[abk] Northeast, Coruh; northwest; mainly Bolu and Sakarya provinces. 4,000 in Turkey (1980). Ethnic population: 39,000 (Johnstone 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abxazo Dialects: Abzhui, Bzyb, Samurzakan. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[ady] Central and western Anatolia, Kayseri, Tokat, Karaman Maras, and many other provinces. 278,000 in Turkey (2000). 6,410 monolinguals (1965 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adygey, Cherkes, Circassian Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[hye] Many in Istanbul; and scattered in east Turkey. Hemshin are Armenian Muslims, living near the Laz [lzz] language area. 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 1,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 70,000 (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: Christian, Muslim.
Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Surguch dialect in Edirne region. 327,000 in Turkey (Johnstone 1993). 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320,000 Yuruk. Population total all countries: 331,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balkan Turkic Dialects: Gajol, Gerlovo Turks, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turks, Yuruk (Konyar, Yoruk). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Distinct from Gagauz [gag] of Moldova, Bulgaria, and Romania. Christian.
[crh] Ankara Province, Polatli district, Karakuyu, several villages. 2,000 in Turkey. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish Dialects: Central Crimean, Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Southern Crimean. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.
[rmt] Mainly west; some east. 28,500 in Turkey (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gypsy, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene Dialects: Beludji, Karachi, Marashi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: 500,000 Gypsies in Turkey speak Domari or varieties of Romani (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Muslim.
[kat] North and northwest Anatolia, Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces. 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 4,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 91,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gruzin, Kartuli Dialects: Imerxev. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).
[hrt] 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Hértevin Proper (Arton), Jinet, Umraya. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Comments: Christian (Chaldean).
[kmr] Adiyaman, Agri, Batman, Bingol, Bitlis, Diyarbakir (Amed), Hakkari (Colemerg), Kars, Mardin, Shirnak, Siirt, Shanliurfa, and Van; also Ganziantep, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Kahramanmarash, Kayseri, Malatya, Sivas, Tunceli (Dersim), and other provinces; central Turkey, Konya, Cankiri and Cihanbeyli; many in Istanbul, Adana, Ankara, Izmir. 15,000,000 in Turkey (McCarus 2009), decreasing. Very provisional figures for Northern Kurdish speaker population. Population total all countries: 20,210,890. 3,000,000 monolinguals. Especially in Hakkari and Shirnak provinces. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kermancî, Kirmancî, Kurdi, Kurdî, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Dialects: Ashiti, Bayezidi, Boti (Botani), Hekari, Marashi, Mihemedî, Shemdinani, Shikakî, Silivî. Dialect differences but all use the same written form. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Alevi), Yezidi.
[lad] Mainly Istanbul; some in Izmir. 10,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haketia, Hakitia, Judeo Spanish, Judezmo, Sefardi, Spanyol Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian Comments: Jewish.
[lzz] Northeast, Rize, Kemer, Atin, Artasen, Vitse, Arkab, Hopa, and Sarp; Artvin, Sakarya, Kocaeli, and Bolu provinces. 20,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 22,000. Ethnic population: 92,000 (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chan, Chanuri, Chanzan, Laze, Zan Dialects: None known. Officially considered a single language with Mingrelian [xmf], called, Zan, although not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Kartvelian, Zan Comments: Muslim.
[syc] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo Dialects: Eastern Syriac, Western Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), and Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed Neo-Syriac although not directly descended from Syriac. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern Comments: Christian.
[tur] Widespread as L1 or L2. 66,500,000 in Turkey (ELDIA 2006). Population total all countries: 70,805,930. L2 users: 350,000 in Turkey (ELDIA 2006). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1982, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Anatolian, Türkçe, Türkisch Dialects: Danubian, Dinler, Edirne, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Karamanli, Razgrad, Rumelian, Urfa. Danubian is west; other dialects east. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Muslim.
Turkish Sign Language
[tru] Southeast, Mardin Province. 3,000 in Turkey (1994 H. Mutzafi). Population total all countries: 62,000. Ethnic population: 50,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Surayt, Süryani, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani Dialects: Anhil, ’Iwardo, Kfarze, Midin, Midyat, Raite. Turoyo subdialects divided between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: Glossonym: Tûrôyo, known among scholars almost exclusively; Suryoyo, is popular. Western Syriac, refers to the Classical Western Syriac [syc] liturgy and orthography used by Turoyo speakers. Christian (Jacobite).
[uzs] Hatay, Gaziantep, and Urfa provinces. Possibly in Germany. 1,980 in Turkey (1982). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Distinct from Northern Uzbek [uzn] of Uzbekistan and China. Muslim (Sunni).
[kiu] Tunceli Province, Tunceli merkez, Hozat, Nazmiye, Pülümür, and Ovacik subprovinces; Erzincan Province, Erzincan and Cayirli subprovinces; Elazig Province, Elazig merkez and Karakoqan subprovinces, 8 or more villages; Bingöl Province, Kigi and Karkiova subprovinces, 3 villages; Mush Province, Varto subprovince, 46 villages; Sivas Province, Zara, Imranli, Kangal, and Divrigi subprovinces, 15 or more villages; Erzerum Province, Hinis and Tekman subprovinces, 11 or more villages. 140,000 in Turkey. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alevica, Dersimki, Dimilki, Kirmanjki, Northern Zaza, So-Bê, Zaza, Zonê Ma Dialects: Tunceli, Varto. Lexical similarity: 70% with Southern Zazaki [diq]. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Ethnonym for Alevi-Zaza: Kirmanj (Kirmanc), Kizilbash-Zaza. Muslim (Alevi).
[diq] East-central, Diyarbakir, Elazig and Bingö provinces. Mainly Cermik, Gerger, Egil, Siverek, Dicle, Palu, Bingöl, and Hani cities. 1,500,000 (Paul 1998), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000,000 (Paul 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimili, Dimli, Southern Zaza, Zaza, Zazaca Dialects: Dersimki, Dumbuli (Dumbeli), Eastern Zazaki (Central Zazaki), Hazzu (Hazo), Kori, Motki (Moti), Sivereki. Dialects differ slightly, but mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).