East Timor

Print
Adabe
[adb] Atauro island, Timor island north of Dili. 5,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ataura, Atauran, Atauro, Atauru, Raklu Un, Raklu-Un Dialects: Munaseli Pandai, Rahesuk, Raklungu, Resuk. Different from Galolen [gal] dialects on Atauro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor

More Information

Baikeno
[bkx] Oekusi enclave. 72,000 (2011 Baikeno Language Council). Many monolinguals. Several thousand speakers in Dili and Indonesian west Timor. 15 clans of Nu’af (mountains); 3 clans of Amnesat (plains). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambeno, Ambenu, Baikenu, Biqueno, “Dawan” (pej.), Lais Meto, Molok Meto, Oe Cusi, Oecusse, Oecussi, Oekusi, Uab Meto, Uab Pah Meto, Vaikenu, Vaikino Dialects: Amnesat, Nu’af. Part of Uab Meto dialect chain, which includes several languages. Partial intelligibility of the Uab Meto of Amfo’an, northern Mollo, and Insana. Significant differences with Amarasi [aaz] block intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto Comments: Speakers see themselves as part of the wider Atoni cultural, linguistic, and historical network, in contrast to Tetun, Helong, or Rote. Ethnic autonym: atoni, person, speaking uab meto, the language of the dry. Uab Meto refers to the language chain of which Baikeno is a part. Ambeno refers to traditional kingship. Oekusi is the main town in Ambeno, but people in other parts of East Timor use it to refer to the whole enclave. Locals object to this usage. Dawan is considered derogatory by many (the language does not have a, d, and dawan is said to mean enemy). Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Bunak
[bfn] Timor island central interior, south coast. Also in Indonesia. 55,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Population total all countries: 76,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buna, Bunake, Bunaq, Gae’, Marae Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor Comments: Small groups scattered among other languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Fataluku
[ddg] Timor island east tip, Los Palos area. 37,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagada, Dagaga, Dagoda’ Dialects: May be related to Oirata [oia] on nearby Kisar Island. Significant dialect variation. May be several languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Galolen
[gal] North coast between Mambae, Makasae, and Lakloo. Also in Indonesia. 13,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Population total all countries: 13,680. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galole, Galolem, Galoli, Galolin Dialects: Lakloo (Lacló), Laleia, Manatutu (Vila), Wetar (Iliwaki). Lexical similarity: 94%-98% with dialects, 57% with Aputai [apx], 52% with Tugun [tzn], 51% with Perai [wet] and Ili’uun [ilu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor

More Information

Habun
[hbu] Northeast of Laclubar and the Idate [idt] language area. 2,700 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Habu Dialects: Many loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages similar to Makasae [mkz], but with Austronesian structure. Classification needs further investigation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor

More Information

Idaté
[idt] Central East Timor, Laclubar mountains, surrounded by Mambae [mgm], Galolen [gal], Kairui [krd], and Tetun [tet] language areas. 13,500 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Most similar to Lakalei [lka] and Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor

More Information

Kairui-Midiki
[krd] Central small mountainous area surrounded by Makasae [mkz], Waima’a [wmh], Tetun [tet], Galolen [gal] language areas. 15,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cairui, Midiki Dialects: Kairui, Midiki (Midik). Vocabulary predominantly Trans-New Guinea, structure is Austronesian. Related to Waima’a [wmh] and Habun [hbu]. Classification needs further investigation. May be co-dialect with Waima’a. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor

More Information

Kemak
[kem] North central Timor island border between East Timor and West Timor, mostly east. Also in Indonesia. 62,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Population total all countries: 72,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ema Dialects: Kemak, Nogo (Nogo-Nogo). Most closely related to Mambae [mgm] and Tukudede [tkd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Lakalei
[lka] Central Timor island, north of Same, northeast of Ainaro. 3,250 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Similar to Idate [idt], Tetun [tet], and Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Loanwords from Tetun [tet], Mambae [mgm], and Idate [idt].

More Information

Makasae
[mkz] Timor island, east Baucau area and inland, west of Fataluku, from north to south coast in a dialect chain. 102,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ma’asae, Macassai, Makasai, Makassai, Maksae Dialects: Makasae, Maklere. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Makuva
[lva] Timor island northeast, Tutuala area. 56 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lovaea, Lovaia, Lóvaia, Maku’a, Makua, Makuwa Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor

More Information

Mambae
[mgm] Central Timor mountains, Ermera, Aileu, and Ainaro areas. 131,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambai, Manbae Dialects: Damata, Lolei, Mambae, Manua. North Mambae and South Mambae show significant differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Very little productive morphology compared to Tetun [tet], Uab Meto [aoz], or Galolen [gal]. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Nauete
[nxa] South coast, Timor island east tip, west of Tiomar, Uato Lari is main town. 15,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naóti, Naueti, Nauhete, Nauote, Nauoti Dialects: Naumik, Oso Moko. Not closely related to any other language. Loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages like Makasae [mkz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor

More Information

Pidgin, Timor
[tvy] Timor island. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidau Creole Portuguese, Português de Bidau, Timor Creole Portuguese Classification: Creole, Portuguese based

More Information

Portuguese
[por] 600 in East Timor (2010 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2002, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Português Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician Comments: Christian.

More Information

Tetun
[tet] Western East Timor, south coast from Suai to Soibada and Viqueque, east of Atoni. 63,500 in East Timor (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Belo, Belu, Fehan, Teto, Tettum, Tetu, Tetum, Tetun Belu, Tetun Loos, Tetun Terik, Tetung Dialects: Eastern Tetun (Lakluta, Natarbora, Soibada, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los), Northern Tetun (Belu Utara, Hill Tetun, Lia Foho, North Belu, Tasi Feto, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik), Southern Tetun (Belu Selatan, Lia Fehan, Plain Tetun, South Belu, South Tetun, Tasi Mane). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tetun Dili
[tdt] East Timor north coast, L1 in Dili area; L2 scattered in western part of East Timor. 385,000 (2009). Growing in use and importance. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2002, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Dili Tetum, Tetum, Tetum Dili, Tetum Praça, Tetum Prasa, Tetun Dialects: Heavy Portuguese [por] and Mambae [mgm] influence; some Indonesian [ind] or Malay influence. Classification: Creole, Tetun based Comments: Cultural rituals and themes in Tetun [tet] are not as deeply rooted in Tetun Dili. Christian.

More Information

Tukudede
[tkd] Timor island, north coast, Maubara and Liquisa regions from Lois river banks to Dili. 39,500 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tocod, Tokodé, Tokodede, Tukude Dialects: Keha (Keia), Tukudede. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Comments: Christian.

More Information

Waima’a
[wmh] Northeast coast Timor island, enclave within Makasae [mkz] language area. 18,400 (2012 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uai Ma’a, Uaimo’a, Waimaha, Waimoa Dialects: Many Trans-New Guinea loanwords similar to Makasae. Related to Habu [hbu] and Kairui-Midiki [krd]. Classification needs further investigation. May be a co-dialect with Kairui-Midiki. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor

More Information