Tajikistan

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Arabic, Tajiki Spoken
[abh] Khatlon province, Vakhsh Valley villages; Kuliab and Leninabad cities. Mainly small villages. 1,000 in Tajikistan. Total users in all countries: 6,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arabi, Arabic, Bukhara Arabic, Buxara Arabic, Central Asian, Jugari, Tajiji Arabic. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Endogamous, do not mix with speakers of other languages. Muslim.

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Ishkashimi
[isk] Kuhistoni Badakhshon region, Sumjin and Ryn villages, near Ishkashim. 500 in Tajikistan (1990 A. Kibrik). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ishkashim. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Comments: Muslim.

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Kyrgyz
[kir] Kuhistoni Badakhshon region and Regions of Republican Subordination. 60,100 in Tajikistan (2012 UNSD). Ethnic population: 60,700 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian.

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Parya
[paq] Regions of Republican Subordination, Hissar valley. 3,000 in Tajikistan (2008). Total users in all countries: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Afghana-Yi Nasfurush, Afghana-Yi Siyarui, Changgars, Laghmani, Pbharya. Dialects: May be Marwari [rwr] dialect, related to Punjabi [pan], or Laghman dialect of Southeast Pashai [psi] of Afghanistan. Subgroups: Kalu, Jitain, Juni, Maggar, Bisiyan, Mussali, Shuiya. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified. Comments: Came in 1880 to Tajikistan from Laghman, Afghanistan. Subgroup names similar to Changgars of Lahore, and to names used for groups mistakenly called Gypsies. Muslim.

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Khatlon region. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] Southwest Tajikistan, Khatlon province, various economic development sites; also in Dushanbe. 50,000 in Tajikistan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Persian, Western Farsi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Not a literary language in Tajikistan. Muslim.

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Russian
[rus] Widespread. 40,600 in Tajikistan (2012 UNSD). Ethnic population: 34,800 (2010 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, no longer language of record in higher levels of government. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Shughni
[sgh] Kuhistoni Badakhshon region, Pamir mountains. 40,000 in Tajikistan (1975 SIL). 20,000 Shugan, 1,500–2,000 Oroshor, 15,000 Rushan. Ethnic population: 73,800 (1990 A. Kibrik). Includes 50,000 Shugni, 2,000 Oroshor, 18,000 Rushan, 800 Khufi, 3,000 Bartang. Total users in all countries: 80,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khugnone, Shugnan-Rushan. Dialects: Rushani (Oroshani, Roshani, Rushan), Bartangi (Bartang), Oroshor (Roshorvi), Khufi (Chuf, Khuf), Shughni (Khugni, Shighni, Shugan, Shugnan). Khufi and Bartangi dialects may be separate languages. Oroshani may be separate from Rushani. Not intelligible of Sarikoli [srh] (called, Tajiki, in China). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami. Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Muslim.

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Tajiki
[tgk] Widespread. 6,380,000 in Tajikistan (2012 UNSD). Ethnic population: 6,370,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 7,861,450. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Galcha, Tadzhik, Tajik, Tajiki Persian, Tojiki. Dialects: 4 groups of small dialects; no distinct boundaries. Dialect blending into Dari Persian [prs] in Afghanistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Russian sources refer to Persian dialects in Afghanistan as Tajiki. So-called Tajiki in China is actually Shugni [sgh] or Wakhi [wbl]. Some Tajiki-speaking Gypsy communities in Russian central Asia. Muslim.

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Uzbek, Northern
[uzn] Sughd and Khatlon regions; Regions of Republican Subordination. 927,000 in Tajikistan (2012 UNSD). Ethnic population: 926,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Eastern.

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Wakhi
[wbl] Kuhistoni Badakhshon region, Pamir mountains. 15,000 in Tajikistan (2012 M. Merritt). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 A. Kibrik). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guhjali, Khik, Khikwar, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi. Dialects: Western Wakhi, Central Wakhi, Eastern Wakhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Comments: Muslim.

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Yagnobi
[yai] Sughd region, Zafarabad; north of Dushanbe; Yagnob river (the homeland), high mountain valley. 12,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Soghdi, Yaghnabi, Yaghnobi, Yaghnubi, Yagnabi, Yagnob, Yagnubi. Dialects: Western Yagnobi, Eastern Yagnobi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern. Comments: Were resettled in 1970s to Zafarabad in north Tajikistan on the border with Uzbekistan; changed from cool mountain valleys with water to irrigated desert plains. Muslim.

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Yazgulyam
[yah] Kuhistoni Badakhshon province, Yazgulyam river valley, Motravn, Shavud, Budun, Vishkharv, Andarbag, Zhamag, Zaich, and Ubaghn; Kuybishev area; Dushanbe area. 9,000 (2010). Ethnic population: 13,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Iazgulem, Yazghulomi, Yazgulam, Yazgulyami, Yuzdomi zavég. Dialects: Upper Yazgulyam, Lower Yazgulyam. Little dialect difference. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami. Comments: Muslim.

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