Tunisia

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Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian
[ajt] 500 in Tunisia (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Tunis. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1959, Constitution, Article 1). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Arabic, Tunisian Spoken
[aeb] 10,800,000 in Tunisia (2014 census). Population total all countries: 11,206,900. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Tunisian, Tunisian Arabic, Tunisian Darija Dialects: North-Western Tunisian, Sahil, Sfax, South-Eastern Tunisian, South-Western Tunisian, Tunis. Reportedly similar to Eastern Algerian Arabic [arq], but clearly distinct. Tunis dialect used in media and language textbooks for foreigners. Southern dialects structurally similar to those in Libya. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim.

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French
[fra] 11,000 in Tunisia (1993). L2 users: 6,360,000 in Tunisia (Francophonie 2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Lingua Franca
[pml] Tunisia; Dodecanese islands west bank, Greece; Cyprus; other major Mediterranean ports. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: ’Ajnabi, Aljamia, Ferenghi, Petit Mauresque, Sabir Dialects: None known. Lexicon from Italian [ita] and Occitan [oci]. Reportedly a present-day variety on Aegean Islands, used as pidgin in southeast Mediterranean region, has mainly Arabic syntax and vocabulary which is 65%–70% Italian [ita], 10% Spanish [spa], and other Catalan [cat], French [fra], Ladino [lad], and Turkish [tur] words. Classification: Pidgin, Romance based Comments: Documented in Jerba, Tunisia in 1353.

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Sened
[sds] Sened and Tmagourt villages, northwest of Gabès. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Sened, Tmagourt (Tmagurt). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East

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Shilha
[jbn] South-east Mediterranean, Djerba island, Guellala, Ajim, and Sedouikech; west of Gabès, Matmata, Taoujjout, Tamezret, and Zraoua; south of Gabès, Tataouine, Douiret and Chenini; Tunis City: old Medina, Cité Intileqa and Cité Ibn Khaldoun. 50,000 in Tunisia (2004 S. Chaker). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djerbi, Jabal Nafusi, Nafusi, Tunisian Berber Dialects: Jbali-Tamezret (Duwinna), Jerba (Djerbi, Guelili). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East Comments: ‘Shilha’ also a cover term for Berber languages in Morocco and Tunisia. Muslim.

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Tunisian Sign Language
[tse] Scattered. 21,200 (2008 WFD). 53,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Loans from French Sign Language [fsl] and Italian Sign Language [ise], but it is distinct. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Used by United States Peace Corps. 60 interpreters, with university-level training (2008 WFD). Muslim (Sunni).

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