Zambia

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Afrikaans
[afr] 41,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian

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Aushi
[auh] North, Luapula Province. 100,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avaushi, Ushi, Usi, Uzhil, Vouaousi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.402)

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Bemba
[bem] North, Copperbelt and Luapula provinces. 3,810,000 in Zambia (2010 census), decreasing. 3,730,000 Bemba, 12,800 Chishinga, 37,900 Kabende, 15,000 Lunda, 1,680 Mukulu, 11,500 Unga (2010 census). Population total all countries: 4,110,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in North, Copperbelt, and Luapula provinces.Town Bemba is a widely used lingua franca in urban areas, with higher social status than other languages except English [eng], and is used for educational and administrative purposes. Alternate Names: Chibemba, Chiwemba, Cibemba, Ichibemba, Icibemba, Wemba Dialects: Chishinga, Kabende, Lembue, Lomotua (Lomotwa), Lunda (Luapula), Mukulu, Ngoma, Ng’umbo, Nwesi, Town Bemba, Twa of Bangweulu, Unga. Town Bemba has a Bemba base with heavy code mixing with English and neighboring Bantu languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.42) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bwile
[bwc] Luapula Province. 19,600 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 32,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.401)

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Chichewa
[nya] Eastern and Central provinces. 2,180,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 500,000 Chewa, 40,000 Kunda 1,640,000 Nyanja (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Eastern, Central provinces. Alternate Names: Chewa, Chinyanja, Nyanja Dialects: Chewa (Cewa), Chingoni (Ngoni), Kunda, Manganja (Waganga), Nyasa, Peta (Chipeta, Cipeta, Malawi, Marave, Maravi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja (N.31) Comments: Kunda dialect is distinct from Kunda [kdn] of Mozambique.

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Chokwe
[cjk] North-Western Province, east of Mbunda [mck] language area. 17,700 in Zambia (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciokwe, Cokwe, Djok, Shioko, Tschiokwe, Tshokwe Dialects: Minungo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.11)

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English
[eng] Widespread. 110,000 in Zambia (Crystal 2003). L2 users: 1,800,000 in Zambia (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Gujarati
[guj] 12,000 in Zambia (1985 India Evangelical Mission). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Hindu.

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Ila
[ilb] Central and Southern provinces, Kafue river west bend, west of Sala [shq] language area. 82,900 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiila, Shukulumbwe, Sukulumbwe Dialects: Ila, Lumbu, Lundwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.63)

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Kaonde
[kqn] North-Western and Central provinces, northwest of Mumbwa. 206,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 242,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chikahonde, Chikaonde, Kahonde, Kawonde, Luba Kaonde Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Kaonde (L.41)

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Khwe
[xuu] West, east of Zambezi river, Luzu village area, 6 villages; east of Luzu; Sakulinda village; 250 km northwest, southeast Senanga district, 3 remote settlements: Kashesha ki liwanika, Namafumbwana, and Sanze. 300 in Zambia (2006 M. Brenzinger). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: !Hukwe, Black Bushman, Cazama, Glanda-Khwe, Hukwe, Kxoe, Mbara Kwengo, Mbarakwena, Schekere, Vazama, Water Bushmen, Xu, Xuhwe, Xun, Zama Dialects: ||Xo-Kxoe. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest

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Kuhane
[sbs] Western Province, southeast corner. 1,350 in Zambia (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuahane, Chikwahane, Echisubia, Ikuhane, Subia, Subiya, Supia Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.42) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kunda
[kdn] Southeast Central Province. 6,760 in Zambia (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42) Comments: Distinct from Kunda dialect of Chichewa [nya] or Kunda of Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Lala-Bisa
[leb] Northern, Central, and Eastern provinces; east along Luangwa river (Bisa), southwest (Lala). 353,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 750 Ambo, 112,000 Bisa, 201,000 Lala, 1,620 Luano, 37,700 Swaka (2010 census). Ethnic population: 590,000 (2010 census). 198,000 Bisa, 392,000 Lala (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Biza-Lala Dialects: Ambo, Bisa (Biisa, Ichibisa, Wisa, Wiza), Lala (Ichilala), Luano, Swaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.51)

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Lamba
[lam] Copperbelt, Central, and southeast North-Western provinces. 201,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 198,000 Lamba, 2,250 Lima (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chilamba, Ichilamba Dialects: Lamba, Lima (Bulima). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.54)

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Lambya
[lai] Northern Province, Isoka district. 2,000 in Zambia (1958). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: South Lambya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.201)

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Lenje
[leh] Central Province, Lukanga swamp area. 128,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chilenje, Chinamukuni, Ciina, Ciina Mukuni, Lengi, Lenji, Mukuni Dialects: Lenje, Twa (Lukanga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.61)

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Lozi
[loz] Western Province, Barotseland; Southern Province near Livingstone. 612,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 724,600. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in portions of Western and Southern provinces. Alternate Names: Kololo, Kolololo, Rotse, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Lozi (K.21) Comments: Recognized for educational and administrative purposes.

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Luchazi
[lch] West central North-Western Province. 29,600 in Zambia (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiluchazi, Cujazi, Lucazi, Lujash, Lujasi, Lutshase, Luxage, Ponda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.13)

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Lunda
[lun] North-Western Province, Mwinilunga and northern Kabompo districts. 225,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 214,000 Lunda, 10,900 Ndembu (2010 census). Population total all countries: 403,000. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Northwest Province, Copperbelt. Alternate Names: Chilunda Dialects: Humbu, Kawiku, Kosa (Koosa), Ndembu. Reportedly similar to Ruund [rnd] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.52) Comments: Distinct from Luunda, a dialect of Bemba [bem].

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Luvale
[lue] North-Western and Western provinces. 171,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 635,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Northwestern and Western provinces. Alternate Names: Chiluvale, Lovale, Lubale, Luena, Lwena Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.14) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Luyana
[lyn] Western Province, east Lozi-Luyana area. 2,880 in Zambia (2010 census). 1,000 Kwandi, 1,400 Kwangwa, 480 Luyana (2010 census). Population total all countries: 190,380. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Esiluyana, Louyi, Lui, Luyi, Rouyi Dialects: Kwandi, Kwanga (Kwangwa), Mbumi (Mbume). Mbowe dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.31)

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Mambwe-Lungu
[mgr] Northeast Northern Province south of Lake Tanganyika. 207,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 64,500 Lungu, 142,000 Mambwe (2010 census). Population total all countries: 502,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mambwe-Rungu Dialects: Fipa-Mambwe (Kifipa cha Kimambwe), Lungu (Adong, Ichirungu, Rungu), Mambwe (Ichimambwe, Kimambwe). Uncertain intelligibility between Fipa-Mambwe [fip] (Tanzania) and other dialects. Minor dialect differences between Mambwe and Lungu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Fipa-Mambwe (M.14)

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Mashi
[mho] Southwest Western Province. 18,800 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 21,630. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masi Dialects: Mashi, North Kwandu, South Kwandu. Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.34) Comments: Nomadic. Different from Mashi [shr] (Shi) which is related to Havu [hav] (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Traditional religion.

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Mbowe
[mxo] North central Western Province. 460 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esimbowe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.32)

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Southwest Western Province, Kwando river area. 5,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gova, Kusso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimukushu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.333) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mbunda
[mck] West North-Western Province, north Barotseland. 83,000 in Zambia (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimbunda, Gimbunda, Kimbunda, Mbuunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.15) Comments: Different from Mbunda (Mbuun, Mbunu) which is a dialect of Mpuono [zmp] (Democratic Republic of the Congo).

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Nkoya
[nka] Western and Southern provinces, Mankoya area. 36,200 (2010 census). 1,190 Mashasha, 35,000 Nkoya (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shinkoya Dialects: Lukolwe (Kolwe), Lushangi, Mbowela (Mbwela, Mbwera, Shimbwera), Nkoya, Shasha (Mashasha). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Nkoya (L.60)

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Nsenga
[nse] Eastern and Central provinces, Petauke district. 405,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 76,000 Ngoni, 329,000 Nsenga (2010 census). Population total all countries: 613,100. Ethnic population: 1,570,000 (2010 census). 503,000 Ngoni, 661,000 Nsenga (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Cinsenga, Senga Dialects: Kunda-Nsenga, Ngoni (Mpezeni), Nsenga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41) Comments: Distinct from Senga dialect of Tumbuka [tum]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nyamwanga
[mwn] East Northern Province. 140,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 135,000 Nyamwanga, 4,220 Tambo (2010 census). Population total all countries: 227,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ichinamwanga, Inamwanga, Mwanga, Namwanga Dialects: Iwa, Tambo (Tembo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.22)

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Nyiha
[nih] East Northern Province and northeast Eastern Province, near Malawi border, Isoka and Chama districts. 356,000 in Zambia (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ishinyiha, Nyika, Nyixa Dialects: Nyika, Wandya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.23) Comments: May be the same as Lambya [lai] of Tanzania and Malawi. Different from Nyika [nyf] (Nika, Giryama) of Kenya.

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Nyika
[nkv] Northern Province, Isoka district, Mulekatembo village area. 5,000 in Zambia (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinyika, Kinyika Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.23)

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Pidgin Bantu
[fng] Towns and mining areas. L2 users: 5,100 in Zambia (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Basic Zulu, Chikabanga, “Fanagalo” (pej.), “Fanakalo” (pej.), “Fanekolo” (pej.), “Isikula” (pej.), Isilololo, Isipiki, Lololo, Piki Dialects: Cikabanga. Classification: Pidgin, Zulu based Comments: Rejected by most Africans because it was imported from Zimbabwe and South Africa by Europeans who did not want Africans to learn English (Adler 1977).

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Sala
[shq] South central Central Province. 23,500 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Intelligible of Tonga [toi] and possibly Ila [ilb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.631)

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Settla
[sta] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kisetla, Kisettla Classification: Pidgin, Swahili based Comments: Limited vocabulary and grammar. May also be in Kenya.

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Shona
[sna] Central Province, Mumbwa district, Gova near Zimbabwe border. 12,700 in Zambia (2010 census). Several thousand Shona in Mumbwe. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chishona Dialects: Korekore (Budya, Goba, Gova, Gowa, Korikori, Makorekore, Northern Shona, Wakorikori). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10) Comments: Korekore is the main dialect in Zambia, with subdialect Goba.

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Simaa
[sie] Western Province, Western Lozi-Luyana area. 16,700 (2010 census). 1,980 Imilangu, 9,300 Koma, 2,870 Mwenyi, 2,530 Simaa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Imilangu, Liyuwa, Makoma (Koma), Mulonga, Mwenyi, Nyengo, Simaa. Imigangu may be a dialect of Luyana [lyn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.35)

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Soli
[sby] Central Province, east of Lusaka. 34,100 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chisoli Dialects: A more distinct language or dialect of the Tonga group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.62)

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Swahili, Congo
[swc] Northern Province, Kaputa and Mporokoso districts; Copperbelt Province, Masaiti district. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40)

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Taabwa
[tap] Northwest Northern Province. 31,600 in Zambia (2010 census). 4,120 Shila, 27,500 Taabwa (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ichitaabwa, Rungu, Tabwa Dialects: Shila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.41) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tonga
[toi] Southern and Western provinces. With Ila [ilb] it predominates the south. 1,330,000 in Zambia (2010 census), increasing. 55,600 Toka-Leya, 1,270,000 Tonga (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,467,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Southern and Western provinces. Alternate Names: Chitonga, Plateau Tonga, Zambezi Dialects: Chitonga, Leya, Mala, Shanjo (Sanjo), Toka (Southern Tonga), Twa of Kafwe (Kafue Twa), We (Valley Tonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64) Comments: Different from Tonga [tog] of Malawi, Tonga [toh] of Mozambique, or Tsonga (Tonga) [tso] of Mozambique.

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Totela
[ttl] Southeast Western Province, north of Subia. 1,120 in Zambia (2010 census). Population total all countries: 1,220. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Echitotela Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.41)

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Tumbuka
[tum] Northeast Eastern Province. 366,000 in Zambia (2010 census). 79,500 Senga, 285,000 Tumbuka, 2,000 Yombe (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chitumbuka, Tambuka, Tew, Timbuka, Tombucas, Tumboka Dialects: Chikamanga (Henga, Kamanga), Chipoka, Chitumbuka, Fililwa (Filirwa), Fungwe, Hewe (Hewa), Kandawire, Nenya, Ngoni (Magodi), Nthali, Senga, Wenya, Yombe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Tumbuka (N.21) Comments: Senga dialect is distinct from Nsenga [nse] of Petauke District.

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Yao
[yao] Eastern Province, Chipata district, Kapata township; Katete district. 200 families or more in the 1970s (F. Banda). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chichawa, Chiyao, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao Dialects: Makale (Cimakale), Massaninga (Cimassaninga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21) Comments: Muslim.

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Yauma
[yax] Western Province, southwest corner, Kwando river area. 5,100 in Zambia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.16)

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Zambian Sign Language
[zsl] Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Deaf sign language

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