South Africa

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Afrikaans
[afr] Widespread, but less speakers in East Cape and KwaZuluNatal provinces. Also in Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Germany, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Swaziland, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia, Zimbabwe. 4,740,000 in South Africa (2006 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 4,949,410. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Art 6(1)). Dialects: Cape Afrikaans (West Cape Afrikaans), East Cape Afrikaans, Orange River Afrikaans. A variant of the Dutch [nld] spoken by the 17th century colonists, with some lexical and syntactic borrowings from Malay [zlm], Bantu languages, Khoisan languages, Portuguese [por], and other European languages. Earliest Afrikaaners were brought from Java 300 years ago. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Birwa
[brl] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30)

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Camtho
[cmt] Soweto, Johannesburg, urban settings. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Iscamtho, Isicamtho, Tsotsitaal Dialects: Developed in the 1980s from the original Tsotsitaal [fly], and sometimes called Tsotsitaal. Also described as a basically Zulu [zul] or Sotho language with heavy code switching and many English and Afrikaans [afr] content morphemes. Classification: Mixed language, Zulu-Bantu

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English
[eng] 3,670,000 in South Africa (2006 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Gail
[gic] Mainly Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, Bloemfontein, and Port Elizabeth. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Second language only). Dialects: In Johannesburg more English based, in Pretoria more Afrikaans [afr] based. May be related to Polari [pld] in the United Kingdom. Classification: Unclassified Comments: An in-group language.

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Hindi
[hin] Mainly KwaZuluNatal Province. 361,000 in South Africa (2003). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Has Bhojpuri [bho] features in South Africa. Hindu.

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Khwe
[xuu] Northern Cape Province, Smithsdrift and Platfontein. 1,200 in South Africa (2010 LBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barakwena, Barakwengo, Basarwa, Khoe, Kxoe, Mbarakwena, Mbarakwengo, Water Bushmen, Xun Dialects: ||Ani, Kxoedam. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest Comments: Refugees from Caprivi, Namibia, since 1991 living in tents.

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Korana
[kqz] West. Possibly in Botswana. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 10,000 in South Africa (1972 Barrett). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: !Kora, !Ora, Gorachouqua, Koranna, Koraqua Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Nama Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nama
[naq] North Cape Province. 50,900 in South Africa (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Berdama, Bergdamara, Dama, Damaqua, Damara, “Hottentot” (pej.), Kakuya Bushman, Khoekhoe, Khoeknoegowap, Khoi, Namakwa, Naman, Namaqua, Nasie, Rooi Nasie, Tama, Tamakwa, Tamma Dialects: Gimsbok Nama. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Nama

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Ndebele
[nbl] Limpopo Province. 640,000 (2006). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Ndzundza, Nrebele, Southern Ndebele, Transvaal Ndebele Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.407) Comments: Different from Ndebele [nde] of Zimbabwe.

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N|u
[ngh] Askham area, 2 at Andriesvale, 1 at Witdraai; 2 in Olifantshoek, 3 at Upington; Upinton area. 1 at Kalksloot, 1 in Raaswater, 2 at Kang (southern Botswana, near Tsabong). 12 (2005 N. Crawhall), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500 (1998 N. Crawhall). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: ‡Khomani, Nghuki, Ng’uki Dialects: ||Kxau, ||Ng!ke (||Ng, |Ing|ke, Ng||-|e), |’Auni, N|u. Similar to |Xam [xam]. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, !Kwi Comments: ‡Khomani’ is the ethnic group name. Ng’uki is an incorrect name. The |’Auni dialect has no remaining speakers. Christian, traditional religion.

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Oorlams
[oor] Transvaal. 32,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Creole, Afrikaans based

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Pidgin Bantu
[fng] Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Several hundred thousand L2 speakers in South Africa (Reinecke et al. 1975). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Basic Zulu, “Fanagalo” (pej.), Fanagoloi, “Fanakalo” (pej.), “Fanekolo” (pej.), “Isikula” (pej.), Isilololo, Isipiki, Lololo, Piki, Silunguboi Dialects: Zambia dialect is called Cikabanga; in Zimbabwe, it is called, Chilapalapa. Influenced by Shona [sna] in Zimbabwe. About 70% of the vocabulary in Zimbabwe comes from Zulu [zul], 24% from English [eng], 6% from Afrikaans [afr]. Influenced by Bemba [bem] in Zambia. Lexical similarity: 70% with Zulu [zul], 24% with English [eng], 6% with Afrikaans [afr]. Classification: Pidgin, Zulu based Comments: Originated in 19th century. “Fanagalo” and most or all other names are pejorative.

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Ronga
[rng] KwaZuluNatal Province. 1,000 in South Africa (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shironga Dialects: Konde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.54)

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Seroa
[kqu] Also was in Lesotho. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: !Gã!nge (!Gã!ne), ||Ku||e. Had 3 dialects. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, !Kwi

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Sotho, Northern
[nso] Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. Also in Botswana. 4,090,000 in South Africa (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 4,101,000. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Pedi, Sepedi, Transvaal Sotho Dialects: Dzwabo (Thabine-Roka-Nareng), Gananwa (Hananwa, Xananwa), Kgaga (Khaga, Kxaxa), Khutswe (Khutswi, Kutswe), Koni (Kone), Kopa, Lobedu (Khelobedu, Lovedu, Lubedu), Masemola (Masemula, Tau), Matlala-Moletshi, Pai, Phalaborwa (Phalaburwa, Thephalaborwa), Pulana, Tlokwa (Dogwa, Tlokoa, Tokwa), Tswene (Tsweni). Dialects Pai, Kutswe, and Pulana are more divergent and sometimes called ‘Eastern Sotho’. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.301) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sotho, Southern
[sot] Gauteng Province and Free State. 4,240,000 in South Africa (2006), increasing. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Sesotho, Sisutho, Souto, Suthu, Suto Dialects: Taung. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.33) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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South African Sign Language
[sfs] 12,100 deaf persons including 6,000 Black, 2,000 English white, 2,000 Afrikaans white, 1,200 Coloured, 900 Indian (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: The North British sign system was used for the deaf in white English-speaking families. In 1881 a school for Afrikaans [afr]-speaking families began using British Sign Language [bfi]. Several dialects are used unofficially in different schools. 9 sign language systems, 60% related to British Sign Language [bfi] or Australian sign languages [asf], few to American Sign Language [ase]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: First deaf school established about 1846. Now 29 schools for 4,000 children. There is a Signed Afrikaans as well.

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Swahili
[swh] Chatsworth, an urban area near Durban on Natal coast. 2,000 in South Africa (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Arab-Swahili, Kisuahili, Kiswaheli, Suahili Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42) Comments: Zanzibaris brought from Zanzibar and northern Mozambique from 1873–1878. Muslim.

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Swati
[ssw] KwaZuluNatal and Limpopo provinces. 1,010,000 in South Africa (1996 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Siswati, Siswazi, Swazi, Tekela, Tekeza, Thithiza, Yeyeza Dialects: Baca, Hlubi, Phuthi (Sephuthi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.402) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tsonga
[tso] Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces. Also in Mozambique, Swaziland, Zimbabwe. 1,940,000 in South Africa (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,669,000. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Shangaan, Shangana, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga Dialects: Changana, Gwamba (Gwapa), Hlave, Jonga (Dzonga), Kande, Luleke (Xiluleke), Nhlanganu (Shihlanganu), Nkuma, N’walungu (Shingwalungu), Songa, Xonga. ‘Tsonga’ is used to describe Changana [tso], Tswa [tsc], and Ronga [rng], although often used interchangeably with Changana, the most prestigious of the 3. All are recognized as languages, although inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.52) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tsotsitaal
[fly] Gauteng Province, Johannesburg area, Pretoria, Bloemfontein and other cities. Had tens of thousands of primary users; hundreds of thousands of L2 users. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Flaai Taal, Fly Taal Dialects: Not intelligible of Afrikaans [afr]. Used many Afrikaans, English [eng], and Bantu words, and others of unknown origin. Classification: Creole, Afrikaans based Comments: ‘Tsotsitaal’, speech of a young gang member, criminal, or thug.

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Tswa
[tsc] 20,000 in South Africa (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Shitshwa, Tshwa, Xitshwa Dialects: Hlengwe (Makawe-Khambana), Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.51)

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Tswana
[tsn] North Cape and West Cape provinces. 3,410,000 in South Africa (2006), increasing. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Beetjuans, Chuana, Coana, Cuana, Sechuana, Tsiwaha Dialects: Hurutshe, Kgatla, Kwena, Melete, Ngwaketse, Ngwato, Rolong, Tawana, Thlaping (Tlapi), Thlaro, Tlokwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Urdu
[urd] KwaZuluNatal coast and urban areas around Durban; Gauteng Province surrounding Johannesburg, and scattered smaller towns. 12,000 in South Africa (2006). 170,000 South Asian Muslims in South Africa (1987). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Muslim.

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Venda
[ven] Limpopo Province. Also in Zimbabwe. 980,000 in South Africa (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,064,000. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Chivenda Dialects: Guvhu, Ilafuri, Lembetu, Manda, Mbedzi, Phani, Tavha-Tsindi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Venda (S.21) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Jewish (Lembaa).

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|Xam
[xam] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: |Kamka!e, |Kham-Ka-!k’e, |Xam-Ka-!k’e Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, !Kwi

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||Xegwi
[xeg] Near Swaziland border. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: ||Xegwe, ||Xekwi, Abathwa, Amabusmana, Amankgqwigqwi, Batwa, Boroa, Bush-C, Gi|kxigwi, Ki||kxigwi, Kloukle, Lxloukxle, Nkqeshe, Tloue, Tloutle Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Southern, !Kwi Comments: Last known speaker died in 1988.

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Xhosa
[xho] KwaZuluNatal Province. Also in Botswana, Lesotho. 7,790,000 in South Africa (2006). Population total all countries: 7,817,300. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: “Cauzuh” (pej.), Isixhosa, Koosa, Xosa Dialects: 15% of the vocabulary estimated to be of Khoekhoe (Khoisan) origin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.401) Comments: Cauzuh is an obsolete name. Somewhat acculturated. Christian, traditional religion.

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Xiri
[xii] Also in Namibia. 87 in South Africa (2000). Population total all countries: 187. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cape Hottentot, Gri, Grikwa, Griqua, Gry, Xirikwa, Xrikwa Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Nama

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Zulu
[zul] KwaZuluNatal and Mpumalanga provinces. Also in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland. 9,980,000 in South Africa (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 10,349,100. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Isizulu, Zunda Dialects: Lala, Qwabe. Similar to Swazi [ssw] and Xhosa [xho]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.406) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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