Venezuela

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Akawaio
[ake] Bolivar state: upper Kamarang river; Monagas state: near Delta Amacuro border. 180 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 810 (1993 OCEI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acawayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Kapon, Waicá, Waika. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kapon, by both Akawaio and Patamona [pbc].

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Arawak
[arw] Bolivar state; Delta Amacuro; coastal area near Guyana. 100 in Venezuela (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 430 (2008). 230 of the ethnic group are monolingual in Spanish [spa], some in English [eng]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arowak, Lokono. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean. Comments: Non-indigenous. Came to Venezuela from Guyana.

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Arutani
[atx] Bolivar state: Paraqua and Uraricáa rivers’ headwaters below Karum river area. 25 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 29 (2002 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aoaqui, Auakê, Auaqué, Awaké, Oewaku, Uruak, Urutaní. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Most intermarried with the Ninam, some with the Pemón (Arecuna), a few with the Sape and do not speak Arutani fluently.

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Baniva
[bvv] Amazonas state: Atabapo and Casiquiare regions; Colombia border area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abane, Avani, Ayane. Dialects: Baniva, Quirruba. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero. Comments: Distinct from Baniwa [bwi] in Río Negro region.

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Baniwa
[bwi] Amazonas state: Colombia border area, between Curipaco [kpc] and Guarequena [gae] language areas. 610 in Venezuela (2007 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,410 (2001 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baniba, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Maniba. Dialects: The Carutana dialect is extinct. Related to Curripaco [kpc]. Groups on middle Içana and Ayarí rivers speak Baniwa: Hohodené, Kadaupuritana, Sucuriyu-Tapuya, Siusy-Tapuya, Irá-Tapuya, Kawá-Tapuya, Waliperedakenai (Ribeiro 1967). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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Baré
[bae] Amazonas state: Maroa town; upper Río Negro from Brazil-Venezuela border to Casiquiare Canal, extreme southwest at Colombia border. 240 in Venezuela (2011 W. Largo). Ethnic population: 2,790 (1998). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Barauana, Barauna, Barawana, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mitua, Yavita. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Baré. Comments: ‘Baré’ is also a cover term for separate languages: Baré, Mandahuaca [mht], Guarequena [gae], Baniwa [bwi], and Piapoco [pio].

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Barí
[mot] Zulia state: Sierra de Perijá southern zone, to Yukpa territory north and Catatumbo river south. 1,500 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Significant number are still monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bari, Motilón, Motilone. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian. Comments: Unrelated to Carib Motilón [yup] (Yukpa). M. Durbin questions its classification as Chibchan; also classified as Arawakan (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).

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Carib
[car] Anzoategui, Bolivar, and Monagas states: Orinoco river mouth area; Guyana border; some in Delta Amacuro state. 4,450 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 11,200 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 7,358. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibi, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kariña, Kari’ña, Kari’na auran. Dialects: Tabajari, Murato (Myrato, Western Carib). Eastern dialect primarily in eastern Suriname and in French Guiana and Brazil; western dialect in central and western areas of Suriname and in Guyana and Venezuela. Classification: Cariban.

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Chaima
[ciy] Monagas state: south of Maturin; northeast border with Anzoátegui state; possibly also Sucre state. 63 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 4,090. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chayma, Guaga-Tagare, Sayma, Warapiche. Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná.

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Cuiba
[cui] Apure state: upper Capanaparo river area and Riecito tributary. 650 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Nearly all monolingual. Ethnic population: 650 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuiva. Dialects: Chiricoa, Amaruwa (Amorua), Masiguare, Siripu, Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mella, Ptamo, Sicuane (Sicuari). Classification: Guajiboan. Comments: Seminomadic bands.

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Cumanagoto
[cuo] Sucre state: east coastal region. 49 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 530. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná.

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Curripaco
[kpc] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atabapo and Victorino zones. 3,630 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 4,930. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Curipaco, Kuripako, Kurripako, Yaverete-Tapuya. Dialects: Ôjo-Kjárru, Âja-Kurri, Êje-Kjénim. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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E’ñapa Woromaipu
[pbh] Bolivar state: savannah and highland groups 240 km south of Caicara de Orinoco, west of Cuchivero river. 20 or more settlements. 3,540 (2001 census). No monolinguals. Nearly all women monolingual; men fairly bilingual in Spanish [spa]. Ethnic population: 4,270 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abira, Eñapa, Eñepa, E’ñepa, Eye, Panare, Panari. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian.

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German, Colonia Tovar
[gct] Aragua state: southwest of Caracas. 1,500 (2009 H. Collin). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alemán Coloniero, Patois. Dialects: Developed from Alemannisch [gsw] (Oberdeutsch) of 1843 under the influence of many other dialects of south Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Not intelligible with Standard German [deu]; may be close to Alsatian dialect of Swiss German [gsw] in France. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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Guahibo
[guh] Amazonas, Apure, Bolivar states: Upper Orinoco and Meta rivers, Orinoco river from Caicaro de Orinoco. 11,200 in Venezuela (2001 census). 37% urban. Ethnic population: 14,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guajibo, Hivi, Hiwi, Jiwi, Sikuani, Wahibo. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo. Comments: Dispute about whether Guahiban languages are in the Arawakan language family.

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Guarequena
[gae] Amazonas state: Guzmán Blanco on San Miguel river below Maroa. 160 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 510. Total users in all countries: 650. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arequena, Guarekena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekena. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena.

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Japreria
[jru] Zulia state: north Sierra de Perija. 170 (2002 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 220. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yapreria. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Carib languages of the area (1973 M. Durbin). Lexical similarity: 60% with Yukpa [yup] (2009 W. Largo and J. Morales). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria. Comments: Possibly came from the Yukpas in central Colombia.

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Maco
[wpc] Amazonas state: Mariche, Marueta, Morocoto, Porvenir, Tavi-Tavi, and Wapuchi villages; Marueta, Paru, Wapuchi, and Yureba rivers, Ventuari river tributaries. 2,500 (2002 J. Miller). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itoto, Jojod, Maco-Piaroa, Mako, Maku, Sáliba-Maco, Wirö, Wotuja. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

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Macushi
[mbc] Bolivar state: southeast border area, Caroni river, west of Pan American highway. 600 in Venezuela. The number of Makushi speakers in Venezuela is not clear since 1992 Indigenous Census probably included them in the Pemon group (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teweya. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Máku
[xak] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atabapo zone, between the Padamo and Cunucunuma rivers. No known L1 speakers in Venezuela (2015). Total users in all countries: NaN. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Máko, Maku, Makú. Classification: Language isolate.

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Mandahuaca
[mht] Amazonas state: Colombia border, extreme southwest on Baria river and Casiquiare canal, east of Baré [bae] language area. 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista). Ethnic population: The size of the ethnic group is not clear since the usually cited number of 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista) probably includes Baré [bae], Baniva [bwi] and Mandahuaca (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Bale, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mandauaca, Mandawaka, Mitua, Yavita. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena. Comments: ’Baré’ is a cover term for separate languages: Baré [bae], Mandahuaca, Guarekena [gae], Baniwa [bwi], Piapoco [pio]. Sometimes considered a dialect of Baré [bae].

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Mapoyo
[mcg] Amazonas state: confluence of Orinoco and Toro rivers and downstream; Bolivar state: Palomo community and savanna between Caño Caripo north and Villacoa river south, near Caicara del Orinoco road to Puerto Ayacucho. 12 (2001 census), decreasing. A few semi-speakers left (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mapayo, Mapoye, Mopoi, Nepoye, Wanai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Maquiritari
[mch] Bolivar and Amazonas states: Brazilian border area on upper Auaris, Caura, Cuntinamo, Cunucunuma, Erebato, Matacuni, Padamo, mid-Paragua, and upper Ventuari rivers. 5,520 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 6,520. Total users in all countries: 5,950. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cunuana, De’cuana, De’kwana Carib, Maiongong, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Pawana, Soto, Ye’cuana, Yekuana, Ye’kuana. Classification: Cariban, Central, Makiritare.

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Nengatu
[yrl] Amazonas state: Brazil border area, Río Negro area, lower Guainía department, San Pedro and Bultón. 760 in Venezuela (2001 census). Very few, if any, speakers left in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,290. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Waengatu, Yeral. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Ninam
[shb] Bolivar state: Karun and Paragua rivers. 100 in Venezuela. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shiriana, Yanam. Dialects: Northern Ninam, Southern Ninam. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Paraujano
[pbg] Zulia state: Lake Maracaibo, near Guajiro. 20 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 17,400 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Añú, Anun, Parahujano. Dialects: Alile, Toa. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Patamona
[pbc] Bolivar state: Guyana and Brazil east border area. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kapon. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pemon
[aoc] Bolivar state: Gran Sabana and adjacent areas. 5,000 in Venezuela (2001 V. Becsky). Ethnic population: 22,300. Total users in all countries: 6,010. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kamarakotos, Pemong. Dialects: Camaracoto, Taurepan (Taulipang, Taurepa, Taurepang), Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Daigok, Jarecouna, Jaricuna, Kamaragakok, Pemon, Pemóng, Pishauco, Potsawugok, Purucoto). Marginally intelligible with Akawaio [ake] and Patamona [pbc]. Camaracoto dialect may be a distinct language. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Pémono
[pev] Amazonas state: Upper Majagua village, with Yabarana [yar] speakers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana. Comments: Different from Pemón [aoc] of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana. Unknown until 1998.

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Piapoco
[pio] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atapapo area along the Orinoco. South of Vichada department. 1,450 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,940 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amarizado, Dzaze, Enegua, Kuipaco, Piapoko Dejá, Wenewika, Wenéwika, Yapoco. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco.

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Piaroa
[pid] Amazonas state: Orinoco river south bank, inland from Paguasa river to Manapiare; into southwestern Bolivar state. 14,500 in Venezuela (2001 census). 2,200 urban; 12,300 rural. Ethnic population: 14,500. Total users in all countries: 14,580. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amorua, Deá’ru’wa, Dearwa, Deruwa, Uhothha, Uwotjüja, Wöthüha, Wo’tiheh. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

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Playero
[gob] Apure state: western zone, to north of Arauca river and Colombian Pepojivi settlements. 200 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guahibo Playero, Pepojivi. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo.

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Puinave
[pui] Amazonas state: lower Guaviare and Inírida river basins down to San Fernando de Atabapo region. 880 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,310. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Puinare, Wanse. Classification: Puinavean.

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Pumé
[yae] Mainly eastern Apure state; Bolivar and Guarico states: Apure, Meta, Orinoco, and Sinaruco rivers. 7,900 (2001 census). 590 urban, 7,310 rural. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Llaruro, Yaruro, Yaruru, Yuapín. Classification: Unclassified.

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Sáliba
[slc] Amazonas state: Cedoño municipality. 250 in Venezuela (1991 W. Adelaar). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sáliva. Classification: Sálivan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Very acculturated in Venezuela.

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Sanumá
[xsu] Amazonas and Bolivar states: Caura, Erebato, and Ventuari rivers; Upper Auaris west to upper Padamo river area. 4,610 in Venezuela (2000). 500 Yanoma. Total users in all countries: 5,070. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chirichano, Guaika, Samatali, Samatari, Sanema, Sanima, Tsanuma, Xamatari. Dialects: Yanoma (Kohoroxitari), Cobari (Cobariwa, Kobali). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Sapé
[spc] Bolivar state: 3 small settlements on Karuna and Paragua rivers. 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 28 (1992). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caliana, Chirichano, Kaliána, Kariana. Dialects: None known. Some lexical correspondences with Warao [wba]. Greenberg classified it provisionally as Macro-Tucanoan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Spanish
[spa] 29,100,000 in Venezuela (2013). L2 users: 694,000 in Venezuela (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tamanaku
[tmz] Amazonas state: north, near Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar] language areas. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Eñepa [pbh]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Apure state: Paéz district, Urdaneta municipality, south of San Cristobal, on Arauca river, near Colombian border, east of Guahibo [guh] language area. No known L1 speakers in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Possibly extinct in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Venezuelan Sign Language
[vsl] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Venezolana. Dialects: None known. Sign language used in school is different from that used by adults outside. Classification: Sign language.

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Warao
[wba] Delta Amacuro, Monagas, and Sucre states: Orinoco river delta. 28,100 in Venezuela (2007). Ethnic population: 36,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guarao, Guarauno, Warrau. Classification: Language isolate.

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Wayuu
[guc] Mérida, Trujillo, and Zulia states: Guajira peninsula and surrounding Lake Maracaibo. 199,000 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 294,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Yabarana
[yar] Amazonas state: Manapiare river basin, above San Juan de Manapiare. 20 (1977 E. Migliazza). Ethnic population: 320 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yauarana, Yawarana. Dialects: Curasicana (Orechicano), Wokiare (Guaiquiare, Guayqueri, Uaiquiare). Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Pémono [pev]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana. Comments: Distinct from Yabaana [ybn] of Brazil.

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Yanomamö
[guu] Amazonas state: Orinoco-Mavaca area; Eastern dialect: Parima mountains, east of Batau river; Western dialect: Manaviche, Ocamo, and upper Orinoco rivers, Padamo river basin; south of Orinoco river, Cauaburi and Marania rivers’ headwaters; large villages in Siapa river area south. 15,700 in Venezuela (2000). Total users in all countries: 19,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cobari Kobali, Cobariwa, Guaharibo, Guaica, Guajaribo, Shamatari, Yanomame, Yanomami. Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco). Cobari dialect is easily intelligible of the others. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yavitero
[yvt] Amazonas state: Yavita region. 1 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Paraene. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero.

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Yukpa
[yup] Zulia state: Cesar region, north Sierra de Perijá, on the Colombia border, between Palmar river north and Tucuco river south. 3,020 in Venezuela (2007). 2,220 urban; 800 rural. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Macoíta, Manso, Northern Motilón, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa. Dialects: Atapshi (Yukpa Norte), Iroka, Pariri (Yukpa Central), Wasama, Yikta, Macoíta, Irapa (Yukpa Sur). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria. Comments: Most live in urban areas.

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Yuwana
[yau] Bolivar state: Kaima river, a Cuchivero river tributary; Amazonas state: isolated groups on Iguana, an Asita river tributary, and on the Parucito, a Manapiare river tributary. 640 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 640 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chicano, Chikano, Hoti, Jodi, Joti, Waruwaru, Yoana, Yuana. Dialects: None known. Linguistic similarities to Yanomamö [guu] and Piaroa [pid] (Salivan). Classification: Language isolate.

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