South Sudan

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Acholi
[ach] East Equatoria State, Opari district, Acholi hills. 27,000 in South Sudan (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Log Acoli, Lwo, Shuli Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi

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Aja
[aja] West Bahr el Ghazal State, at Kparakpara just west of Raga. 200 (1993 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajja Dialects: None known. Consider themselves a Kresh tribe, but their language is not intelligible to the Kresh; nearer to Banda in vocabulary and to Kresh [krs] in structure (Santandrea). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh

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Anuak
[anu] Jonglei State, Akobo and Pochalla counties. 52,000 in South Sudan (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 140,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywaa, Anywak, Dha Anywaa, Dho Anywaa, Jambo, Nuro, Yambo Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Acholi [ach] and Luo languages of Uganda than to Shilluk [shk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak

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Arabic, Sudanese Creole
[pga] Equatoria region widespread, into Bahr al Ghazal and Upper Nile regions. 20,000 (1987). With the rapidly changing demographic situation it is very difficult to know the number of 1st or 2nd language speakers and whether these numbers are increasing or decreasing. L2 users: 800,000 (2013 SIL). All groups in South Sudan have some L2 speakers (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as L1 or L2 in Juba and other towns in Equatoria. As a creole and lingua franca, this language varies enormously in form from place to place, and from speaker to speaker (depending on subject matter and interlocuter), and is changing rapidly. Alternate Names: Juba Arabic, Pidgin Arabic, Southern Sudan Arabic Dialects: Dialectal variations in different areas due to different local vernaculars. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based Comments: The sociolinguistic situation is changing rapidly with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese from the North, speaking Sudanese Colloquial Arabic [apd], and others from East Africa and the rest of the world, mainly speaking English [eng].

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. A reasonable population estimate cannot be given at this time because of the recent increase in population of South Sudan by those arriving from Sudan. Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as a lingua franca in northern South Sudan and now widely spoken by hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese arriving from the North following South Sudan’s independence. Alternate Names: Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: The situation of this language is currently very fluid (2011).

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Avokaya
[avu] West Equatoria State, Maridi and Mundri West counties; Central Equatoria State, Yei County. Ajugu dialect: Sudan-Congo border south of Maridi; Ojila dialect: mainly between Naam and Olo rivers and east. 40,000 in South Sudan (2002). Population total all countries: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abukeia, Avukaya Dialects: Ajugu (Adjiga, Agamoru, Ojiga), Ojila (Odzila, Odziliwa). Avokaya Pur dialect near Faradje (in Democratic Republic of Congo) is reportedly more similar to Logo [log] than to the Ojila dialect of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central

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Bai
[bdj] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Wau-Deim Zubeir road, west of Ndogo [ndz] language area; a few north of Tembura. 2 villages. 2,500 (Welmers 1971). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bari Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri

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Baka
[bdh] West Equatoria State, Maridi county, south and west of Maridi; Central Equatoria State, Yei county, northwest of Yei. 25,000 in South Sudan (1993 UBS). Population total all countries: 26,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Tara Baka Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka Comments: Different from, and unrelated to, Baka [bkc] of Cameroon.

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Sopo town, near Central African Republic border. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dukpu, Wasa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Bahr el Ghazal State, Sopo town, near Central African Republic border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tohgboh). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara Comments: View themselves as very different from Mono [mnh]. Different from Tagbu [tbm] (Tagbo, Tagba) of Democratic Republic of the Congo in Sere group. Not intelligible of other Banda languages or dialects in South Sudan.

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Banda, West Central
[bbp] West Bahr el Ghazal State, between Wau and Mboro. 3,000 in South Sudan (1982). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Golo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central

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Banda-Banda
[bpd] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Sopo town near Central African Republic border. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Govoro (Govhoroh), Vidiri (Mvedere, Vadara, Vidri, Vodere), Wundu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda

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Banda-Mbrès
[bqk] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Sopo town near Central African Republic border. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Mbrès, Banda-Mbre Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbele, Mbere), Moruba (Maraba, Morouba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres

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Banda-Ndélé
[bfl] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Sopo town near Central African Republic border. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele Dialects: Banda-Kpaya, Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Tangbago (Tambaggo, Tambolo, Tangago, Tombaggo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele

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Bari
[bfa] Central Equatoria State, Juba, Kajo Keji, and Lainya counties; both banks of the Nile, south of Terakeka on west bank, Mongalla on east bank, to Kajo Kaji escarpment. 420,000 in South Sudan (2000). Population total all countries: 480,000. L2 users: 175,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Beri Dialects: Bari, Kuku, Ligo (Liggo), Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Madi, Pajulu). Lexical similarity: 86% with Bari and Nyepu dialects, 85% with Bari and Pöjulu, 81% with Bari and Kuku, 80% with Bari and Nyangbara, 71% with Mundari [mqu], 73% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari Comments: Ethnic Bari in Democratic Republic of the Congo now speak a dialect of Logo [log] and not Bari.

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Belanda Bor
[bxb] West Bahr-el-Ghazal, Wau and Jur River counties, Raffili Tirga, Bazia, Ayo, Gitten, and Taban villages; West Equatoria State, Nagero county, Komai, Nagero, and Bangazegino villages, Tambura town. 8,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: De Bor Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Bor Comments: Much intermarriage with the Belanda Viri [bvi].

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Belanda Viri
[bvi] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Wau and Jur River counties, Bringi, Bagari, Dadu, Ngoku, Ngisa, Farajallah, Ngotakala, Ngongba, Natabo, Momoyi, and Raffili villages; Raga county, Kuru, 65 km east of Deim Zubeir; West Equatoria State, Tembura and Ibba areas. 16,000 (Welmers 1971). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Belanda, Biri, Bviri, Gamba, Gumba, Mbegumba, Mvegumba, Viri Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri

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Beli
[blm] Lakes State, Wulu county, south and west of Rumbek; West Equatoria State, Mvolo county, east and north of Mvolo. 65,000 (2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Behli, Beili, ’Beli, Jur Beli Dialects: Bahri Girinti, Sopi (Supi), Wulu. Lexical similarity: 46% with Jur Modo [bex], 45% with Bongo [bot], 41% with Mo’da [gbn] and Morokodo [mgc], 39% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli

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Boguru
[bqu] West Equatoria State, Ibba and Yambio counties, Mariko, Baambu, Ibba, and Bagasu villages. No known L1 speakers in South Sudan. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Buguru, Kogoro, Koguru Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.302)

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Bongo
[bot] Warrap State, Tonj South county, Aguka and Busere villages; also Tonj and Wau towns. 10,100 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bungu, Dor Dialects: Bungo, Busere Bongo, Tonj Bongo. Slight dialect differences between River Busere variety, with Zande influence, and that around Tonj. Bungo dialect has minor differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Bongo Comments: Different from Bongo, a dialect of Mid-Southern Banda [bjo] of Central African Republic.

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Didinga
[did] East Equatoria State, Budi county, Chukudum area; Didinga hills. 60,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: ’Di’dinga, Lango, Toi, Xaroxa Dialects: None known. Ethnic groups: Chukudum and Lowudo. Slight differences in speech between Chukudum and Lowudo, apparently mainly phonetic. Lexical similarity: 83% with Narim [loh], 71% with Murle [mur]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim Comments: Different from Lango [lno] which is related to Otuho [lot].

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Dinka
[din] Population total all languages: 1,365,900. Comments: Includes: Northeastern Dinka [dip], Northwestern Dinka [diw], South Central Dinka [dib], Southeastern Dinka [dks], Southwestern Dinka [dik].

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Dinka, Northeastern
[dip] Upper Nile State, Renk, Melut, and Baliet counties; Jonglei State, Khor Fulus and Fangak counties. 320,000 (1986 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Padang, White Nile Dinka Dialects: Abiliang (Akoon, Bawom, Bowom, Dinka Ibrahim), Ageer (Abuya, Ageir, Ager, Beer, Niel, Nyel, Paloc, Paloic), Dongjol, Luac (Luaic), Ngok-Sobat (Jok, Ngork), Rut, Thoi. Lexical similarity: 92% with Northwestern Dinka [diw], 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 86% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka

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Dinka, Northwestern
[diw] Abyei area; Unity State, Abiemnhom and Pariang counties. 80,000 (1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Alor, Ngok-Kordofan, Pan Aru, Ruweng. Lexical similarity: 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 84% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka

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Dinka, South Central
[dib] Lakes State. 250000 Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Agar, Central Dinka Dialects: Agar, Aliap (Aker, Aliab, Thany), Ciec (Ador, Ajak, Chiech, Cic, Ciem, Kwac), Gok (Cok, Gauk). Gok dialect is influenced by Southwestern Dinka [dik]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka

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Dinka, Southeastern
[dks] Jonglei State, Bor South and Twic East counties. 250,000 in South Sudan. Population total all countries: 265,900. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Bor, Eastern Dinka Dialects: Athoc (Athoic, Atoc, Bor Athoic, Borathoi), Bor (Bor Gok), Ghol, Nyarweng (Narreweng, Nyarueng), Tuic (Twi). A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka

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Dinka, Southwestern
[dik] Warrap, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, and Western Bahr el Ghazal states, Jur River county. 450,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Rek, Western Dinka Dialects: Abiem (Ajong Dit, Ajong Thi, Akany Kok, Akern Jok, Anei, Apuoth, Apwoth), Aguok (Agwok), Apuk, Awan, Lau, Luac, Malual (Atoktou, Duliit, Korok, Makem, Malwal, Peth), Paliet (Ajak, Baliet, Bon Shwai, Buoncwai, Bwoncwai, Kondair, Kongder, Tainbour, Thany Bur), Palioupiny (Akjuet, Akwang, Ayat, Cimel, Gomjuer, Palioping), Rek (Raik), Tuic (Adhiang, Amiol, Nyang, Thon, Twic, Twich, Twij). Luac dialect is different from Luac dialect in Northeastern Dinka [dip]. Lexical similarity: 89% with South Central Dinka [dib], 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka

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Dongotono
[ddd] East Equatoria State, Ikotos county, Ikotos payam; Lomohidang payam, Isoke and Chakari villages. 5,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: May be a separate language or dialect of Lango [lno]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo

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English
[eng] Almost no L1 speakers. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Feroge
[fer] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Kapalala east of Raga. 8,000 (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Feroghe, Ferroge, Kalige, Kaligi, Kalike, Kaliki Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kaligi. Ethnonym: Feroge in Arabic.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Mainly West Bahr el Ghazal State. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Migrating groups of Ambororo cattle herders.

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Gbaya
[krs] West Bahr el Ghazal State; Raga and north through Katta, Kosho and Boro to Kafia Kingi. 16,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). Population total all countries: 48,000. L2 users: 4,000 in South Sudan. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh Dialects: Dongo, Gbaya-Dara, Gbaya-Gboko, Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Naka (Kresh-Boro), Orlo (Woro). 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh Comments: Different from Gbaya languages in the Niger-Congo family.

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Homa
[hom] West Equatoria State, Mopoi and Tambura towns’ areas. No known L1 speakers. No remaining speakers as of 1975. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.304)

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Indri
[idr] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Abu Zala, north of Raga. 700 Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yanderika, Yandirika Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo

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Jumjum
[jum] Upper Nile State, northeast Mabaan county, Sudan border area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan Comments: Autoethnonym is Wadkai.

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Jur Modo
[bex] West Equatoria State, Mvolo county. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jur, Modo Dialects: Lori, Modo (Jur Modo, Modo Lali), Wetu, Wira. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli

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Kacipo-Balesi
[koe] Jonglei State, Pibor county, Boma plateau, near Ethiopia border, Rumeat, Upper Boma and Mewun villages. 5,000 in South Sudan (2010 SIL). Population total all countries: 9,120. Almost all monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–54% with Murle [mur], 35% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi

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Kakwa
[keo] Central Equatoria State, Yei county. 40,000 in South Sudan (1978). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kakwak, Kwakwak Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari

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Keliko
[kbo] Central Equatoria State, Morobo county. 10,000 in South Sudan (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 22,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaliko Dialects: Eastern Keliko, Western Keliko. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central

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Komo
[xom] Upper Nile State, Longochuk and Maiwut counties, on Ethiopia border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aru, Koma Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman

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Lango
[lno] East Equatoria State, Ikotos county. Lorwama dialect: Losite payam, Lofos and Lotome; Logir dialect: Ikotos and Lomohidong payams, Kidepo and Ludwera; Logire (Imatong) dialect: Ikotos payam between Ikotos and Chukudum; Lokwaa dialect: Kikire and Ikotos; Ketebo dialect: Losite payam, Bira. 38,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langgo Dialects: Ketebo, Logir, Logire (Imotong), Lokwaa, Madial Lorwama (Okolie). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo Comments: It is uncertain whether or not the dialects are separate languages. Dongotono [ddd] may be a dialect of this language or a separate language.

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Lokoya
[lky] East Equatoria State, Longairo and Okaru; Central Equatorial State, Juba county, Ngangala and Liria. 12,400. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ellyria, Koyo, Loirya, Lokoiya, Lokoja, Loquia, Lowoi, Oirya, Owoi, Oxoriok Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Otuho [lot], 57% with Lopit [lpx], 56% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo Comments: Ethnic groups: Irya and Owe.

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Lopit
[lpx] East Equatoria State, Lafon county, north end of Lopit Hills. 50,000 (1995 S. Randal). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lafiit, Lafit, Lafite, Lofit, Lopid, Loppit Dialects: Iboni, Logonowati, Lolongo, Mura. Lexical similarity: 63% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo

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Luwo
[lwo] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Jur river and Wau counties. 80,000 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Dhe Luwo, Dhe Lwo, Giur, Jo Lwo, Jur Luo, Jur Lwo, Lwo Dialects: None known. Different from Lango (Lwo) [laj] of Uganda, or Dholuo [luo] of Kenya and Luo [luo] of Tanzania, but related. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Jur

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Mabaan
[mfz] Upper Nile State, Mabaan county. 50,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barga, Gura, Maaban, Meban, Southern Burun, Tonko, Tungan, Ulu Dialects: Partially intelligible with some southern dialects of Burun [bdi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan

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Ma’di
[mhi] Central Equatoria State, Magwi county. 18,000 in South Sudan (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’diti Dialects: Burulo, Lokai, Pandikeri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern

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Mandari
[mqu] Central Equatoria State, Terakeka county, both sides of the Nile. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chir, Kir, Mondari, Mundari, Shir Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Bari [bfa]. Bari dialects: 75% with Nyanggwara, 71% with Ngyepu, 70% with Pöjulu, 66% with Kuku; 61% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari Comments: A different language and culture from Bari [bfa]. Ethnic groups: Mondari Boronga, Sere, Bör. L1 users prefer the name Mundari. Mundari users from the Tali area have difficulty understanding those from other areas.

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Mangayat
[myj] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Zakka, 30 km southeast of Raga on road to Sopo. 400 (1987 SIL). 0 monolinguals. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Buga, Mangaya, Mongaiyat Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bug.

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Mittu
[mwu] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli

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Mo’da
[gbn] Lakes State, Wulu county, Wako, and Dokoo on West Equatoria State border; a few scattered among Jur Modo [bex] and Beli [blm] language areas. 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gbara, Gberi, Gweri, Muda Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Morokodo [mgc], 58% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 49% with Bongo [bot], 38% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da

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Morokodo
[mgc] West Equatoria State, north Mundri West and Maridi counties, south Mvolo county. 50,000 (2011). 280 Biti. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Ma’di Dialects: Biti, Ma’du, Morokodo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 45% with Bongo [bot], 43% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da Comments: The Ma’du dialect may be extinct (1984).

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Moru
[mgd] West Equatoria State, Mundri East and Mundri West counties. 70,000 (1982 SIL). 1,200 Agi, 2,500 Andri, 5,000 Kadiro, 9,000 Miza, 400 Wa’di. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Kala Moru Dialects: Agi, Andri, ’Bali’ba, Kadiro, Lakama’di, Miza, Wa’di. Andri and ’Bali’ba dialects are similar, Kadiro and Lakama’di are nearly identical. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Northern Comments: Miza dialect is the written standard.

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Mündü
[muh] West Equatoria State, Maridi county south and southeast of Maridi; Central Equatoria State, northwest Yei county. 23,000 in South Sudan. Population total all countries: 25,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mondo, Mondu, Mountou, Mundo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: close with Mayogo [mdm] and Bangba [bbe] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu

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Murle
[mur] Upper Nile State, Pibor county. 60,000 in South Sudan (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 60,001. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adkibba, Agiba, Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murelei, Murule Dialects: Ethnic subgroups: Lotilla, Boma, and Olam (Ngalam). Maacir may be a dialect or ethnic group. Lexical similarity: 74% with Narim [loh], 71% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle Comments: Taught in churches; most church pastors literate in Murle.

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Narim
[loh] East Equatoria State, north Budi county, Chawa, Kerenge, Tataman, Thuguro, Kali, Lobeli, Kaduchak, Longatuk, Lokwakipi, and Loriok villages. 3,620 (Fukui 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lariim, Larim, Lariminit, Larimo, Longarim, Nariim Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Murle [mur], 83% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim Comments: Larim is the form preferred by L1 speakers. Longarim is the Didinga name.

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Ndogo
[ndz] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Wau county, about 10 villages on Wau-Deim Zubeir road between Mboro and Kpango rivers; some in Western Equatoria State north of Tembura among Zande [zne] language speakers. 20,000 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere Comments: Gbaya-Ndogo [krs] is a different language.

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Njalgulgule
[njl] West Bahr el Ghazal State, northwest of Raga, Gossinga and Boro villages. 900 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bege, Begi, Beko, Ngulgule, Njangulgule, Nyolge, Nyoolne Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju Comments: May be the same as Baygo [byg].

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Nuer
[nus] Unity State, north Jonglei State, south Upper Nile State. 740,000 in South Sudan (1982). 2,940 Western Jikany, 12,500 Lou, 1,100 Nyuong, 2,500 Thiang, 5,900 Bul, 2,400 Jagai, 6,700 Laak, 4,900 Leik, 1,600 Door, 17,600 Eastern Jikany (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Population total all countries: 891,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Naadh, Naath Dialects: Abigar, Cien, Dor (Door), Eastern Jikany (Jekaing, Jikain), Lou (Lau), Nyuong, Thiang (Bul, Gawaar, Jagai, Laak, Leik), Thognaath (Thok Nath), Western Jikany. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer

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Nyamusa-Molo
[nwm] West Equatoria State, southeast Mvolo county, Lesi area. 1,630 (2011 R. Abraham). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Molo, Nyamusa. Lexical similarity: 84% with Nyamusa and Molo dialects, 70%–75% with Jur Modo [bex] dialect cluster. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da

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Olu’bo
[lul] East Equatoria State, Juba county, southeast of Juba, Lulba hills area, main town is Lokiliri. 15,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lolubo, Luluba, Lulubo, Olubogo, Oluboti, Ondoe Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern

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Opuuo
[lgn] Upper Nile State, Nasir and Maiwut counties, Kigile and Maiwut areas. Buldit dialect: Longachuk county, Daga river area, Paitath and Tedibi villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, “Langa” (pej.), Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Shita, Shitta Dialects: Buldit (Barun, Baruun), Kusgilo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman Comments: Glossonym: Pur in Uduk, Langa in Anuak.

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Otuho
[lot] East Equatoria State, Torit county. 135,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 2,500 Koriot, 1,000 Lomya. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Latooka, Lattuka, Latuka, Latuko, Lotuho, Lotuka, Lotuko, Lotuxo, Olotorit, Otuxo Dialects: Koriok, Logiri (Logir), Logotok, Lomya (Lomia), Lorwama, Lowudo (Lauda, Loudo). Logiri and Lorwama may be dialects of Lango [lno], not Otuho. Lexical similarity: 64% with Lokoya [lky], 63% with Lopit [lpx], 60% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo

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Päri
[lkr] East Equatoria State, Lafon county, in Jebel Lafon, Bura, Pucwaa, Pugari, Kor, Angulumeere, and Wiatuo villages. 28,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lokoro Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified

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Reel
[atu] Lakes State, south Yirol West county; Ciec Dinka [dib] language area is north near Panekar; Agar Dinka [dib] language area west near Lake Nyibor; Jur Modo [bex] south; and Ador Dinka [dib] east near Yirol. 50,000 (1998). The Kuek and Jikeyi have many monolinguals and are regarded as having the purest form of the language. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atwot, Thok Cieng Reel, Thok Reel Dialects: Cieng Luai, Cieng Nhyam. Lexical similarity 77% with Nuer [nus]; 49% with Dinka languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer Comments: Live among and are culturally Dinka; 100 km from the Nuer, but have common grazing grounds with them. Subtribes: Apak, Luac, Jilek, Jikey (Rorkec), Akot, and Kuek. Ethnonym: Atuot by the Dinka. Cieng Luai dialect spoken by Luac, Jilek, and Akot; Cieng Nhyam spoken by Kuek and Jikeyi.

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Shilluk
[shk] Upper Nile State, Manyo, Fashoda, Malakal and Panyikang counties. 175,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chulla, Colo, Dhocolo, Shulla Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 60% with Anuak [anu], Pari [lkr], and Luwo [lwo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Shilluk Comments: Taught in churches.

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Tennet
[tex] Eastern Equatoria State, Lafon county, Arilo payam, Lovirang, Lomorotok, Longilayo, and Dorik villages. 10,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tenet Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility with Murle [mur], Narim [loh], and Didinga [did] (in descending order). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Tennet

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Thuri
[thu] North Bahr el Ghazal State, Aweil Centre county, Bar-Mayen and Nyabulo; Lol river west of Marial-Bai; Raga county, east of Deim Zubeir on roads to Wau. 6,600 (Tucker and Bryan 1956). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dhe Thuri, Jo Thuri, Shatt, Wada Thuri Dialects: Bodho (Dembo, Demen, Dhe Boodho, Dombo), Colo (Dhe Colo, Jo Colo, Jur Shol), Manangeer (Jur Manangeer). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Thuri Comments: Different from Shatt [shj] in the Daju group.

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Togoyo
[tgy] West Bahr el Ghazal, small Raga area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Togoy Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo

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Toposa
[toq] East Equatoria State, Kapoeta North, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East counties; along Singaita and Lokalyen rivers. 100,000 (2000 M. Schroeder). Most are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akara, Kare, Kumi, Taposa, Topotha Dialects: Eastern Toposa, Jiye, Western Toposa. Inherently intelligible with Nyangatom [nnj], Karamojong [kdj], and Turkana [tuv], but each has strong ethnic attitudes. Limited intelligibility of Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana

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Uduk
[udu] Upper Nile State, Mabaan county, on eastern border with Sudan. 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the 2 not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan, Twampa Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman

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Yulu
[yul] West Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county; Yulu dialect: Khor Buga, 5 km west of Raga; Binga dialect: Menangba, 50 km west of Raga. 3,000 in South Sudan (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara

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Zande
[zne] West Equatoria State, Tambura, Nagero, Ezo, Nzara, Yambio, and Ibba counties; parts of Maridi county. 350,000 in South Sudan (1982 SIL). L2 users: 100,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication).LWC across western half of Western Equatoria, for church, market, and media domains. Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi Dialects: Dio, Makaraka (Odio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara Comments: Zande speech is fairly uniform.

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