of Indonesia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Comments: Descended from plantation workers brought from Java between 1890–1939. Muslim, traditional religion.
[kww] North central, along Coppename river, upstream from Kaimanstan and Witagron. 130 (1980 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Further removed from Ndyuka [njt] than Aluku and Paramaccan. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka Comments: Traditional religion.
[srm] Central, along Saramacca and upper Suriname rivers; Paramaribo. Also in French Guiana. 23,000 in Suriname (1995 SIL). 1,000 Matawari. Population total all countries: 26,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Matawari (Matawai, Matoewari, Matuari). Possibly Portuguese [por] based rather than English [eng] (Hancock 1988). Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] (Hancock 1988). Lexical similarity: 20% with African component. Classification: Creole, English based Comments: A Bush Negro ethnic group with background similar to the Ndyuka. Traditional religion.
[srn] Mainly Paramaribo and along the coast. Also in Aruba, Caribbean Netherlands, Netherlands, Sint Maarten. 120,000 in Suriname (1993). Population total all countries: 126,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Sranan Tongo, Surinaams, Suriname Creole English, Surinamese, Taki-Taki Dialects: Similar to Ndyuka [njt], but with cultural differences. Many similarities to Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname Comments: Christian, traditional religion.
[tri] South, Palumeu on Palumeu river; Tëpu on Upper Tapanahoni river; Kwamalasamutu and Sipaliwini on Sipaliwini river. Also in Brazil. 1,400 in Suriname (2003 ISA). Population total all countries: 2,130. Ethnic population: 1,400 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tirió Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó Comments: Christian.
[waw] Kwamalasamutu on Sipaliwini river, among Trio [tri] language speakers. 10 in Suriname (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 80 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Tunayana. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai Comments: A few came to Suriname in the 1960s and now speak Trio [tri] as L1 (2007). Christian.
[way] Southwest Marowijne District, upper Tapanahoni river; northwest of Trio [tri] language settlements on Lawa and Tapanahoni rivers. Also in Brazil, French Guiana. 500 in Suriname (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 850. Ethnic population: 500 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Roucouyenne, Uaiana, Upurui, Wajana Dialects: Partially intelligible of Apalaí [apy]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana Comments: Christian.