Tajikistan

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Arabic, Tajiki Spoken
[abh] Khatlon Province, Vakhsh Valley villages; Kuliab and Leninabad cities. Mainly small villages. 1,000 in Tajikistan. Population total all countries: 6,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arabic, Bukhara Arabic, Buxara Arabic, Central Asian, Jugari, Tajiji Arabic Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Endogamous, do not mix with speakers of other languages. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni).

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Ishkashimi
[isk] Sumjin and Ryn villages, near Ishkashim. 500 in Tajikistan (1990 A. Kibrik). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ishkashim Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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Kyrgyz
[kir] 64,000 in Tajikistan. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian

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Parya
[paq] Hissar valley. 3,000 in Tajikistan (2008). Population total all countries: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afghana-Yi Nasfurush, Afghana-Yi Siyarui, Laghmani, Pbharya Dialects: May be Marwari [rwr] dialect, related to Panjabi [pan], or Laghman dialect of Southeast Pashayi [psi] of Afghanistan. Subgroups: Kalu, Jitain, Juni, Maggar, Bisiyan, Mussali, Shuiya. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: Came in 1880 to Tajikistan from Laghman, Afghanistan. Ethnic autonym: Changgars. Subgroup names similar to Changgars of Lahore, and to names used for groups mistakenly called Gypsies. Muslim (Sunni).

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] 4,000 in Tajikistan (1970). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] 50,000 in Tajikistan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Persian Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Not a literary language in Tajikistan. Muslim (Shi’a).

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Russian
[rus] 237,000 in Tajikistan. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, no longer language of record in higher levels of government. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East

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Shughni
[sgh] Gorno-Bagakhshan, Pamir mountains. 40,000 in Tajikistan (1975 SIL). 20,000 Shugan, 1,500–2,000 Oroshor, 15,000 Rushan. Population total all countries: 80,000. Ethnic population: 73,800 (1990 A. Kibrik). Includes 50,000 Shugni, 2,000 Oroshor, 18,000 Rushan, 800 Khufi, 3,000 Bartang. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shugnan-Rushan Dialects: Bartangi (Bartang), Khufi (Chuf, Khuf), Oroshor (Roshorvi), Rushani (Oroshani, Roshani, Rushan), Shughni (Khugni, Shighni, Shugan, Shugnan). Khufi and Bartangi dialects may be separate languages. Oroshani may be separate from Rushani. Not intelligible of Sarikoli [srh] (called, Tajiki, in China). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Muslim (Ismaili).

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Tajiki
[tgk] 3,340,000 in Tajikistan (1991). Population total all countries: 4,479,650. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Galcha, Tadzhik, Tajik, Tajiki Persian, Tojiki Dialects: 4 groups of small dialects; no distinct boundaries. Dialect blending into Dari Persian [prs] in Afghanistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Russian sources refer to Persian dialects in Afghanistan as Tajiki. So-called Tajiki in China is actually Shugni [sgh] or Wakhi [wbl]. Some Tajiki-speaking Gypsy communities in Russian central Asia. Muslim (Sunni).

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Uzbek, Northern
[uzn] 873,000 in Tajikistan. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern

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Wakhi
[wbl] Gorno-Badakhshan, Pamir mountains. 15,000 in Tajikistan (2012 M. Merritt). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 A. Kibrik). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guhjali, Khik, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi Dialects: Central Wakhi, Eastern Wakhi, Western Wakhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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Yagnobi
[yai] Zafarabad; north of Dushanbe; Yagnob river (the homeland), high mountain valley. 12,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yaghnabi, Yaghnobi, Yaghnubi, Yagnabi, Yagnob, Yagnubi Dialects: Eastern Yagnobi, Western Yagnobi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern Comments: Were resettled in 1970s to Zafarabad in north Tajikistan on the border with Uzbekistan; changed from cool mountain valleys with water to irrigated desert plains. Muslim (Sunni).

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Yazgulyam
[yah] Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, Yazgulyam river valley, Motravn, Shavud, Budun, Vishkharv, Andarbag, Zhamag, Zaich, and Ubaghn; Kuybishev area; Dushanbe area. 9,000 (2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Iazgulem, Yazghulomi, Yazgulam, Yazgulyami Dialects: Lower Yazgulyam, Upper Yazgulyam. Little dialect difference. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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