Uganda

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Acholi
[ach] North; Kitgum, Amuru, Pader, Gulu, Abim, Oyam, Kotido, Kaabong, and Lira districts. 1,170,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Population total all countries: 1,197,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Lëbacoli, Log Acoli, Lwo, Lwoo, Shuli Dialects: Dhopaluo (Chope, Chopi), Nyakwai. Reported intelligibility with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh], but percentages unknown. Lexical similarity: with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Adhola
[adh] East, near Lake Victoria, mainly in Tororo District; also in Butaleja, Busia, and Bugiri districts. 360,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhopadhola, Ludama Dialects: None known. Most distinct of Western Nilotic languages in Uganda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Adhola Comments: Ethnic autonym: Jopadhola; their Bantu neighbors call them Badama and their language Ludama.

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Alur
[alz] North West districts of Nebbi, Zombo, Arua, Nyadri, and Yumbe north of Lake Albert. 617,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. 86,700 ethnically identified as Jonam (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, Jo Alur, Lur, Luri Dialects: Jokot, Jonam, Mambisa, Wanyoro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Amba
[rwm] Ruwenzori mountains, Bundibugyo District, Democratic Republic of the Congo border area south of Lake Albert, Beni District, Watalinga and Bawisa subcounties. 35,600 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Population total all countries: 40,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bulebule, Hamba, Humu, Kihumu, Kuamba, Ku-Amba, Lubulebule, Lwamba, Ruwenzori Kibira, Rwamba Dialects: Kyanzi (Kihyanzi), Suwa (Kusuwa). Lexical similarity: 70% with Bera [brf], 57%–59% with Kaiku [kkq], Komo [kmw], and Bhele [bhy], 25% with Nande [nnb], 34% with Talinga-Bwisi [tlj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.22) Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kwamba. Glossonym: KiHumu in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Aringa
[luc] Northwest, Yumbe District, north of Lugbara, west of Ma’di. 300,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Low Lugbara Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Lugbara [lgg]. Lexical similarity: with Lugbara [lgg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central Comments: Aringa speakers consider theirs a separate language, related to Lugbara [lgg] and Ma’di [mhi]. Muslim, Christian.

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Bari
[bfa] North West Nile, Koboko-Yumbe district border. 60,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 34,700 speak the Kuku dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri Dialects: Kuku, Mondari (Mandari, Mundari), Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Fajulu, Pajulu). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari

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Chiga
[cgg] West central Kibale District; extreme southwest, Kabale, Rukungiri, Kanungu, north Kisoro, and Ntungamo districts. 1,580,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ciga, Kiga, Nkore-Kiga, Oluchiga, Orukiga, Rukiga, Runyankore-Rukiga Dialects: RuHimba, RuNyaifwe-Hororo, RuNyangyezi, RuSigi. 72% intelligible with Nyankore [nyn]. Lexical similarity: 84%–94% with Nyankore [nyn], 77% with Nyoro [nyo], 75% with Zinza [zin], 72% with Nyambo [now], 70% with Haya [hay], 68% with Tooro [ttj], 63% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.14) Comments: Standardized form of the western varieties (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara. It is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Ethnic groups: Bachiga, Bahororo. Christian.

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English
[eng] Widespread. L2 users: 2,500,000 in Uganda (Crystal 2003). Most learn a local language before English [eng]. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Amendment Act, Article 6(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Fumbira
[kin] Southwest border with Rwanda, Kisoro (mainly), some in Kabale, and Ntungamo districts. 449,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ruanda, Rufumbira, Runyarwanda, Rwanda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.61) Comments: Akin to Kinyarwanda [kin] in Rwanda, which probably no longer exists in Uganda, or if so, is known as Fumbira.

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Ganda
[lug] Southeast, primarily Buganda province, Lake Victoria northwest shore to Lake Kyoga and Tanzania border. 4,130,000 (2002 census), increasing. L2 users: 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Most widely spoken L2 in Uganda besides English [eng]. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Luganda Dialects: Diopa (Ludiopa), Kooki (Olukooki), Sese (Olusese), Vuma (Luvuma). Lexical similarity: 71%–86% with Soga [xog], 68% with Gwere [gwr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.15) Comments: Vuma dialect is moribund. Christian, Muslim.

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Gungu
[rub] West, in Bulisa District, Lake Albert northeast shore; down the Rift valley and hills above. 49,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugungu, Rugungu Dialects: None known. Reported 58% or lower inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Nyoro [nyo] is most similar. Lexical similarity: 75% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.101) Comments: Christian.

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Gwere
[gwr] East, Pallisa and Budaka districts; some in Bukedea and Mbale districts. 409,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugwere, Olugwere Dialects: None known. Lamogi (Lamoogi, Lulamogi, Lulamoogi). Lexical similarity: 68% with Ganda [lug], 82% with Lamooji [xog], 79% with Lusiginyi [xog], 77% with Kenye [lke], 64% with Lutenga [xog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.17) Comments: Christian.

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Ik
[ikx] Northeast, Kaabong District, Dodoth county, Kamion subcounty. 7,500 (2011 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Icetod, Icietot, Ng’ateus, Ng’ateuso, Ngulak, Teus, Teuso, Teuth Dialects: None known. Very different from other Eastern Sudanic languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ik Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic), Christian (Protestant), traditional religion.

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Kakwa
[keo] Northwest Nile corner, Koboko and western Yumbe districts. 130,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 190,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kwakwak Dialects: Dialects of Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda differ little (Nida 1972). Very different from other Eastern Nilotic languages of Uganda. Lexical similarity: close with Bari [bfa]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kenye
[lke] Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga basin, Buyende, Kaliro, Pallisa, Serere, and Mayuge districts; pockets in Kamuli, Kaberamaido, Kayunga, Bugiri, and Busia districts. 62,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenyi, Lukenhe, Lukenye, Lukenyi Dialects: Lukenye-Ludebede, Lukenye-Lukooli. Kenye, Lamogi [xog], Siginyi [xog], and Gwere [gwr] are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 81% with Soga [xog], 71%–86% with Ganda [lug], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [lsm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.16) Comments: Politically distinct from Ganda [lug]. Some Kenye people claim to be a displaced people of Ganda origin.

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Konzo
[koo] Southwest, Ruwenzori mountains, Kasese, Kabarole and Bundibugyo districts; Olhughendera dialect in Bundibugyo District. 609,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Konjo, Lhukonzo, Olukonjo, Olukonzo, Rukonjo Dialects: Lusongora, Olhughendera, Rukonzo (Rukonjo), Sanza (Ekisanza). Nande [nnb] (Kinande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Konzo [koo] (Lukonzo) in Uganda are 2 varieties of the same language. Nande [nnb] is influenced by French [fra] and Swahili [swh]; Konzo [koo] by Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo-Ndandi (D.41) Comments: Konzo (Bakonzo) in Uganda and Nande (Banande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo both feel very much 1 people, ethnic autonym: Bayira. They believe they originated from the Rwenzori Mountains–the mountains belong to them and they to the mountains. This plays a very important role in their traditions and identity. Lusongora is most important dialect. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kumam
[kdi] Lake Kwania area, Kaberamaido, Amuria, and Soroti districts; small areas in Kamuli, Amolatar, Lira, and Dokolo districts. 174,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akokolemu, Akum, Ikokolemu, Ikumama, Kuman, Kumum Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible of Acholi [ach] and Lango [laj]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Acholi [ach], 81% with Lango [laj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Kuman Comments: Ladefoged, Glick and Criper (1972) and Bender (1988 M. Bender) classify Kumam as Southern Luo; some linguists classify it in the Dinka group. Kumam oral tradition gives a Teso descent. Christian.

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Kupsapiiny
[kpz] East at Kenya border, Kapchorwa and Bukwa districts; some in Nakapiripirit District. 181,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuksabin, Kupsabiny, Sabiny, Sapei, Sebei Dialects: Kongasis, Kween (Sor), Mbai. Mutually intelligible with Sabaot [spy]. Lexically similarity: with Saboat [spy] in Kenya. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lango
[laj] North central, extensive area north of Lake Kyoga; Apac, Lira, Oyam, Amolatar, Dokolo, Alebtong, Otuke, Abim, Moroto, Kotido, Kamuli, and Kayunga districts. 1,490,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Apac, 6 other districts north of Lake Kyogo. Alternate Names: Langi, Leb-Lango, Lwo, Lwoo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: distinct from Acholi [ach] (Lwo), Lango [lno] of Sudan (related to Lotuko), or Lango [did] (Didinga) of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi Comments: Christian.

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Lugbara
[lgg] West Nile, Maracha, Arua, Yumbe and Koboko districts. 797,000 in Uganda (2004), increasing. 90,800 in Vurra, 171,000 in Ayivu, 146,000 in Maracha, 158,000 in Terego, 95,500 in Madi Okollo, 42,400 in Arua Municipality, 93,800 in Koboko. Population total all countries: 1,637,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: High Lugbara, Lubarati Dialects: Arua (Standard Lugbara), Maracha, Terego (Omugo). Lexical similarity: 93% with Maracha and Terego dialects, 87% with Arua and Terego dialects, 80% with Arua dialect and Ogoko Southern Madi [snm], 76% with Arua dialect and Okollo Southern Madi [snm] (1992 SIL). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ma’di
[mhi] West and East Nile regions, near Nimule, north Sudan border, Adjumani, Moyo, and Yumbe districts; some in Amuru District. 296,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Numbers probably include Southern Madi speakers. Population total all countries: 314,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’di Ti Dialects: Adjumani (Oyuwi), Moyo. Lexical similarity: 89% with Moyo and Oyuwi Ma’di dialects, 85% with Oyuwi and Ogoko Southern Ma’di [snm], 80% with Moyo and Ogoko Southern Ma’di, 78% with Moyo and Aringa [luc], 76% with Oyuwi and Aringa, 64% between Moyo and Okolli Southern Ma’di, and 59% between Oyuwi and Okollo Southern Ma’di (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ma’di, Southern
[snm] West Nile river bank, Arua District, Madi-Okollo county, extending into Yumbe, Maracha, and Nebbi districts. 60,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Ma’di Dialects: Ogoko, Okollo, Rigbo. Reportedly more similar to Lugbara [lgg] than to Ma’di (Moyo) [mhi], which they do not understand. Ogoko and Rigbo dialects are more similar to Lugbara [lgg] than Okollo; intelligibility testing needed. Okollo considered most pure. Southern Ma’di dialects in Rigbo, Ogoko, and Okollo areas, should be considered Lugbara dialects (SIL 1992 Moru-Ma’di Survey Report). Lexical similarity: 85% between Ogoko dialect and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi], 83% between Okollo and Ogoko, 80% between Ogoko and Arua Lugbara, 80% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 78% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 76% between Okollo dialect and Arua Lugbara [lgg], 64% between Okollo and Moyo Ma’di, 59% between Okollo and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi] (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Masaaba
[myx] East, Sironko, Manafwa, Mbale, Bududa, Bukedea, and Kapchorwa districts, Mount Elgon area. 1,120,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gisu, Kisu, Lugisu, Lumasaaba, Masaba Dialects: Lubuuya (Buuya, Buya), Ludadiri (Dadiri), Lufumbo, Luteza, Luwalasi, Luyobo. Intelligibility of Dadiri and Buuya 83%. Central and Southern varieties of Buuya 93%. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saamia [lsm], 52% with Isukha [ida], 50% with Logooli [rag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.31) Comments: Ludadiri is the main Northern variety; Lubuuya is the main Central or Southern variety. Christian.

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Ndo
[ndp] Northwest, Arua and Nebbi districts, Mahagi is center. 33,800 in Uganda (2002 census). Population total all countries: 133,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebu, Ndu, Oke’bu Dialects: Avari (Avere, Aviritu), Membi, Oke’bu (Kebu, Kebutu, Ndo Oke’bu). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe

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Ndrulo
[led] Nebbi and Zombo districts, northwest of Lake Albert. 11,100 in Uganda (2002 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Lendu” (pej.) Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu Comments: Lendu speakers in Uganda call themselves Ndrukpa, and their language Ndrulo, which is quite dissimilar to other Lendu dialects. Christian.

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Ng’akarimojong
[kdj] East and northeast, Moroto, Napak, Kaabong, Nakapiripirit, Kotido, Kitgum, Abim, Kapchorwa, and Sironko districts. 736,000 (2002 census), increasing. 260,000 Karamojong, 147,000 Jie and 329,000 Dodoth. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karamojong, Karimonjong, Ng’akaramojong Dialects: Bokora, Dodoth (Dodoth), Jie (Jiye), Matheniko, Napore, Pian. Dialects correspond with sub-tribes of Karimojong and have very high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% between dialects, 85% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana Comments: The people are pastoralist and seminomadic but much less so recently due to disarmament and forced settlement. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nubi
[kcn] Mostly larger population areas, eg., Bombo, Arua, Koboko, Yumbe, and Kumi. 26,100 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 41,730. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinubi, Ki-Nubi Dialects: None known. Conflicting reports of intelligibility with Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga]. 90% of the lexicon comes from Arabic. Classification: Creole, Arabic based Comments: Came from Sudan and originally settled near Bombo town, but now have dispersed. Muslim.

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Nyang’i
[nyp] East, Kaabong District, Dodoth county, Karenga subcounty along Nyang’ia mountains west side. 20 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gyangiya, Ngangea, Ngapore, Ngiangeya, Niporen, Nipori, Nuangeya, Nyangeya, Nyang’ia, Nyangiya, Nyuangia, Upale Dialects: None known. A separate language from Ik [ikx]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ngangea-So Comments: Some effort at language documentation. Traditional religion.

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Nyankore
[nyn] Southwest, mostly Kiruhura, Bushenyi, Ishaka municipality, Rubirizi, Isingiro, Mbarara, Ntungamo, and Ibanda districts; also in Kasese, Kamwenge, and Kabale districts. 2,330,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Bushenyi, Mbarara, Ntungamo districts. Alternate Names: Nkole, Nyankole, Olunyankole, Runyankole, Ulunyankole, Ulunyankore Dialects: Hima, Hororo. Hima dialect may be a separate language similar to Tuku [ttj] and Hema [nix] in Democratic Republic of Congo. Lexical similarity: 78%–96% between Nyankore, Nyoro [nyo], and their dialects; 84%–94% with Chiga [cgg], 75%–86% with Tooro (Nyoro) [nyo], 81% with Zinza [zin], 78% with Nyambo [now], 74% with Haya [hay], 68% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.13) Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Ethnic groups: Bahima, Bairu. Christian.

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Nyole
[nuj] Southeast, Butaleja, Budaka, Mbale, Tororo, Bugiri, Namutumba, and Pallisa districts. 341,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lunyole, Nyule, Nyuli Dialects: Hadyo (Luhadyo), Menya (Lumenya), Sabi (Lusabi), Wesa (Luwesa). Lexical similarity: 70%–80% with Saamia [lsm], 82% with the Lugwe dialect of Saamia, 67% with Ganda [lug], 61% with Nyore [nyd] of Kenya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.35)

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Nyoro
[nyo] West, mainly Masindi, Kiryandongo, Kibale, Hoima, and Bulisa districts; also in Kiboga, Kyankwanzi, and Kyenjojo districts east of Lake Albert. 667,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kyopi, Orunyoro, Runyoro Dialects: Orunyoro (Nyoro), Rutagwenda. 73% inherent intelligibility with Gungu [rub]. Hema-Sud [nyo] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is quite different. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Tooro [ttj], 77% with Nyankore [nyn] and Chiga [cgg], 67% with Nyambo [now] and Zinza [zin], 66% with Haya [hay], 62% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.11) Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara. It is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Pökoot
[pko] East central, Nakapiripirit District. 70,400 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pakot, Pokot, Suk Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Pokot Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ruuli
[ruc] Central, west of Lake Kyoga area, Nakasongola (mainly), Kayunga, and Masindi districts; some in Amolatar and Luwero districts. 160,000 (2002 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 161,000 (2002 census). 140,000 Baruli, 21,000 Banyara. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Luduuli, Ruli, Ruluuli, Ruluuli-Runyala, Rurulim Dialects: Runyala. Nakasongola (east) influenced by Ganda [lug], in Kiryandongo (west) by Nyoro [nyo]; Nyala dialect influenced by Soga (xog). Lexical similarity: 71% with Nyoro [nyo], 70% between Eastern Ruli and Ganda [lug]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.103) Comments: Christian.

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Saamia
[lsm] East, near Kenya border, Busia and Bugiri districts; Lake Victoria is southern boundary. 355,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 280,000 Basaamia and 75,300 Bagwe (2002 census). Population total all countries: 480,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagwe, Bassamia Dialects: Gwe (Lugwe), Saamia (Samia), Songa. Lexical similarity: 88% with Oluwanga [lwg], 80% with Olunyole [nyd], 62% with Masaba [myx] (Uganda), 59%–61% with Ganda [lug] (Uganda), 52% with Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi [ida], 51% with Gwere [gwr] (Uganda). A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.34) Comments: Part of Luyia macrolanguage. Christian, traditional religion.

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Soga
[xog] East central, between lakes Victoria and Kyoga: Jinja, Kamuli, Luuka, Iganga, Buyende, Bugiri Mayuge, and Namayingo districts; Lulamogi dialect: Kaliro District; Lusiginyi and Lukono dialects: Namutumba District. 2,060,000 (2002 census), increasing. 185,000 Lulamogi, 169,000 Lusiki (Busoga Cultural Research Centre). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Iganga, 4 other districts. Alternate Names: Lusoga, Olusoga Dialects: Diope (Ludiope), Gabula (Lugabula), Gweri (Lugweri), Kigulu (Lukigulu), Lamogi (Lamoogi, Lulamogi, Lulamoogi), Lukono, Luuka, Nholo (Lunholo), Siki (Lusiginyi, Lusiki, Siginyi), Tembé (Lutembe), Tenga (Lutenga). Lamogi (Lamoogi)and Siki (Siginyi) dialects are mutually intelligible of Gwere [gwr] and Kenye [lke]. Lexical similarity: Lutenga dialect; 82%–86% with Ganda [lug], 77%– 81% with Kenye [lke], 69%–78% with Lulamoogi [xog], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [luy]. Lulamoogi dialect; 89%–92% with Lusiginyi; 83%–88% with Kenye [lke], and 81%–82% with Gwere [gwr]. Lusiginyi dialect; 83%–84% with Kenye [lke], and 79%–82% with Gwere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.16) Comments: Welmers (1973) and Ladefoged (1971) list Soga [xog], Gwere [gwr], and Kenyi (Kenye) [lke] separately. Kenye and Gwere may be dialects of Soga, Gwere being the most geographically distant. Only Tenga, the major and widely held standard dialect, has development in progress. Lamoogi and Siginyi dialects are largely undescribed and still unwritten. Speakers of Lamoogi and Siginyi consider themselves different ethnic groups, though loosely part of the wider Soga Kingdom. These varieties are all very similar and largely intelligible.

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Soo
[teu] East, 3 separate areas, Moroto and Nakapiripirit districts; Moroto, Napak, and Kadam mountains border. 50 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: So, Tepes, Tepeth Dialects: Kadam, Moroto, Napak (Mount Napak). Moroto and Napak dialects are reportedly more similar; Kadam is different. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Kuliak, Ngangea-So

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Swahili
[swh] 2,330 in Uganda (2000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Constitution Amendment Act, Article 6(2)). Alternate Names: Kisuaheli, Kiswahili Dialects: Shamba (Kishamba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42) Comments: Muslim.

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Talinga-Bwisi
[tlj] Democratic Republic of the Congo border, Bundibugyo District, Bwamba county, southwest of Fort Portal, between Albert and Edward lakes. 68,500 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 99,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwissi, Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Lubwissi, Mawissi, Olubwisi Dialects: None known. 68% inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Tooro [ttj], 72% with Nyoro [nyo], 40% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.102) Comments: Glossonym: Bwisi in Uganda, Talinga in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Different from Bwisi of Congo and Gabon. Christian, Muslim.

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Teso
[teo] East, Lake Bisina, area; Soroti, Ngora, Serere, Amuria, Katakwi, Kumi, Bukedea, Tororo, Pallisa, Kamuli, Butaleja, Kaberamaido, and Sironko districts. 1,570,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,909,000. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Tororo, 10 other districts. Alternate Names: Ateso, Bakedi, Bakidi, Elgumi, Etossio, Ikumama, Wamia Dialects: Orom (Rom). Limited intelligibility with other varieties in the Teso-Turkana group. The dialect in Ngora is considered standard. Lexical similarity: 76% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Ng’aKarimojong [kdj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso Comments: Ethnonym: Iteso. Christian.

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Tooro
[ttj] West, south and southeast of Lake Albert, Kabarole, Ntoroko, Kibaale, Bundibugyo, Kamwenge, Kyenjojo Kyegegwa, and Kasese districts. 488,000 (1991 census), increasing. 20,500 Tuku (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Kabarole and Kabale districts. Alternate Names: Orutoro, Rutooro, Rutoro, Toro Dialects: Rutuku, Tuku. Hema [nix] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is slightly different. Tuku dialect is most likely a separate language. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.12) Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara, and is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ugandan Sign Language
[ugn] Widespread, mainly in towns. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1995, Constitution, Article XXIV(d)). Alternate Names: USL Dialects: None known. Influences from ASL [ase] and KSL [xki]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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