Venezuela

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Akawaio
[ake] Bolivar State, upper Kamarang river; Monagas State, near Amacuro Delta Territory border. 180 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 810 (1993 OCEI). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acawayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Waicá, Waika Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kapon, by both Akawaio and Patamona [pbc].

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Arawak
[arw] Bolivar State, coastal area near Guyana, Delta Amacuro. 100 in Venezuela (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 430 (2008). 230 of the ethnic group are monolingual in Spanish [spa], some in English [eng]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arowak, Lokono Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean Comments: Came to Venezuela from Guyana.

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Arutani
[atx] Below Karum river area, Bolivar State, Paraqua and Uraricáa rivers’ headwaters. 25 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 29 (2002 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aoaqui, Auake, Auaqué, Awaké, Oewaku, Uruak, Urutani Classification: Language isolate Comments: Most intermarried with the Ninam, some with the Pemón (Arecuna), a few with the Sape and do not speak Arutani fluently.

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Baniva
[bvv] Amazonas State, Atabapo and Casiquiare regions; Colombia border area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abane, Avani, Ayane Dialects: Baniva, Quirruba. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero Comments: Distinct from Baniwa [bwi] in Río Negro region.

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Baniwa
[bwi] Amazonas, along Colombia border, between Curipaco [kpc] and Guarequena [gae] language areas, along the Colombia border. 610 in Venezuela (2007 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,410 (2001 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baniba, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Maniba Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu

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Baré
[bae] Extreme southwest at Colombia border, Amazonas, along the upper Río Negro from Brazil-Venezuela border to Casiquiare Canal, Maroa. 240 in Venezuela (2011 W. Largo). Ethnic population: 2,790 (1998). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Barauana, Barauna, Barawana, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mitua, Yavita Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Baré Comments: ‘Baré’ is also a cover term for separate languages: Baré, Mandahuaca [mht], Guarequena [gae], Baniwa [bwi], and Piapoco [pio].

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Barí
[mot] Venezuela-Colombia border, Zulia State, Sierra de Perijá southern zone, to Yukpa territory north and Catatumbo river south. 1,500 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Significant number are still monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Motilón, Motilone Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian Comments: Unrelated to Carib Motilón [yup] (Yukpa). M. Durbin questions its classification as Chibchan; Voegelin and Voegelin 1977 classify it as Arawakan.

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Carib
[car] Anzoategui, Bolivar, and Monagas states, northeast near Orinoco river mouth, small enclave on Guyana border; some in Delta Amacuro State. 4,450 in Venezuela (2001 census). Population total all countries: 7,358. Ethnic population: 11,200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibi, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kariña, Kari’nya Dialects: Murato (Myrato, Western Carib), Tabajari. Eastern dialect primarily in eastern Suriname and in French Guiana and Brazil; western dialect in central and western areas of Suriname and in Guyana and Venezuela. Classification: Cariban

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Chaima
[ciy] Monagas State, south of Maturin, and northeast border, Anzoategui State; possibly in Sucre State. 63 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 4,090. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chayma, Guaga-Tagare, Sayma, Warapiche Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná

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Cuiba
[cui] Apure State, along upper Capanaparo river and its tributary Riecito. 650 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Nearly all monolingual. Ethnic population: 650 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuiva Dialects: Amaruwa (Amorua), Chiricoa, Masiguare, Mella, Ptamo, Sicuane (Sicuari), Siripu, Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara. Classification: Guajiboan Comments: Seminomadic bands.

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Cumanagoto
[cuo] East coastal region, Sucre State. 49 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 530. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná

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Curripaco
[kpc] Amazonas State, Victorino and San Fernando de Atabapo zones. 3,630 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 4,930. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Curipaco, Kuripako, Kurripako, Yaverete-Tapuya Dialects: Âja-Kurri, Êje-Kjénim, Ôjo-Kjárru. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu

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E’ñapa Woromaipu
[pbh] Bolivar State, 240 km south of Caicara de Orinoco, west of Cuchivero river; savannah and highland groups. 20 or more settlements. 3,540 (2001 census). 2,480 monolinguals. Nearly all women monolingual; men fairly bilingual in Spanish [spa]. Ethnic population: 4,270 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abira, Eñapa, Eñepa, Eye, Panare, Panari Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian Comments: Ethnonyn: E’ñepa.

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German, Colonia Tovar
[gct] Aragua State, southwest of Caracas. 1,500 (2009 H. Collin). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alemán Coloniero, Patois Dialects: Developed from Alemannisch [gsw] (Oberdeutsch) of 1843 under the influence of many other dialects of south Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Not intelligible with Standard German [deu]; may be close to Alsatian dialect of Swiss German [gsw] in France. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

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Guahibo
[guh] Upper Orinoco and Meta rivers, Apure, Amazonas, and Bolivar states, Orinoco river from Caicaro de Orinoco. 11,200 in Venezuela (2001 census). 37% urban. Ethnic population: 14,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guajibo, Hiwi, Jiwi, Sikuani, Wahibo Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo Comments: Dispute about whether Guahiban languages are in the Arawakan language family.

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Guarequena
[gae] Amazonas, San Miguel river, Guzmán Blanco village, below Maroa. Possibly in Colombia. 160 in Venezuela (2001 census). Population total all countries: 650. Ethnic population: 510. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arequena, Guarekena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekena Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena

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Japreria
[jru] Zulia State, north Sierra de Perija. 170 (2002 census). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 220. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yapreria Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Carib languages of the area (1973 M. Durbin). Lexical similarity: 60% with Yukpa [yup] (2009 W. Largo and J. Morales). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria Comments: Possibly came from the Yukpas in central Colombia.

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Maco
[wpc] Amazonas State, Ventuari river tributaries, Wapuchi, Paru, Yureba, and Marueta rivers; Marueta, Wapuchi, Porvenir, Tavi-Tavi, Mariche, and Morocoto villages. 2,500 (2002 J. Miller). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itoto, Jojod, Mako, Wotuja Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco

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Macushi
[mbc] Bolivar State, southeast border area, Caroni river, west of Pan American highway. 600 in Venezuela. The number of Makushi speakers in Venezuela is not clear since 1992 Indigenous Census probably included them in the Pemon group (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teweya Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper

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Mandahuaca
[mht] Colombia border, extreme southwest, Amazonas, east of Baré [bae] language area on Baria river and Casiquiare canal. 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista). Ethnic population: The size of the ethnic group is not clear since the usually cited number of 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista) probably includes Baré [bae], Baniva [bwi] and Mandahuaca (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mandauaca, Mandawaka, Mitua, Yavita Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena Comments: ’Baré’ is a cover term for separate languages: Baré [bae], Mandahuaca, Guarekena [gae], Baniwa [bwi], Piapoco [pio]. Sometimes considered a dialect of Baré [bae].

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Mapoyo
[mcg] Amazonas State, confluence of Orinoco and Toro rivers and downstream; southwest Bolivar State, on the savanna between Caño Caripo north and Villacoa river south, near Caicara del Orinoco road to Puerto Ayacucho, Palomo community, 60 km south of La Urbana. 12 (2001 census), decreasing. A few semi-speakers left (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mapayo, Mapoye, Mopoi, Nepoye, Wanai Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana

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Maquiritari
[mch] Bolivar and Amazonas states, Brazilian border area on mid-Paragua, Caura, Erebato, upper Ventuari, upper Auaris, Matacuni, Cuntinamo, Padamo, and Cunucunuma rivers. 5,520 in Venezuela (2001 census). Population total all countries: 5,950. Ethnic population: 6,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cunuana, De’cuana, De’kwana Carib, Maiongong, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Pawana, Soto, Ye’cuana, Yekuana Classification: Cariban, Central, Makiritare

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Nengatu
[yrl] Amazonas State, Brazil border area, Río Negro area, lower Guainía in San Pedro and Bultón. 760 in Venezuela (2001 census). Very few, if any, speakers left in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,290. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Waengatu, Yeral Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí

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Ninam
[shb] Bolivar State, Karun and Paragua rivers. 100 in Venezuela. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shiriana, Yanam Dialects: Northern Ninam, Southern Ninam. Classification: Yanomaman

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Paraujano
[pbg] Zulia State, Lake Maracaibo, near Guajiro. 20 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 17,400 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Añú, Anun, Parahujano Dialects: Alile, Toa. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean

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Patamona
[pbc] Guyana and Brazil east border area, Bolivar State. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong

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Pemon
[aoc] Bolivar State, Gran Sabana and adjacent areas. 5,000 in Venezuela (2001 V. Becsky). Population total all countries: 6,010. Ethnic population: 22,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pemong Dialects: Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Daigok, Jaricuna, Kamaragakok, Pemon, Pishauco, Potsawugok, Purucoto), Camaracoto, Taurepan (Taulipang). Marginally intelligible with Akawaio [ake] and Patamona [pbc]. Camaracoto dialect may be a distinct language. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper

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Pémono
[pev] Upper Majagua village, with Yabarana [yar] speakers, Amazonas State. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana Comments: Different from Pemón [aoc] of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana. Unknown until 1998.

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Piapoco
[pio] San Fernando de Atapapo area, Amazonas along the Orinoco. South of Vichada department. 1,450 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,940 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amarizado, Dzaze, Enegua, Kuipaco, Piapoko Dejá, Wenéwika, Yapoco Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco

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Piaroa
[pid] Amazonas State, Orinoco river south bank, inland from Paguasa river to Manapiare; into southwestern Bolivar State. 14,500 in Venezuela (2001 census). 2,200 urban; 12,300 rural. Population total all countries: 14,580. Ethnic population: 14,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dearwa, Deruwa, Uhothha, Uwotjüja, Wo’tiheh Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco

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Playero
[gob] Apure State, western zone, to north of Arauca river and Colombian Pepojivi settlements. 200 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guahibo Playero, Pepojivi Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo

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Puinave
[pui] Amazonas State, lower Guaviare and Inírida river basins down to San Fernando de Atabapo region. 880 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,310. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Puinare, Wanse Classification: Puinavean

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Pumé
[yae] Mainly eastern Apure State; also Bolivar and Guarico states, Orinoco, Sinaruco, Meta, and Apure rivers. 7,900 (2001 census). 590 urban, 7,310 rural. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Llaruro, Yaruro, Yaruru, Yuapín Classification: Unclassified

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Sáliba
[slc] Northwest Amazonas Department, Cedoño municipality. 250 in Venezuela (1991 W. Adelaar). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sáliva Classification: Sálivan Comments: Very acculturated in Venezuela.

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Sanumá
[xsu] Amazonas and Bolivar states, along Caura, Erebato, and Ventuari rivers; along Upper Auaris west to upper Padamo river area. 4,610 in Venezuela (2000). 500 Yanoma. Population total all countries: 5,070. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chirichano, Guaika, Samatali, Samatari, Sanema, Sanima, Tsanuma, Xamatari Dialects: Cobari (Cobariwa, Kobali), Yanoma (Kohoroxitari). Classification: Yanomaman

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Sapé
[spc] Bolivar State, 3 small settlements on the Paragua and Karuna rivers. 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 28 (1992). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caliana, Chirichano, Kaliána, Kariana Dialects: None known. Some lexical correspondences with Warao [wba]. Greenberg classified it provisionally as Macro-Tucanoan. Classification: Language isolate

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Spanish
[spa] 26,300,000 in Venezuela (2014). L2 users: 632,000 in Venezuela (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tamanaku
[tmz] Northern Amazonas State, near the Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar] language areas. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Eñepa [pbh]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana

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Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Extreme west Apure State, Paéz district, Urdaneta municipality, south of San Cristobal, on the Arauca river, near Colombian border, east of Guahibo [guh] language area. No known L1 speakers in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Possibly extinct in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese

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Venezuelan Sign Language
[vsl] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Venezolana Dialects: None known. Sign language used in school is different from that used by adults outside. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Warao
[wba] Orinoco river delta, Delta Amacuro, Sucre, and Monagas. 28,100 in Venezuela (2007). Ethnic population: 36,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guarao, Guarauno, Warrau Classification: Language isolate

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Wayuu
[guc] Separate enclaves on Guajira peninsula and surrounding Lake Maracaibo, Zulia, Merida, and Trujillo states. 199,000 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 294,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean

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Yabarana
[yar] Amazonas, Manapiare river basin, above San Juan de Manapiare. 20 (1977 E. Migliazza). Ethnic population: 320 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yauarana, Yawarana Dialects: Curasicana (Orechicano), Wokiare (Guaiquiare, Guayqueri, Uaiquiare). Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Pémono [pev]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana Comments: Distinct from Yabaana [ybn] of Brazil.

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Yanomamö
[guu] South Amazonas State, Orinoco-Mavaca area; Eastern dialect: Parima mountains, east of Batau river; Western dialect: Padamo river basin, Ocamo, Manaviche, and upper Orinoco rivers, and south of Orinoco river Marania and Cauaburi rivers’ headwaters, large villages in Siapa river area south. 15,700 in Venezuela (2000). Population total all countries: 19,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cobari Kobali, Cobariwa, Guaharibo, Guaica, Guajaribo, Shamatari, Yanomame, Yanomami Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco). Cobari dialect is easily intelligible of the others. Classification: Yanomaman

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Yavitero
[yvt] Amazonas State, Yavita region. 1 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Paraene Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero

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Yukpa
[yup] Zulia State, Cesar region, north Sierra de Perijá, on the Colombia border, between Palmar river north and Tucuco river south. 3,020 in Venezuela (2007). 2,220 urban; 800 rural. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Macoíta, Manso, Northern Motilón, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa Dialects: Atapshi (Yukpa norte), Irapa (Yukpa sur), Iroka, Macoíta, Pariri (Yukpa central), Wasama, Yikta. Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria Comments: Most live in urban areas.

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Yuwana
[yau] Central. A northern group is in Bolivar division on Kaima river, a Cuchivero river tributary; an isolated southern group in Amazonas on the Iguana, an Asita river tributary, and on the Parucito, a Manapiare river tributary. 640 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 640 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chicano, Chikano, Hoti, Jodi, Joti, Waruwaru, Yoana, Yuana Dialects: None known. Linguistic similarities to Yanomamö [guu] and Piaroa [pid] (Salivan). Classification: Language isolate

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