Turkey

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Abaza
[abq] Central; Eskisehir, Samsun, Yozgat, Adana, and Kayseri provinces. 12,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ahuwa, Tapanta. Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar), Bezshagh. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Abkhaz
[abk] Northeast, Artvin Province; also Coruh, Bolu, and Sakarya subprovinces. 44,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 39,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abxazo. Dialects: Bzyb, Abzhui, Samurzakan. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Adyghe
[ady] Central and western Anatolia, Kayseri, Tokat, Karaman Maras, and many other provinces. 316,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). No monolinguals (1965 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, Cherkes, Circassian. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Shqyp. Dialects: Samsun Albanian. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Albanian, Tosk
[als] Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, and Tekirdag provinces; center is Arnavut; otherwise scattered throughout western Turkey. 66,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). No monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shqip. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Sanliurfa, Diyarbakir, Mardin, and Siirt provinces; very small area in Gaziantep Province. 101,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Arabi. Dialects: Anatolian Cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Jewish.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] Mardin, Sirnak, Batman, Siirt, and Sanliurfa provinces. 621,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic. Dialects: Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Do not read Arabic. Muslim, Christian.

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Armenian
[hye] Many in Istanbul; and in east Turkey, Kars Province, scattered elsewhere. 61,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). No monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 70,000 (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri. Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hemshin are Armenian Muslims, living near the Laz [lzz] language area. Christian, Muslim.

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Kars and Igdir provinces. 540,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Azeri. Dialects: Kars. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Muslim.

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Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Surguch dialect in Edirne Province. 327,000 in Turkey (Johnstone 1993). 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320,000 Yuruk. Total users in all countries: 331,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balkan Turkic. Dialects: Gajol, Gerlovo Turks, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turks, Yuruk (Konyar, Yoruk). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Distinct from Gagauz [gag] of Moldova, Bulgaria, and Romania. Muslim.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Scattered in Edirne and other western provinces. 351,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pomak. Dialects: Pomak. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Muslim.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Ankara Province, Polatli district, Karakuyu, several villages. 100,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish, Qirim, Qirimtatar. Dialects: Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Central Crimean, Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Mainly west; widespread. 30 in Turkey (2015). Ethnic population: 28,500 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dom, Gypsy, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene. Dialects: Karachi, Beludji, Marashi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. 500,000 Gypsies in Turkey speak Domari or varieties of Romani (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Muslim.

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Georgian
[kat] North and northwest Anatolia, Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces. 151,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). No monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 91,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gruzin, Kartuli. Dialects: Imerxev. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian. Comments: Muslim.

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Greek
[ell] Istanbul, some in Izmir Province. 3,600 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Nearly all Greeks emigrated from Turkey. There were 1,500,000 in Turkey in 1900.

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Hértevin
[hrt] Southeast, most likely Mardin Province; otherwise scattered. 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Hértevin Proper (Arton), Umraya, Jinet. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Christian.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kayseri Province, Uzun Yayla plateau east of Kayseri city; scattered in other areas in Samsun, Amasya, and Corum provinces. 1,000,000 in Turkey (2005 Circassian Association). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Manisa Province, Salihli district; Istanbul; Kayseri Province. 7,700 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaqi. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Kumyk
[kum] Gumushane Province, Torul district; a few villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki. Dialects: Khasav-Yurt, Buinak, Khaidak. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from the Kumux dialect of Lak [lbe]. Muslim.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Widespread, especially east and southeast. 8,130,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc), decreasing. No monolinguals. Especially in Hakkari and Shirnak provinces. Total users in all countries: 15,151,130. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kermancî, Kirmancî, Kurdi, Kurdî, Kurmancî, Kurmanji. Dialects: Boti (Botani), Marashi, Ashiti, Bayezidi, Hekari, Shemdinani, Shikakî, Silivî, Mihemedî. Dialect differences but all use the same written form. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim, Yezidi.

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Kyrgyz
[kir] Van and Kars provinces. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Muslim.

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Ladino
[lad] Mainly Istanbul; some in Izmir Province. 10,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haketia, Hakitia, Judeo Spanish, Judezmo, Sefardi, Spanyol. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Laz
[lzz] Northeast, Rize, Kemer, Atin, Artasen, Vitse, Arkab, Hopa, and Sarp; Artvin, Sakarya, Kocaeli, and Bolu provinces. 20,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 92,000 (1980). Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chan, Chanuri, Chanzan, Laze, Lazuri, Zan. Dialects: None known. Officially considered a single language with Mingrelian [xmf], called, Zan, although not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Kartvelian, Zan. Comments: Muslim.

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Pontic
[pnt] Northeast, Trabzon Province, near southeast Black Sea coast. 300,000 in Turkey (2009 Z. Diakonikolaou). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] West; widespread. 66,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Arli (Erli). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Serbian
[srp] Widespread in the west. 4,500 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). No monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 61,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosnian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Syriac
[syc] Southeast, Sanliurfa Province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo. Dialects: Western Syriac, Eastern Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), and Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed Neo-Syriac although not directly descended from Syriac. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern. Comments: Christian.

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Tatar
[tat] Istanbul, perhaps elsewhere. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Turkish
[tur] Widespread. 66,500,000 in Turkey (European Commission 2006). L2 users: 350,000 in Turkey (European Commission 2006). Total users in all countries: 71,785,850 (as L1: 71,435,850; as L2: 350,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1982, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Anatolian, Türkçe, Türkisch. Dialects: Danubian, Eskisehir, Razgrad, Dinler, Rumelian, Karamanli, Edirne, Gaziantep, Urfa. Danubian is west; other dialects east. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Muslim.

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Turkish Sign Language
[tsm] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: TİD, Türk İşaret Dili. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Presence of deaf people using sign languages is documented from Hittite times (2000 to 1200 BCE). During the Ottoman Empire (15th to 18th centuries), deaf and other sign language users, called Dilsiz ‘speechless’, served as royal servants, although there is no evidence that Ottoman Sign Language is related to modern TID. A one-handed fingerspelling system for Arabic script was used in the 19th and early 20th centuries until the alphabet revolution in 1928 that introduced Latin script for writing Turkish [tur], at which time a two-handed fingerspelling system for Latin script came into use. (Kemaloglu and Kemaloglu 2012).

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Turkmen
[tuk] Tokat Province. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Trukhmen. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Muslim.

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Turoyo
[tru] Southeast, Sirnak and Mardin provinces. 15,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 50,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 99,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Surayt, Süryani, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani. Dialects: Midyat, Midin, Kfarze, ’Iwardo, Anhil, Raite. Turoyo subdialects divided between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern. Comments: Known among scholars almost exclusively as Tûrôyo; Suryoyo is a popular name. Western Syriac refers to the Classical Western Syriac [syc] liturgy and orthography used by Turoyo speakers. Christian.

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Ubykh
[uby] Istanbul Province, near the Sea of Marmara, Haci Osman village. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1992. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Oubykh, Pekhi, Ubyx. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Ubyx. Comments: Most migrated to Turkey in 1894.

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Uyghur
[uig] Kayseri and Istanbul provinces. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Uighur, Uigur, Uygur. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Uzbek, Southern
[uzs] Hatay, Gaziantep, and Sanliurfa provinces. 3,800 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: O’zbek. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Distinct from Northern Uzbek [uzn] of Uzbekistan and China. Muslim.

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Zaza
[zza] A macrolanguage. Macro-language with 2 main varities in east central Turkey: Northern Zaza [kiu] and Southern Zaza [diq]. Southern Zaza limited to central Elazig Province; Northern Zaza in north and northeastern Elazig, most of Tunceli, east central Sivas, south Erzincan, and western Eruzurum and Bingol provinces; scattered throughout area. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,684,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Northern Zazaki [kiu], Southern Zazaki [diq].

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Zazaki, Northern
[kiu] Sivas Province, Zara, Imranli, Kangal, and Divrigi subprovinces; Tunceli Province, Tunceli merkez, Hozat, Nazmiye, Pülümür, and Ovacik subprovinces; Bingol Province, Kigi and Karkiova subprovinces; Erzurum Province, Erzincan and Cayirli subprovinces; Elazig Province, Elazig merkez and Karakoqan subprovinces; Mush Province, Varto subprovince; Malatya Province; at least 83 total villages. 184,000 in Turkey (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alevica, Dersimki, Dimilki, Kirmanjki, Northern Zaza, Shar Ma, So-Bê, Zaza, Zonê Ma. Dialects: Tunceli, Varto. Lexical similarity: 70% with Southern Zazaki [diq]. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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Zazaki, Southern
[diq] Bingöl, Diyarbakir, and Elazig provinces: primarily Cermik, Gerger, Egil, Siverek, Dicle, Palu, Bingöl, and Hani cities. 1,500,000 (Paul 1998), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000,000 (Paul 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimili, Dimli, Southern Zaza, Zaza, Zazaca. Dialects: Sivereki, Kori, Hazzu (Hazo), Motki (Moti), Dumbuli (Dumbeli), Eastern Zazaki (Central Zazaki), Dersimki. Dialects differ slightly, but mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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