Zimbabwe

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Barwe
[bwg] Manicaland, Nyanga district, Nyamaropa area, Mukwewa, Mukatsa, Mashumba, Sangoma, and Mbiriyade wards; Mashonaland East, Mudzi district. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: ChiBarwe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44)

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Chichewa
[nya] 252,000 in Zimbabwe (1969 census). Ethnic population: 981,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinyanja, Nyanja Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja (N.31)

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Dombe
[dov] Hwange District, Lukosi area. 5,430 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly has Nambya [nmq] influences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64)

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English
[eng] 250,000 in Zimbabwe (Crystal 2003). L2 users: 5,300,000 in Zimbabwe (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Kalanga
[kck] Southwest of Bulawayo and Botswana border area. Most Kalanga are in Zimbabwe; most Lilima in Botswana. 700,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Population total all countries: 850,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bakaa, Chikalanga, Ikalanga, Kalana, Kanana, Makalaka, Sekalaña, Tjikalanga, Wakalanga, Western Shona Dialects: Jawunda, Lemba (Remba), Lembethu (Rembethu), Lilima (Humbe, Limima), Nyai (Abanyai, Banyai, Rozvi, Wanyai), Peri, Pfumbi, Romwe, Talahundra, Twamamba (Xwamamba). Talahundra has no remaining speakers. Peri are an ethnic group of Birwa and Tswapong assimilated into Kalanga and speak the Lilima dialect. Humbe are ethnically different from the Lilima but now share the same language. Reportedly similar to Karanga, Zezuru, and Shangwe dialects of Shona [sna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.16)

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Kunda
[kdn] Mwazam’tanda river area. 145,000 in Zimbabwe (2000). Population total all countries: 157,260. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikunda, Cikunda Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Nyungwe [nyu] than to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42) Comments: Different from Kunda which is a dialect of Chichewa [nya].

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Lozi
[loz] 70,000 in Zimbabwe (1982). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rotvi, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Lozi (K.21)

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Manyika
[mxc] Manicaland Province and adjacent areas, northeast of Umtali. 861,000 in Zimbabwe (2000). Population total all countries: 1,025,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamanyeka, Chimanyika, Manika, Wamanyika, Wanyika Dialects: Bocha (Boka), Bunji, Bvumba, Domba, Guta, Here, Hungwe, Jindwi, Karombe, Nyamuka, Nyatwe, Unyama. A bit more divergent from Shona [sna] than the Karanga, Zezuru, and Korekore dialects. Partially intelligible with Shona. Lexical similarity: 74%–81% with Ndau [ndc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13)

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Nambya
[nmq] Matabeleland North Province, primarily Hwange district; also, Lupane and Binga districts; Bulawayo. 90,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Population total all countries: 105,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinambya, Nambzya, Nanzva Dialects: None known. Slight pronunciation difference in Jambezi area. Reportedly most similar to Kalanga [kck]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.16) Comments: Glossonym: Nanzva by the Ndebele. Ethnonym: Banyai. Christian.

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Ndau
[ndc] South of Umtali, Melsetter area. 800,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona Dialects: Changa (Chichanga, Chixanga, Shanga), Garwe, Tonga (Abatonga, Atonga, Batoka, Batonga, Watonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.15) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndebele
[nde] Matabeleland, Bulawayo area. 1,550,000 in Zimbabwe (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 1,572,800. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Isinde’bele, Ndebele of Zimbabwe, Northern Ndebele, Sindebele, Tabele, Tebele Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Zulu [zul]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.44) Comments: Different from Ndebele [nbl] of Transvaal, South Africa.

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Nsenga
[nse] 16,100 in Zimbabwe (1969 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Cinsenga, Senga Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41) Comments: Different from Senga dialect of Tumbuka [tum] of Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania.

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Pidgin Bantu
[fng] L2 users: Several hundred thousand in Zimbabwe (Reinecke et al. 1975). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: “Fanagalo” (pej.), “Fanakalo” (pej.), “Fanekolo” (pej.), “Isikula” (pej.), Isilololo, Isipiki, Lololo, Piki Dialects: Chilapalapa. Classification: Pidgin, Zulu based

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Shona
[sna] Mashonaland, central, and widespread. 10,700,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). 4,500,000 Karanga (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,700,000 Korekore (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 3,200,000 Zezuru (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,300,000 Shona. Population total all countries: 10,741,700. L2 users: 1,800,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne 2000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Chishona, “Swina” (pej.), Zezuru Dialects: Hwesa, Karanga (Chikaranga), Korekore (Goba, Gova, Northern Shona, Shangwe), Zezuru (Bazezuru, Bazuzura, Chizezuru, Harava, Hera, Mazizuru, Shawasha, Vazezuru, Wazezuru). Subdialects: Karanga: Duma, Jena, Mhari (Mari), Ngova, Nyubi, Govera; Korekore: Budya, Gova, Tande, Tavara, Nyongwe, Pfunde, Shan Gwe; Zezuru: Shawasha, Gova, Mbire, Tsunga, Kachikwakwa, Harava, Nohwe, Njanja, Nobvu, Kwazwimba (Zimba); Shona: Toko, Hwesa. Rozvi (Rozwi, Ruzwi, Chirozwi) speak Karanga dialect. Ndau [ndc] and Manyika [mxc] are partially intelligible of Shona. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonga
[toi] 137,000 in Zimbabwe (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chitonga, Zambezi Dialects: Chitonga, Leya, Toka, We. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64) Comments: Different from Tonga [tog] of Malawi, Tonga [toh] of Mozambique, or Tsonga (Tonga) [tso] of Mozambique.

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Tsoa
[hio] 3,540 in Zimbabwe (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chware, Haitshuwau, Hiechware, Hietshware, Koisan, Sarwa, Sesarwa, Tshuwau Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northeast Comments: Nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tsonga
[tso] Southeast near Mozambique border. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gwamba, Shangani, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Xitsonga Dialects: Bila (Vila), Changana (Changa, Hanganu, Hlanganu, Langanu, Shangaan, Shangana, Shilanganu, Xichangana), Jonga (Djonga, Dzonga), Ngwalungu (Shingwalungu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.53)

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Tswa
[tsc] South. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Shitshwa, Tshwa, Xitshwa Dialects: Hlengwe (Makakwe-Khambana), Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.51)

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Tswana
[tsn] 29,400 in Zimbabwe (1969 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Beetjuans, Chuana, Chwana, Coana, Cuana, Sechuana, Tshwana Dialects: Ngwatu (Mangwato), Tlhaping. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31) Comments: Spoken by the Bakaka.

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Venda
[ven] South-southeast, South Africa border area. 84,000 in Zimbabwe (1989). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cevenda, Chivenda, Tshivenda Dialects: Phani, Tavhatsindi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Venda (S.21) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zimbabwe Sign Language
[zib] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zimsign Dialects: Masvingo School Sign, Zimbabwe Community Sign, Zimbabwe School Sign. Masvingo sign language is different from that used in other schools. School languages differ from those used by adults outside. Inherent intelligibility unclear. Some educators desire standardization. Possible relationships to sign languages from Germany, Ireland, Australia, England, South Africa. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: The deaf community is strong in terms of individual identity. The deaf focus their lives around deaf social networks and activities.

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