[abk] Northeast, Coruh; northwest; mainly Bolu and Sakarya provinces. 4,000 in Turkey (1980). Ethnic population: 39,000 in Turkey (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abxazo Dialects: Abzhui, Bzyb, Samurzakan. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[ady] Central and western Anatolia, Kayseri, Tokat, Karaman Maras, and many other provinces. 278,000 in Turkey (2000). 6,410 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 130,000 in Turkey (1965 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Adygey, Cherkes, Circassian Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[hye] Many in Istanbul; and scattered in east Turkey. Hemshin are Armenian Muslims, living near the Laz [lzz] language area. 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 1,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 70,000 in Turkey (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: Christian, Muslim.
Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Surguch dialect in Edirne region. Also in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia. 327,000 in Turkey (Johnstone 1993). 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320,000 Yuruk. Population total all countries: 331,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balkan Turkic Dialects: Gajol, Gerlovo Turks, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turks, Yuruk (Konyar, Yoruk). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Distinct from Gagauz [gag] of Moldova, Bulgaria, and Romania. Christian.
[crh] Ankara Province, Polatli district, Karakuyu, several villages. 2,000 in Turkey. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish Dialects: Central Crimean, Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Southern Crimean. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.
[rmt] Mainly west; some east. 28,500 in Turkey (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gypsy, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene Dialects: Beludji, Karachi, Marashi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: 500,000 Gypsies in Turkey speak Domari or varieties of Romani (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Muslim.
[kat] North and northwest Anatolia, Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces. 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 4,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 91,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gruzin, Kartuli Dialects: Imerxev. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[hrt] Originally Siirt Province. Most emigrated to the West. 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Hértevin Proper (Arton), Jinet, Umraya. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Chaldean).
[kmr] Adiyaman, Agri, Batman, Bingol, Bitlis, Diyarbakir (Amed), Hakkari (Colemerg), Kars, Mardin, Shirnak, Siirt, Shanliurfa, and Van; also Ganziantep, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Kahramanmarash, Kayseri, Malatya, Sivas, Tunceli (Dersim), and other provinces; central Turkey, Konya, Cankiri and Cihanbeyli; many in Istanbul, Adana, Ankara, Izmir. Also in Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkmenistan, United Kingdom, United States. 15,000,000 in Turkey (McCarus 2009), decreasing. About 20% monolingual, especially in Hakkari and Shirnak provinces. Very provisional figures for Northern Kurdish speaker population. Population total all countries: 20,210,872. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kermancî, Kirmancî, Kurdi, Kurdî, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Dialects: Ashiti, Bayezidi, Boti (Botani), Hekari, Marashi, Mihemedî, Shemdinani, Shikakî, Silivî. Dialect differences but all use the same written form. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Alevi), Yezidi.
[lad] Mainly Istanbul; some in Izmir. 10,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haketia, Hakitia, Judeo Spanish, Judezmo, Sefardi, Spanyol Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Jewish.
[lzz] Northeast, Rize, Kemer, Atin, Artasen, Vitse, Arkab, Hopa, and Sarp; Artvin, Sakarya, Kocaeli, and Bolu provinces. Also in Belgium, France, Georgia, Germany, United States. 20,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 22,000. Ethnic population: 92,000 in Turkey (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chan, Chanuri, Chanzan, Laze, Zan Dialects: Officially considered a single language with Mingrelian [xmf], called, Zan, although not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Kartvelian, Zan Comments: Muslim.
[syc] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo Dialects: Eastern Syriac, Western Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), and Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed Neo-Syriac although not directly descended from Syriac. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern Comments: Christian.
[tur] Widespread as L1 or L2. Also in Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Honduras, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Netherlands, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan. 46,300,000 in Turkey (1987). Population total all countries: 50,733,420. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1982, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Anatolian, Türkçe, Türkisch Dialects: Danubian, Dinler, Edirne, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Karamanli, Razgrad, Rumelian, Urfa. Danubian is west; other dialects east. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Muslim.
Turkish Sign Language
[tru] Southeast, Mardin Province. Also in Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Iraq, Lebanon, Netherlands, Syria, United States. 3,000 in Turkey (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 62,000. Ethnic population: 50,000–70,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Surayt, Süryani, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani Dialects: Anhil, ’Iwardo, Kfarze, Midin, Midyat, Raite. Related to Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Turoyo subdialects divided between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: Glossonym: Tûrôyo, known among scholars almost exclusively; Suryoyo, is popular. Western Syriac, refers to the Classical Western Syriac [syc] liturgy and orthography used by Turoyo speakers. Christian (Jacobite).
[uzs] Hatay, Gaziantep, and Urfa provinces. Possibly in Germany. 1,980 in Turkey (1982). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Distinct from Northern Uzbek [uzn] of Uzbekistan and China. Muslim (Sunni).
[kiu] Tunceli Province, Tunceli merkez, Hozat, Nazmiye, Pülümür, and Ovacik subprovinces; Erzincan Province, Erzincan and Cayirli subprovinces; Elazig Province, Elazig merkez and Karakoqan subprovinces, 8 or more villages; Bingöl Province, Kigi and Karkiova subprovinces, 3 villages; Mush Province, Varto subprovince, 46 villages; Sivas Province, Zara, Imranli, Kangal, and Divrigi subprovinces, 15 or more villages; Erzerum Province, Hinis and Tekman subprovinces, 11 or more villages. Also in Austria, France, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, United Kingdom. 140,000 in Turkey. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alevica, Dersimki, Dimilki, Kirmanjki, Northern Zaza, So-Bê, Zaza, Zonê Ma Dialects: Tunceli, Varto. Most similar to Southern Zazaki [diq]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Southern Zazaki [diq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Ethnonym for Alevi-Zaza: Kirmanj (Kirmanc), Kizilbash-Zaza. Muslim (Alevi).
[diq] East-central, Diyarbakir, Elazig and Bingö provinces. Mainly Cermik, Gerger, Egil, Siverek, Dicle, Palu, Bingöl, and Hani cities. 1,500,000 (Paul 1998), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals. No census made. Ethnic population: 3,000,000–4,000,000 see themselves as Zaza (Paul 1998). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dimili, Dimli, Southern Zaza, Zaza, Zazaca Dialects: Dersimki, Dumbuli (Dumbeli), Eastern Zazaki (Central Zazaki), Hazzu (Hazo), Kori, Motki (Moti), Sivereki. Dialects differ slightly, but mutually intelligible. Zaza most closely related to Gurani [hac]; also related to Gilaki [glk], Mazanderani [mzn], and Balochi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).