Tanzania

Print
Aasáx
[aas] North, central Maasai steppe, Landenai, Ndovu Okutu, Lolbeni villages. Reportedly in Lemelebo, Landrobo, Naitomani districts. 350 (1999 J. Carr), decreasing. Some Assa with some knowledge of Aasáx, but most now use Maasai [mas] or Swahili [swh] or both. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aasá, Asá, Asak, Asax, Assa, “Dorobo” (pej.), Il Konono, Lamanik, “Ndorobo” (pej.) Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Comments: Ethnonym: Assa. Lamanik and Il Konono apparently are identifications of ancestry and not the language. In some districts the Assa are nomadic.

More Information

Alagwa
[wbj] Dodoma Region, Kondoa district. 30,000 (Kiessling and Mous 2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alagwaisa, Alagwase, Alawa, Asi, Chasi, Hhagiree, Kialagwa, Kichase, Wasi Dialects: Grammar is closer to Iraqw [irk] but not inherently intelligible. High degree of lexical similarity with Burunge [bds]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Comments: Many villages have Islamic education and some children know Arabic and Swahili more fluently than Alagwa. Alagwa may be more readily recognized as Wasi. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Arabic, Omani Spoken
[acx] Zanzibar. No known L1 speakers in Tanzania. Ethnic population: 195,000 in Tanzania (Johnstone 1993). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. No L1 speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

More Information

Aramanik
[aam] Arusha Region, Masaai steppe. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: “Dorobo” (pej.), Laramanik, “Ndorobo” (pej.) Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi Comments: Kisankasa, Mediak, Mosiro, and Aasáx are also called “Dorobo”.

More Information

Asu
[asa] Northeast, Kilimanjaro Region, Pare mountains, Mwanga and Same districts. 500,000 (2000). 5% monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Athu, Casu, Chasu, Chiasu, Kipare, Pare Dialects: Related to Taveta [tvs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.22) Comments: ‘Wapare’ is an ethnic group name. Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Bembe
[bmb] Kigoma Region, Kigoma Vijinini district, Lake Tanganyika shore, Kigoma town north to Gombe National Park. Only a few Bembe in Tanzania. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Beembe, Ebembe, Ibembe, Kibembe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe (D.54) Comments: Some are Tanzanian citizens, others are recent immigrants and citizens of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Different from Beembe (Bembe) [bmb] of Democratic Republic of Congo. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Bena
[bez] Southwest central, Iringa Region, Njombe district. 670,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekibena, Ikibena, Kibena Dialects: Ilembula, Kilavungi (Kilavagi), Lupembe, Masakati (Masagati), Masitu, Maswamu, Mavemba, Ngaveeta, Nyikolwe, Sovi, Twangabita. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pangwa [pbr], 65% with Hehe [heh], 55% with Sangu [sbp], 53% with Kinga [zga], 51% with Vwanji [wbi], 47% with Kisi [kiz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.63) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Bende
[bdp] Rukwa Region, Mpanda district, Kabungu, Karema, and Mwese divisions. 27,000 (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kibende, Si’bende Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Sumbwa [suw], 72% with Nyamwezi [nym], 70% with Sukuma Hu [suk], 67% with Ha [haq], 71% with Rundi [run], 60% with Hangaza [han], 58% with Nyankore [nyn], 65% with Holoholo [hoo] and 90% with Tongwe [tny]. Bende and Tongwe may be a single language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.12) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Bondei
[bou] Northeast, Tanga Region, Usambara mountains, inland from Tanga. 50,000 (2000 M. Brenzinger). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonde, Kibondei Dialects: Influenced linguistically by Doe [doe] and Kwere [cwe], and it also influenced them. Lexical similarity: 75% with Shambala [ksb] and Zigula [ziw], 73% with Ngulu [ngp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.24) Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Bungu
[wun] Mbeya Region, Chunya district. 36,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iciwungu, Kibungu, Ungu, Wungu Dialects: Maleza, Mwambani, Udinde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.25) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Burunge
[bds] Dodoma Region, Kondoa district, southeast of Langi [lag] language area, Goima, Chambalo, and Mirambu villages. 13,000 (2002). Ethnic population: 30,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulunge, Burungi, Kiburunge Dialects: Lexically similar with Gorowa [gow] and Iraqw [irk], 65% with Alagwa [wbj] (Aweki 1996); relatively high similarity between Alagwa and Burunge, despite their belonging to separate branches of the same language family according to their grammars (Kiessling 2003). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Cutchi-Swahili
[ccl] Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Mwanza, and Arusha. 45,000 (Maho and Sands 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asian Swahili Dialects: May be intelligible with standard Kiswahili [swh]. Cutchi-Swahili and Asian Swahili may not be the same. Classification: Creole, Swahili based Comments: Regular but distinct phonology, lexical and grammatical differences (Whiteley 1974:73–79). Muslim (Ismaili), Muslim (Ithnasheri).

More Information

Datooga
[tcc] Singida and Manyara regions; Mara Region, Bunda and Serengeti districts. Barabaig dialect: mainly north volcanic highlands near Mt. Hanang. 87,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Datog, Datoga, “Mangati” (pej.), Tatog, Tatoga, Taturu Dialects: Bajuta (Bajuuta), Barabayiiga (Barabaig, Barabaik, Barabayga, Barbaig), Bianjiida (Biyanjiida, Utatu), Buraadiiga (Buradiga, Bureadiga), Gisamjanga (Gisamjang, Kisamajeng), Rootigaanga (Rotigeenga, Rotigenga), Tsimajeega (Isimijeega). Sabaot [spy] is probably the most similar language. Barabaik and Kisamajeng dialects are very similar and are completely inherently intelligible. There are several other dialects or ethnic groups: Darorajega, Gidang’odiga, Bisiyeda, Daragwajega, Salawajega, Ghumbiega, and Mangatiga. Lexical similarity: 50% with Kalenjin [kln] languages and Omotik [omt] of Kenya. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Tatoga Comments: ‘Mangati’ or ‘Ole-Mangati’ is Maasai, enemies. Taturu is the Sukuma name. There is intermarriage with the Iraqw. Datooga orthography is different from Swahili [swh]. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Dhaiso
[dhs] Tanga Region, Muheza district, east Usambara mountains north base, Bwiti and Magati villages. 5,000 (1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Daiso, Daisu, Kidhaiso, Segeju Dialects: Related to Kamba [kam] of Kenya. Lexical similarity: 32% with Digo [dig]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.56) Comments: People were historically part of the Segeju. Muslim.

More Information

Digo
[dig] Northeast coast, Tanga area. 88,000 in Tanzania (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chidigo, Kidigo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika (E.73) Comments: Segeju (Kisegeju, Sageju, Sengeju) is an ethnic group which probably once spoke Dhaiso [dhs], but now speaks Digo or Swahili [swh] as L1. Muslim.

More Information

Doe
[doe] Pwani Region, Bagamoyo district, north of Kwere [cwe] language area. 24,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dohe, Kidoe Dialects: Doe has influenced Zigula [ziw] and Bondei [bou] linguistically, and has been influenced by them. Lexical similarity: 74% with Kwere, 64% with Kami [kcu], 61% with Kutu [kdc] and Zaramo [zaj], 70% with Zigula, 54% with Luguru [ruf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.301)

More Information

English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Kiingereza Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

More Information

Fipa
[fip] Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga Urban and Nkansi districts, between lakes Tanganyika and Rukwa. Also in Malawi. 195,000 in Tanzania (2002 census). About 140,000 speakers of Northern, 45,000 of Kwa, and 10,000 of Milanzi varieties. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cifipa, Fiba, Icifipa, Kifipa Dialects: Kwa, Milanzi (Sukuma, Sukuuma), Northern Fipa (Kandaasi, Kandasi). Over half ethnic Fipa speak a speech variety called Fipa-Mambwe, which is a dialect of Mambwe-Lungu [mgr]. More research needed for whether Kwa dialect speakers can adequately understand the Northern variety. Lexical similarity: 69% with Rungwa [rnw]; 67% with Pimbwe [piw]; 65% with Nyika, Tanzania [nkt] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (M.13) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Gogo
[gog] Dodoma Region; Singida Region, Manyoni district. 1,440,000 (2006), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chigogo, Kigogo Dialects: Nyambwa (West Gogo), Nyaugogo (Central Gogo), Tumba (East Gogo). Lexical similarity: 50% with Hehe [heh] and Sangu [sbp], 48% with Kimbu [kiv], 45% with Nilamba [nim]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.11) Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Gorowa
[gow] Manyara Region, Mbulu district; Dodoma Region, Kondoa district, near Babati, Mt. Ufiome area. 50,000 (1999 R. Kiessling). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiome, Goroa Dialects: Similar to Burunge [bds], Alagwa [wbj], and Iraqw [irk]. May be a dialect of Iraqw. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Gujarati
[guj] Small communities. 250,000 in Tanzania (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Have their own religious institutions and evening schools.

More Information

Gusii
[guz] Mara Region, Serengeti district, Kyambahi ward. 300 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ekegusii, Guzii, Kisii, Kosova Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.42)

More Information

Gweno
[gwe] Kilimanjaro Region, northernmost North Pare hills. 2,200 (2006). Ethnic population: 2,000 or more. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kigweno Dialects: Lexical similarity: 54%–56% with Chaga dialects (most similar), 46% with Dawida [dav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.65)

More Information

Ha
[haq] Kigoma Region. 990,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Giha, Ikiha, Kiha Dialects: Dialects in border area near Burundi reportedly intelligible with Rundi [run] (Polomé 1980). Lexical similarity: 78% with Rundi [run], 77% with Hangaza [han] and Shubi [suj], 72% with Rwanda [kin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (D.66) Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Hadza
[hts] Singida Region, southeast of Lake Eyasi, south and northwest; Manyara Region, Iramba and Mbulu districts; Shinyanga Region, Masawa district. 800 (2000 M. Brenzinger), decreasing. Ethnic population: 800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hadzabi, Hadzapi, Hatsa, Kangeju, Kindiga, “Tindiga” (pej.), Wakindiga Dialects: Bali may be a dialect. Classification: Khoisan, Hatsa Comments: Nomadic. Population dwindling. Pressures from outside resulting in less land, food, and more disease. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Hangaza
[han] Northwest, Kagera Region, Ngara and Biharamulo districts, southwest of Bukoba. 150,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kihangaza Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Shubi [suj], 83% with Rundi [run], 77% with Ha [haq], 72% with Rwanda [kin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (D.65)

More Information

Haya
[hay] Kagera Region, mainly Bukoba Urban and Bukoba Rural districts. 1,300,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekihaya, Kihaya, Luhaya, Ruhaya, Ziba Dialects: Bumbira, Edangabo, Ekiziba, Ganda-Kiaka, Hamba, Hangiro, Kyamutwara, Mwani, Nyakisisa, Yoza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.22) Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Hehe
[heh] Iringa Region, south of Gogo. 805,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kihehe Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Bena [bez] (most similar), 59% with Pangwa [pbr], 56% with Sangu [sbp], 50% with Kinga [zga], 48% with Vwanji [wbi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.62)

More Information

Ikizu
[ikz] Mara Region, Bunda district, Chamriho division; Musoma district, south of Zanaki; southeast of Lake Victoria, east of Jita [jit] language area. 55,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikiikiizu, Ikikizo, Ikikizu, Kiikizu Dialects: Ikizu, Kishashi, Kisizaki, Shashi, Sizaki. Related to Zanaki [zak]. Lexical similarity: 95% with Sizaki dialect, 87% with Zanaki [zak]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.402) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Ikoma-Nata-Isenye
[ntk] Mara Region, Serengeti district, Gurumeti division. 36,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kiikoma Dialects: Ikoma (Kiikoma), Isenye (Isenyi, Issenye, Kiisenye, Kiissenye Ikisenyi), Nata (Kinata, Kinatta, Natta). Lexical similarity: 81% with Zanaki [zak], 73% with Ngoreme [ngq], 68% with Kuria [kuj], 44% with Gusii [guz]. Dialect similarity: Ikoma 85% with Isenye and 89% with Nata; Isenye and Nata share 88%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.45) Comments: Ikoma, Nata and Isenye are 3 different ethnic groups. They consider their 3 speech varieties different, but similar enough to use the same written material. Nata seems more endangered with many children speaking more Swahili [swh] than Nata. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Iraqw
[irk] Manyara Region, Mbulu district, highlands southwest of Arusha in the north. 462,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erokh, Iraku, Kiiraqw, Mbulu, Mbulunge Dialects: Asa. Asa dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Isanzu
[isn] Singida Region, Iramba district. 32,400 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kiisanzu, Kinyihanzu, Kinyisanzu Dialects: Closely related to Nyaturu [rim]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Jita
[jit] Mara Region, Musoma Rural and Bunda districts. 205,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Echijita, Ecijita, Kijita Dialects: Lexical similarity: 78% with Kwaya [kya], 88% with Ruri [kya], 81% with Kara [reg], 62% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.25) Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Kabwa
[cwa] Mara Region, Musoma Rural district, Makongoro division, Bukabwa ward. 14,000 (2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ekikabhwa, Ekikabwa, Kikabwa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Sweta [kuj], 80% with Kiroba (Suba-Simbiti dialects [ssc]), 73% with Kuria [kuj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.405) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kachchi
[kfr] Cities. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cutchi, Kacchi, Kachi, Katchi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

More Information

Kagulu
[kki] Morogoro Region; Dodoma Region, Kilosa district. 241,000 (2006 M. Petzell). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chikagulu, Kaguru, Kigaguru, Kikagulu, Kiningo, Northern Sagara, Solwa Dialects: Mangehele, Tumba. Lexical similarity: 63% with Sagala [sbm], 56% with Gogo [gog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.12) Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Kahe
[hka] Southeast of Moshi. 2,700 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kikahe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.64)

More Information

Kami
[kcu] Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural and Kilosa districts, north and northeast of Morogoro and Dar es Salaam. Farthest village 60 km south. 16,400 (2000), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kikami Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Kutu [kdc] and Kwere [cwe], 65% with Zaramo [zaj], 64% with Doe [doe], 54% with Luguru [ruf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.36) Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kara
[reg] Lake Victoria southeast shore, Ukara and Ukerewe islands, north of Kerewe [ked] language area. A few in Mwanza. 86,000 (1987), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kikara, Kiregi, Regi Dialects: Closely related to Jita [jit] and might be able to use Jita written materials. Lexical similarity: 81% with Jita [jit], 80% with Kwaya [kya]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.252) Comments: ‘Regi’ is a group name. They do not travel much.

More Information

Kerewe
[ked] Lake Victoria area, Ukerewe island. A few on mainland, Kibara town area. 100,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekikerebe, Kerebe, Kikwere Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76% with Zinza [zin], 75% with Haya [hay], 69% with Nyambo [now], 68% with Nyankore [nyn], 63% with Chiga [cgg] and Toro [tdv], 62% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.24)

More Information

Kimbu
[kiv] Mbeya Region, Chunya district, Kipembawe ward; Singida Region, Manyoni district; Tabora Region, Sikonge district. 78,000 (1987), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ikibungu, Kikimbu, Yanzi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Nilamba [nim], 57% with Sukuma [suk], 53% with Nyaturu [rim], 48% with Sumbwa [suw], 47% with Langi [lag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.24) Comments: Seminomadic. Christian.

More Information

Kinga
[zga] Iringa Region, Makete district, Kipengere mountain range. 140,000 (2003). 57,000 in Makete District. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekikinga, Kikinga Dialects: Kinga, Mahanji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.65) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Kisankasa
[kqh] North. 4,670 (1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Dorobo” (pej.), “Ndorobo” (pej.) Dialects: Distinct from others called “Dorobo”: Aramanik [aam], Kisankasa [kqh], Mediak [mwx], and Mosiro [mwy]. See also Aasáx [aas]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi

More Information

Kisi
[kiz] Iringa Region, Ludewa district, Mwambao division, Lupingu and Makonde wards; Lake Nyasa northwest shore, Lifuma, Lupingu, Makonde, and Nindi main villages. 10,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 18,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kese, Kikisi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with Pangwa [pbr], 55% with Kinga [zga], 53% with Sangu [sbp], 52% with Vwanji [wbi], and 47% with Bena [bez]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.67) Comments: Different from Kisii [guz] (Gusii) of Kenya. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Konongo
[kcz] Katavi Region, Mpanda district, south of Nyamwezi [nym] language area, southwest of Ugalla river. 51,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikonongo Dialects: May be a dialect of Nyamwezi [nym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.22) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Kuria
[kuj] Mara Region, Tarime and Musoma Rural districts, near Kenya border. Some in north Serengeti. Also in Kenya. 430,000 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Population total all countries: 690,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egikuria, Igikuria, Ikikuria, Kikuria, Kikuria cha juu, Kikuria cha Mashariki, Kurya, Kurye Dialects: 15–20 clans in Tanzania, each with slightly different dialect. Clans consider themselves to speak the Kuria language rather than the language of their clan. Lexical similarity: 73% with Ngoreme [ngq], 84% with Kiroba (Suba-Simbiti [ssc] dialect). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.43) Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Kutu
[kdc] Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural and Kilosa districts. 45,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khutu, Kikutu Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Kami [kcu], 68% with Zaramo [zaj], 64% with Kwere [cwe], 61% with Doe [doe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.37) Comments: Matrilineal. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Kw’adza
[wka] Manyara Region, Mbulu district. No remaining speakers. C. Ehret reportedly worked with the last speaker (1976 M. Bender). Confirmed by (1999) R. Kiessling. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Qwadza Dialects: Related to Iraqw [irk]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South

More Information

Kwaya
[kya] Mara Region, Musoma Rural district, Nyanja division, and Musoma Urban district. 115,000 (2005 SIL). Ethnic population: 70,000 Kwaya and 45,000 Ruri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikwaya Dialects: Ruri (Ciruri, Eciruri, Eciruuri, Kirori, Kiruri, Kishyola, Luri, Rori). Lexical similarity: 89% with Ruri dialect; 83% with Jita [jit], 80% with Kara [reg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.251) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kwere
[cwe] Pwani Region, Bagamoyo district. Many live among Zaramo [zaj] and Luguru [ruf] language areas. 98,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kakwere, Kikwere, Kinghwele, Kwele, Ngwele, Ng’were, Tsinghwele Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Doe [doe], 69% with Kami [kcu], 64% with Kutu [kdc], 61% with Zaramo [zaj], 62% with Zigula [ziw], 54% with Luguru [ruf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.32) Comments: Kwere has influenced Zigula [ziw] linguistically, and has been influenced by Zigula and Bondei [bou]. Matrilineal. Muslim.

More Information

Lambya
[lai] Mbeya Region, Ileje district, south Ulambya division, on Malawi border. 40,000 in Tanzania (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ichilambya, Icilambya, Ici-Rambia, Iramba, Lambia, Lambwa, Rambia Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.201)

More Information

Langi
[lag] Dodoma Region, Kondoa district; urban groups in Dodoma, Mwanza, Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Tanga, Morogoro, Babati, and Singida. West of Maasai [mas], northeast of Sandawe [sad] language areas. 410,000 (2007 R. Cox), increasing. 38,000 monolinguals. Many ethnic Burunge (Chemba, Goima, and elsewhere) and some Alagwa (Kolo, Mnenya, and elsewhere) who are L1 Langi speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Irangi, Kilaangi, Kilangi, Kirangi, Rangi Dialects: Busi, Haubi, Kolo, Kondoa, Mondo. Similar to Mbugwe [mgz]. Limited comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity: 74% with Mbugwe [mgz], 49% with Nyaturu [rim] and Sukuma [suk], 48% with Nyamwezi [nym], 47% with Kimbu [kiv] and Nilamba [nim], 40% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.33) Comments: Influenced by Cushitic languages. The Swahili pronounce Langi as Rangi. Other language groups (eg. Burunge [bds], Alagwa [wbj]) are being assimilated into Langi language and culture. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Logooli
[rag] Mara Region, Serengeti district, Kyambahi ward. 300 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maragoli Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luyia (E.41)

More Information

Luguru
[ruf] Morogoro Region, Morogoro and Kilosa districts; Pwani Region, Bagamoyo district, Luguru mountains, and Dar es Salaam; central Zanzibar. 692,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guru, Ikiruguru, Kiluguru, Kiruguru, Lughuru, Lugulu, Ruguru Dialects: Lexical similarity: 54% with Kami [kcu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.35) Comments: Matrilineal. Muslim.

More Information

Luo
[luo] Mara Region, Tarime district; Girango, Nyancha, Luo Imbo, and Suba divisions. 140,000 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dholuo, Kavirondo, Kidjaluo Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo Comments: Different from Lwo [laj] (Lango) of Uganda or Lwo [luw] (Luo, Jur Luwo) of Sudan.

More Information

Maasai
[mas] North central, on Kenya border, east of Serengeti National Park. Baraguyu from Indian Ocean nearly to Malawi. 455,000 in Tanzania (2006). 170,000 Arusa, 30,000 Baraguyu (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimaasai, Lumbwa, Maa, Masai Dialects: Arusha (Il-Arusha, L-Arusha), Kisonko, Parakuyo (Baraguyu, Kwavi). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa Comments: Patrilineal. Some men marry women from other language groups. The Baraguyu speak Maasai, but consider themselves a separate ethnic group from the Maasai. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Machame
[jmc] Chaga area. 300,000 (1992 UBS), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kimachame, Kimashami, Machambe Dialects: Bosho, Hai, Masdama, Ng’uni, Siha (Shira). Chaga dialect continuum member which include Rombo [rof], Mochi [old], and Vunjo [vun]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.62) Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Machinga
[mvw] Lindi Region, Kilwa and Lindi districts, along the coast, above 10th parallel south, near Mwera [mjh] and Ngindo [nnq] language areas. 36,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Magoma
[gmx] Iringa Region, Makete district, near Kitulo plateau. 9,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimagoma Dialects: 2 very closely related varieties: 1 in the lower villages and 1 in villages with a higher elevation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) Comments: Magoma is often considered part of Kinga [zga], but Magoma see themselves as separate. They say that they cannot understand Kinga well and low similarity figures on wordlist comparison support this claim. Children do not understand Kinga. Christian.

More Information

Makhuwa-Meetto
[mgh] Extreme south, Mtwara Region, Masasi district. 385,000 in Tanzania (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Imakua, Kimakua, Makhua, Makoa, Makua, Makuwa, Maquoua, Mato Dialects: Medo (Emeto, Meto). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Makonde
[kde] Mtwara Region, primarily Mtwara Urban, Mtwara Rural, Tandahomba, and Newala districts. Also in Mozambique. 980,000 in Tanzania (2006). Population total all countries: 1,340,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimakonde, Chinimakonde, Kimakonde, Konde, Matambe, Matambwe, Mekwengo Dialects: Matambwe, Maviha. Matambwe dialect may be more similar to Yao [yao] than Makonde, and may even be a separate language or dialect of Mwera [mwe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.23) Comments: Makonde are known for wood carving skills. Many wood carvers will say they are Makonde even if they are not. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Malila
[mgq] Mbeya Region, 40 km southwest of Mbeya town. South of Safwa [sbk], north of Ndali [ndh], west of Nyakyusa [nyy], east of Nyiha [nih] language areas. 65,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ishimalilia, Kimalila, Malilia, Shimalilia Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.24) Comments: Little intermarriage. Christian.

More Information

Mambwe-Lungu
[mgr] Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga Rural, Sumbawanga Urban, and far south Nkansi districts, Matanga village south to Zambia border, Lake Tanganyika west to Tunko village east. 295,000 in Tanzania (2002 census). 230,000 ethnic Fipa speak Fipa-Mambwe Dialect. Ethnic population: 65,000 in Tanzania (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Fipa-Mambwe (Kifipa cha Kimambwe), Lungu (Cilungu, Icilungu, Kilungu, Kirungu, Rungu), Mambwe (Ichimambwe, Icimambwe, Kimambwe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (M.14) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Manda
[mgs] Iringa Region, Ludewa district; Ruvuma Region, Mbinga district; east shore of Lake Nyasa. 22,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimanda, Kinyasa, Nyasa Dialects: Matumba. Matumba dialect is a distinct dialect but is completely intelligible with Manda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (N.11) Comments: The Matumba see themselves as a separate group related to the Manda, while the Manda view them as a subgroup of the Manda. Christian.

More Information

Maraba
[ymk] Southeast. 10,000 in Tanzania (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimakwe, Makwe, Palma Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.402) Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Matengo
[mgv] Ruvuma Region, southwest, east of Lake Malawi. Possibly in Malawi. 150,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chimatengo, Kimatengo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.13)

More Information

Matumbi
[mgw] Lindi Region, between Rufiji [rui] and Mwera [mjh] language areas. 72,000 (1978 MARC). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimatumbi, Kimatuumbi Dialects: Kuchi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.13) Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mbugu
[mhd] Tanga Region, Lushoto district, Usambara mountains. 7,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 32,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kibwyo, Kimbugu, Ma’a, Mbougou, Wa Maathi, Wama’a Dialects: Cha kawaida, Cha ndani. Classification: Mixed language, Bantu-Cushitic Comments: A mixed language; Bantu inflectional (prefix and concord) system with Cushitic vocabulary. Derivational morphemes are Bantu and Cushitic (or non-Bantu). The Bantu influence is from Pare and Shambala.

More Information

Mbugwe
[mgz] Manyara Region, Babati district. 24,000 (1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimbugwe, Mbuwe Dialects: Lexical similarity: 52% with Langi [lag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.34) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mbunga
[mgy] South central, southeast of Hehe [heh], north of Pogolo [poy] language areas. 29,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimbunga Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Ndamba [ndj], 57% with Pogolo [poy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.15) Comments: There may be 2 varieties called Mbunga, each classified somewhat differently.

More Information

Mediak
[mwx] 5,270 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Dorobo” (pej.), “Ndorobo” (pej.) Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi Comments: A distinct language from others called “Dorobo”: Aramanik [aam], Kisankasa [kqh], Mosiro [mwy], Aasax [aas].

More Information

Mochi
[old] Northeast corner, Chaga area. 597,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimochi, Kimoshi, Moshi, Mosi, Old Moshi Dialects: Uru. Chaga dialect continuum member which includes Rombo [rof], Machame [jmc], and Vunjo [vun]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.62)

More Information

Mosiro
[mwy] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: “Dorobo” (pej.), “Ndorobo” (pej.) Dialects: A distinct language from others called “Dorobo”: Aramanik [aam], Mediak [mwx], Kisankasa [kqh], and Aasax [aas]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi

More Information

Mpoto
[mpa] Ruvuma Region, Mbinga district, southwest, Lake Nyasa northeast shore. 80,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chimpoto, Kimpoto, Kinyasa, Nyasa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.14) Comments: Both Mpoto and Manda [mgs] have alternate names of Kinyasa. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mwera
[mjh] Southwest, Ruvuma Region, Mbinga district, Mbamba bay, Lake Nyasa shore. 6,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimwera, Kinyasa, Nyanza, Nyasa Dialects: Similar to Mwera [mwe] in the Lindi Region, but not the same. Also reportedly similar to Nyanja (N.30) languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20)

More Information

Mwera
[mwe] Southeast, mostly Lindi Region, Nachingwea, Ruangwa, and Lindi Urban and Rural districts, north of Makonde. 469,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chimwera, Cimwera, Kimwera, Mwela Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.22) Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Ndali
[ndh] Mbeya Region, Ileje district, into Malawi, between Lambya and Nyakyusa. Also in Malawi. 150,000 in Tanzania (1987), increasing. Population total all countries: 220,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chindali, Cindali, Icindali, Ici-Ndali, Kindali, Ndari Dialects: Sukwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.301) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Ndamba
[ndj] South central, Iringa Region, northeast of Bena, southeast of Hehe [heh], west of Pogolo [poy], southwest of Mbunga [mgy] language areas. 55,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kindamba Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Mbunga [mgy], 56% with Pogolo [poy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.52)

More Information

Ndendeule
[dne] Ruvuma Region, inland, east of Ngoni [ngo] language area south of 10th parallel, Yao [yao] south and east, Ngoni [ngo] west, Bena [bez] north, Nindi [nxi] south, Ngindo [nnq] northeast beyond Selous Game Reserve. 100,000 (2000 D. Ngonyani). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kindendeule, Kindendeuli, Ndendeuli Dialects: Most similar to Ngindo [nnq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.101)

More Information

Ndengereko
[ndg] Ruvuma Region, east Songea district, central coast, south of Zaramo [zaj], north of Rufiji [rui] language areas. 110,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kindengereko, Kingengereko, Ndengeleko Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.11)

More Information

Ndonde Hamba
[njd] Lindi Region, Nachingwea district, primarily Kilimarondo division. 10,000 (2002 PBT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chindonde, Chindonde Hamba, Kimawanda, Kindonde Hamba, Mawanda, Ndomde, Ndonde Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.24) Comments: Similar to Mwera [mjh]. Extensive borrowing from Ngindo [nnq]. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Ngasa
[nsg] East Mt. Kilimanjaro slopes. 250 (1983), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,290 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kingasa, Ongamo, Shaka Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Maasai [mas], 59% with Samburu [saq], 58% with the Chamus dialect of Samburu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa

More Information

Ngindo
[nnq] East central, south of Rufiji [rui], west of Mwera [mwe] language areas. 220,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kingindo, Magingo, Njindo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.14)

More Information

Ngoni
[ngo] South central, Ruvuma Region, south of Songea. Also in Mozambique. 170,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 223,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angoni, Chingoni, Kingoni, Kisutu, Sutu Dialects: Different from Ngoni which is an alternate name for Zulu [zul], Ngoni dialect of Nsenga [nse], Ngoni dialect of Tumbuka [tum]. Not related to Ngoni [nya] of Malawi. Lexical similarity: low percentage with Zulu [zul]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.12) Comments: Formerly spoke Zulu [zul]. The Ngoni in Malawi do not speak Ngoni, but all speak Chichewa [nya] as L1.

More Information

Ngoreme
[ngq] Mara Region, Serengeti district, Ngoreme and Ikorongo divisions. 55,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dengurume, Ikingurimi, Kingoreme, Ngruimi, Ngurimi, Nguruimi Dialects: Limited comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity: 73% with Kuria [kuj], 76% with Zanaki [zak], 77% with Ikoma [ntk], 49% with Gusii [guz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.401) Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Ngulu
[ngp] Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural district; Tanga Region, Handeni district; Dodoma Region, Mpwapwa and Kongwa districts. 132,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Geja, Kingulu, Nguru, Nguu, Wayomba Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Zigula [ziw], 73% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Shambala [ksb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.34) Comments: Different from Ngulu [ngl] of Mozambique and Malawi. Matrilineal. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Nilamba
[nim] West Shinyanga Region, north of the Nyaturu [rim] language areas. 455,000 (2006). 50,000 Iambi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikinilamba, Ikiniramba, Ilamba, Iramba, Kinilamba, Kiniramba, Nilyamba, Niramba, Nyilamba Dialects: Iambi. Lexical similarity: 56% with Nyamwezi [nym], 55% with Sukuma [suk], 45% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.31)

More Information

Nindi
[nxi] South, Ruvuma Region, East Songea district, near Mozambique border, south of Ndendeule [dne] language area. 100. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kinindi Dialects: Similar to Ndendeule [dne]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (N.102) Comments: Virtually unknown outside the district.

More Information

Nyakyusa-Ngonde
[nyy] South Mbeya Region, Lake Malawi north end; Iringa Region, Makete district. Also in Malawi. 805,000 in Tanzania (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,105,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikingonde, Ikinyakyusa, Ikinyikyusa, Kinyakyusa, Kinyakyusa-Ngonde, Konde, Kukwe, Mombe, Ngonde, Nkonde, Nyakusa, Nyekyosa, Nyikyusa, Sochile, Sokile, Sokili Dialects: Kukwe, Mwamba (Lungulu), Ngonde, Nyakyusa, Selya (Salya, Seria), Sukwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa (M.31) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Nyambo
[now] Kagera Region, Karagwe district, northwest corner, Uganda border, west of Lake Victoria. 400,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekinyambo, Karagwe, Kinyambo, Ragwe, Rukaragwe, Runyambo, Ururagwe Dialects: Yakahanga. Lexical similarity: 84% with Haya [hay], 81% with Zinza [zin], 75% with Kerewe [cwe], 78% with Nyankore [nyn], 72% with Chiga [cgg], 68% with Toro [tdv], 67% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.21)

More Information

Nyamwanga
[mwn] Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga district southeast corner; Mbeya Region, Mbozi district southwest corner, Zambia border south of Fipa [fip] language area; Southwest of Lake Rukwa; Saisi valley northwest to forested plateau southeast. 87,000 in Tanzania (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinamwanga, Chinyamwanga, Kinamwanga, Kinyamwanga, Mwanga, Namwanga Dialects: Iwa, Tambo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.22) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Nyamwezi
[nym] Northwest central, Tabora Region, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa; Rukwa, Singida, and Shinyanga regions. 980,000 (2006). 73% are in the traditional area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinyamwesi, Kinyamwezi, Namwezi, Nyamwesi Dialects: Mweri (Kiya, Konongo, Sumbwa), Nyanyembe, Takama (Garaganza). Lexical similarity: 84% with Sukuma [suk], 61% with Sumbwa [suw], 56% with Nilamba [nim]. Dialect Continuum with Sukuma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.22) Comments: Smaller groups (Konongo, Galla, Sumbwa) were part of Unyamwezi Kingdom and are still often considered part of the Nyamwezi people group by the Nyamwezi. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Nyaturu
[rim] Singida Region, Iramba and Singida Rural districts, north central, south of Singida, west of Wembere river. 595,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keremi, Kinyaturu, Kiremi, Kirimi, Limi, Remi, Rimi, Turu Dialects: Chahi, Ginyamunyinganyi, Girwana (Rimi). Lexical similarity: 63% with Nilamba [nim], 59% with Sukuma [suk], 58% with Nyamwezi [nym], 53% with Kimbu [kiv], 44% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.32) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Nyiha, Tanzania
[nih] Mbeya Region, Mbozi district, Lake Rukwa south and west. Also in Zambia (Nyiha). 306,000 in Tanzania (1987), increasing. Population total all countries: 662,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ishinyiha, Isinyixa, Kinyiha, Nyika, Nyixa, Shinyiha Dialects: Mbozi, Sumbawanga. Similar to Lambya [lai] and Malila [mgq]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Nyika, Tanzania [nkt]; 74% with Malila [mgq]; 71% with Safwa [sbk] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.23) Comments: Different from Nyika [nyf] (Kigiryama) of Kenya. Christian.

More Information

Nyika, Tanzania
[nkt] Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga Rural District, mainly Sandulula Ward; Mollo Ward. 25,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinyiha, Kinyika Dialects: Similar to Nyiha [nih], Malawi Nyiha [nyr], and Malila [mgq]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Nyiha,Tanzania [nih]; 74% with Malila [mgq], 71% with Safwa [sbk] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.23)

More Information

Okiek
[oki] North, south Arusha Region. Small groups south of Arusha among Maasai [mas] language speakers. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Akiek Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Okiek Comments: Speakers in Tanzania and Kenya are not in touch with each other.

More Information

Pangwa
[pbr] Iringa Region, Ludewa district; Livingstone mountains, Lake Nyasa east shore. 95,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekipangwa, Kipangwa Dialects: Kimwela. Kimwela has a distinctly different accent and the people consider themselves a separate ethnic group, but it is completely intelligible with Pangwa; intelligibility with Bena [bez] not demonstrated in preliminary tests. Lexical similarity: 71% with Bena [bez], 62% with Kisi [kiz], 61% with Kinga [zga], 59% with Hehe [heh], 58% with Sangu [sbp], 55% with Vwanji [wbi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.64) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Pimbwe
[piw] Rukwa Region, Mpanda district; Rift valley to northwest of Lake Rukwa. 29,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cipimbwe, Ichipimbwe, Kipimbwe Dialects: Similar to Rungwa [rnw]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Rungwa [rnw], 67% with Fipa [fip], 63% with Wungu [wun] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (M.11) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Pogolo
[poy] South central, Iringa and Morogoro regions, south of Mbunga [mgy], east of Ndamba [ndj] language areas. 185,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chipogolo, Chipogoro, Pogolu, Pogora, Pogoro, Shpogolu Dialects: Lexical similarity: 57% with Mbunga [mgy], 56% with Ndamba [ndj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.51)

More Information

Rombo
[rof] East, Chaga area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kirombo Dialects: Keni, Mashati, Mkuu, Usseri. Chaga dialect continuum member which includes Mochi [old], Machame [jmc], and Vunjo [vun]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.62)

More Information

Rufiji
[rui] Pwani Region, Rufiji district, central coast, south of Ndengereko [ndg], north of Matumbi [mgw] language areas. 200,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiji, Kiruihi, Ruihi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.12) Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Rungwa
[rnw] Rukwa Region, Mpanda district, north Lake Rukwa plains. 18,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ichirungwa, Icilungwa, Kirungwa, Lungwa, Runga Dialects: Similar to Pimbwe [piw]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Pimbwe [piw]; 69% with Fipa [fip], 63% with Wungu [wun] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (M.12) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Rwa
[rwk] Arusha Region, Mount Meru area. 90,000 (1987). 50,000 Kihai. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kirwa, Kirwo, Rwo Dialects: Kihai (Meru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.61) Comments: Distinct from Kimîîru [mer] of Kenya.

More Information

Safwa
[sbk] Mbeya Region, Mbeya Urban, Mbeya Rural, Chunya, and Mbozi districts, Mbeya and Poroto mountain ranges. 158,000 (1987), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cisafwa, Ishisafwa, Kisafwa, Shisafwa Dialects: Central Safwa, Guruka (Shisafwa), Mbwila (Ulenje), Poroto, Songwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.25) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Sagala
[sbm] Morogoro Region, Kilosa and Ulanga districts; Dodoma Region, Mpwapwa district; Iringa Region. 79,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kisagala, Kisagara, Sagara, Southern Kisagala Dialects: Itumba, Kondoa (Solwe), Kweny, Nkwifiya (Kwifa, Kwiva). Lexical similarity: 63% with Kagulu [kki], 60% with Gogo [gog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.39) Comments: Different from Sagalla [tga] which is in Taita group of Kenya. Matrilineal. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Sandawe
[sad] Dodoma Region, Kondoa district, between Bubu and Mponde rivers. 40,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisandawe, Sandaui, Sandaweeki, Sandawi, Sandwe Dialects: Eastern Sandawe, Western Sandawe. Classification: Khoisan, Sandawe Comments: Intermarried with the Gogo, Turu, and Maasai. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Sangu
[sbp] Mbeya Region, Mbarale district, Usangu plains. 75,000 (1987), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eshisango, Kisangu, Lori, Rori, Sangi, Sango, Shisango Dialects: Central Sangu, Eastern Sangu (Mahango), Northern Sangu, South-Central Sangu (Kapunga), Western Sangu (Kilambo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.61) Comments: Different from Sango [sag] of Central African Republic, from Sanga [sng] of Democratic Republic of the Congo, and from Sangu [snq] of Gabon. Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Segeju
[seg] Tanga Region, Muheza district, narrow strip of northeast coast between Tanga and Kenya border. 7,000, decreasing. Ethnic population: Less than 15,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kisegeju, Sageju, Sengeju Dialects: Closely related to Digo [dig]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika (E.56) Comments: People were historically one with the Dhaiso. The Dhaiso language is also called Kisegeju in Swahili. Muslim.

More Information

Shambala
[ksb] Tanga Region, Lushoto district, Usambara mountains. 664,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisambaa, Kishambaa, Kishambala, Sambaa, Sambala, Sambara, Schambala, Shambaa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Ngulu [ngp] and Zigula [ziw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.23) Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Shubi
[suj] Kagera Region, northwest of Sumbwa, near Lake Victoria. 153,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kishubi, Sinja, Subi, Urushubi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Hangaza [han], 77% with Rundi [run] and Ha [haq], 71% with Rwanda [kin], 49% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (D.64) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Suba-Simbiti
[ssc] Mara Region, Tarime district, Nyamagaro, Nyamtinga, Nyahongo, Kisumwa, Komuge, Nyamunga, and Kyang’ombe wards; Musoma Rural district, Nyankanga ward; Musoma Urban district, Bweri ward. 113,000 (2011). Spoken by 6 ethnic groups in Tarime District: Hacha (4,200), Kine (14,500), Surwa (4,200), Sweta (12,800) and Simbiti (33,000), and Kiroba (30,000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisimbiti, Kisuba, Simbiti Dialects: Hacha (Haacha, Kihacha), Iryege (Iregi, Kiiryege), Kine (Kiine, Kikine), Kiroba, Kironi (Kikirone), Rieri (Rieri, Ryeri), Surwa (Kisurwa), Sweta (Kisweta). Lexical similarity: Simbiti dialect 84% with Kuria [kuj], 40% with Suba of Kenya [sxb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.43) Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Subi
[xsj] Kagera Region, Biharamulo district. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kisubi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) Comments: Widely spread in multiethnic communities, but retain the language.

More Information

Sukuma
[suk] Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa, Shinyanga to Serengeti plain, Kiya; Mwanza, Gwe. Few in cities; 88% in the traditional area. 5,430,000 (2006), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kisukuma Dialects: Gwe (Kigwe), Kiya. Dialects contiguous with Nyamwezi and mutually intelligible along the border of the two people groups. Lexical similarity: 84% with Nyamwezi [nym], 59% with Sumbwa [suw] and Nyaturu [rim], 57% with Kimbu [kiv], 55% with Nilamba [nim], 49% with Langi [lag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.21) Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Sumbwa
[suw] Shinyanga Region, Bukombe district. 191,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisumbwa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Nyamwezi [nym], 59% with Sukuma [suk], 45% with Nilamba [nim]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.23) Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Swahili
[swa] Population total all countries: 15,458,390. Comments: Member languages are: Congo Swahili [swc] (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Swahili [swh]

More Information

Swahili
[swh] Formerly Zanzibar, coastal areas. Now widespread. Also in Burundi, Canada, Kenya (Kiswahili), Libya, Mozambique, Oman, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United States. 15,000,000 in Tanzania (2012), increasing. Population total all countries: 15,457,390. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Kisuaheli, Kiswahili Dialects: Mgao, Mrima, Pemba, Unguja (Kiunguja, Zanzibar). Lexical similarity: Bajun dialect 85% with the Amu dialect, 78% with the Mvita dialect, 72% with the Mrima dialect; Mvita dialect 86% with Amu, 79% with Mrima; Mrima dialect 79% with Amu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42) Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Tanzanian Sign Language
[tza] Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugha Ya Alama Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Historically, schools for the deaf used different sign languages. More recently, Tanzanian sign language was standardized by the Tanzania Association for the Deaf (CHAVITA) which is attempting to use it in most schools for the deaf. Primary schools for deaf children since 1963. About 5% of deaf children attend school. Committee on national sign language. Little research.

More Information

Temi
[soz] Arusha Region, Ngorongoro District, north central near Kenya border, Maasai area. 7 villages: Sale, Mdito, Samunga, Digodigo, Kisangiro, Mugholo, Oldonyo Sambu. 30,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: GiTemi, Kisonjo, Kitemi, Sonjo, Wasonjo, Watemi Dialects: Reportedly shows similarities to Gikuyu [kik] of Kenya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.46) Comments: Ethnic autonym: Batem. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tongwe
[tny] Kigoma Region, Kigoma district; Kigoma and Rukwa regions east; Lake Tanganyika west shore; small groups (20%–30% of the population) in Uvinza and Nguruka villages. 13,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 31,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitongwe, Sitongwe Dialects: Tongwe and Bende [bdp] are probably dialects of 1 language. Lexical similarity: 83%–91% with Bende [bdp] (with different varieties). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.11) Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Vidunda
[vid] East central, south of Mikumi town, Kidodi mountains west, west of Kutu Morogoro Region, east of Hehe [heh] language area. 32,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chividunda, Kividunda, Ndunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.38) Comments: Matrilineal. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Vinza
[vin] Kigoma Region, Kigoma Rural district, Uvinza town area west. West of Nyamwezi [nym], north of Tongwe [tny] language areas. 10,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kivinza Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (D.67)

More Information

Vunjo
[vun] Kilimanjaro Region, Chaga area. 300,000 (1992 UBS), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kivunjo, Kiwunjo, Wunjo Dialects: Lema (Kilema), Mamba, Marangu, Mwika. Chaga dialect continuum member which includes Rombo [rof], Mochi [old], and Machame [jmc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.62)

More Information

Vwanji
[wbi] Iringa Region, Makete district, Kipengere mountain range. West of Bena [bez], south of Sangu [sbp], north of Kinga [zga] language areas. 28,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kivwanji, Kiwanji, Wanji Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.66) Comments: Christian.

More Information

Wanda
[wbh] Mbeya Region, Mbozi district; Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga Rural district. 24,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ichiwanda, Iciwanda, Kiwanda, Vanda, Wandia Dialects: Sichela. Lexical similarity: 68% with Nyamwanga [mwn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.21) Comments: Sichela is a small group associated with the Wanda. Dialect status untested. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Yao
[yao] South central, Mtwara Region, Masasi district; Ruvuma Region, Tunduru district, east of Lake Malawi, Mozambique border area. Possibly in Zimbabwe. 420,000 in Tanzania (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Djao, Hajao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Kiyao, Veiao, Wajao Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21) Comments: Swahili-based orthography different from Malawi and Mozambique. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Zanaki
[zak] Mara Region, Musoma Rural district, Makongoro division. 100,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekizanaki, Ikizanaki, Kizanaki Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% with Ikizu [ikz], 74% with Ikoma [ntk], 76% with Ngoreme [ngq], 66% with Kuria [kuj], 50% with Gusii [guz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.44) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Zaramo
[zaj] East central coast, Pwani Region, Kisarawe and Bagamoyo districts, between Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam. Few speakers (Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer 1991). Ethnic population: 657,000 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dzalamo, Kizaramo, Myagatwa, Saramo, Zalamo, Zaramu Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Kutu [kdc], 65% with Kami [kcu], 61% with Kwere [cwe] and Doe [doe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.33) Comments: Matrilineal. Endangered in the city but passed on to children in villages surrounding Dar es Salaam. Muslim.

More Information

Zigula
[ziw] Pwani Region, Bagamoyo district; Tanga Region northeast, Maasai steppe. 355,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kizigula, Seguha, Wayombo, Wazegua, Zeguha, Zegura, Zigoua, Zigua, Zigwa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with Ngulu [ngp], 75% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Shambala [ksb], 70% with Doe [doe], 62% with Kwere [cwe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.31) Comments: Influenced linguistically by Doe [doe] and Kwere [cwe], and has influenced them. May be the same as Mushungulu [xma] in Somalia. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Zinza
[zin] Lake Victoria southwest shore; area islands. 138,000 (1987), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dzinda, Dzindza, Echidzindza, Echijinja, Ecizinza, Jinja, Kizinza, Omuchizinza, Zinja Dialects: Kula, Longo. Lexical similarity: 81% with Nyambo [now] and Nyankore [nyn], 78% with Haya [hay], 76% with Kerewe [ked], 75% with Chiga [cgg], 67% with Nyoro [nyo] and Toro [tdv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.23) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information