Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken
Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
Arabic, Najdi Spoken
Arabic, North Levantine Spoken
[apc] Also in Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Egypt, French Guiana, Israel, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mali, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey. 8,800,000 in Syria (1991). 6,000,000 in Lebanese-Central Syrian, 1,000,000 in North Syrian. Population total all countries: 14,426,540. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Lebanese-Syrian Arabic, Levantine Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Syro-Lebanese Arabic Dialects: There is an urban standard dialect based on Damascus speech. Beiruti dialect well accepted. Aleppo dialect shows Mesopotamian (North Syrian) influence. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim, Christian, Druze, Jewish.
Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[aii] North, Khabur river banks. Over 30 villages. 30,000 in Syria (1995). Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aisorski, Assyrian, Assyriski, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Nestorian).
[rmt] Nawar dialect: Palestine, Syria, and Egypt; Kurbat dialect: Syria and western Iran; Helebi: Egypt and Libya; Karachi dialect: north Turkey, Russian Federation Caucasus, and north Iran; Domaki and Wogri-Boli: India; Barake dialect: Syria; Luli and Maznoug: Uzbekistan; other groups in Iran; Churi-Wali dialect: Afghanistan. 37,000 in Syria (2005). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Barake, Gypsy, Kurbat, Middle Eastern Romani, Nawar, Tsigene Dialects: Barake, Beirut, Kurbati, Nablos, Nawar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Arabic influence. Muslim.
[kmr] North: Northern Cizire (Qamishlok), Kurd-Dagh (Ciyayê Kurdî, Afrin), Ain-Arab, Allepo, Damascus. 938,000 in Syria (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Yezidi.
[lhs] Qamishli town; Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Similar to Turoyo [tru]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: The last speaker died in 1998. A different language from Turoyo [tru], also called Suryoyo.
[tru] 7,000 in Syria (1994). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1994). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Surayt, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: Religious capital is Damascus; formerly at Tur ’Abdin, Turkey. Christian (Jacobite).
[amw] Qalamoun mountains, 50 km north of Damascus, Ma’lula, Bakh’a, and Jubb ’Adin villages. 15,000 (1996). 8,000 in Maaloula. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Loghtha Siryanoytha, Maalula, Neo-Western Aramaic, Siryon Dialects: Bakh’a (Bax’a), Jub-’adin (Jubb ’Adi:n), Ma’lula (Maaloula, Maalula, Ma’lu:la). Little dialect variation. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western Comments: Christian, Muslim (Sunni).