Zimbabwe

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Barwe
[bwg] Manicaland province: Nyanga district, Nyamaropa area, Mukwewa, Mukatsa, Mashumba, Sangoma, and Mbiriyade wards; possibly in Mashonaland East province: Mudzi district. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: ChiBarwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44).

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Chichewa
[nya] Mashonaland Central province; possible communities in Harare and other urban areas. 252,000 in Zimbabwe (1969 census). Ethnic population: 981,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chinyanja, Nyanja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja (N.31). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dombe
[dov] Matabeleland North province: Hwange district, Lukosi area; southwest of confluence of Zambezi and Shangani rivers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly has Nambya [nmq] influences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64).

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English
[eng] 250,000 in Zimbabwe (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 5,300,000 in Zimbabwe (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kalanga
[kck] Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North provinces; southwest of Bulawayo and Botswana border area. 700,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Total users in all countries: 850,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bakaa, Chikalanga, Ikalanga, Kalana, Kanana, Makalaka, Sekalaña, Tjikalanga, Wakalanga, Western Shona. Dialects: Lilima (Humbe, Limima), Nyai (Abanyai, Banyai, Rozvi, Wanyai), Peri, Talahundra, Romwe, Lemba (Remba), Lembethu (Rembethu), Twamamba (Xwamamba), Pfumbi, Jawunda. Talahundra has no remaining speakers. Peri are an ethnic group of Birwa and Tswapong assimilated into Kalanga and speak the Lilima dialect. Humbe are ethnically different from the Lilima but now share the same language. Reportedly similar to Karanga, Zezuru, and Shangwe dialects of Shona [sna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.16). Comments: Most Kalanga are in Zimbabwe; most Lilima are in Botswana.

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Kunda
[kdn] Mashonaland Central province; Mashonaland West province: Hurungwe district; Mwazam’tanda river area. 145,000 in Zimbabwe (2000). Total users in all countries: 157,260. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikunda, Cikunda. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Nyungwe [nyu] than to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42). Comments: Different from Kunda which is a dialect of Chichewa [nya].

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Lozi
[loz] Matabeleland North province: Zambia border west of Victoria Falls. 70,000 in Zimbabwe (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rotvi, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Lozi (K.21).

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Manyika
[mxc] Manicaland province: Nyanga, Makoni, Mutasa, and Mutare districts, northwest of Umtali; Mashonaland East province: small border areas. 861,000 in Zimbabwe (2000). Total users in all countries: 961,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bamanyeka, Chimanyika, Manika, Wamanyika, Wanyika. Dialects: Bocha (Boka), Bunji, Bvumba, Domba, Guta, Here, Hungwe, Jindwi, Karombe, Nyamuka, Nyatwe, Unyama. A bit more divergent from Shona [sna] than the Karanga, Zezuru, and Korekore dialects. Partially intelligible with Shona. Lexical similarity: 74%–81% with Ndau [ndc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13).

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Nambya
[nmq] Matabeleland North province: primarily Hwange district; Lupane and Binga districts; Bulawayo. 90,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Total users in all countries: 105,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banyai, Chinambya, Nambzya, Nanzva. Dialects: None known. Slight pronunciation difference in Jambezi area. Reportedly most similar to Kalanga [kck]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.16). Comments: Christian.

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Ndau
[ndc] Manicaland province: south of Umtali, Melsetter area; Masvingo province: Bikita district. 800,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona. Dialects: Changa (Chichanga, Chixanga, Shanga), Garwe, Tonga (Abatonga, Atonga, Batoka, Batonga, Watonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.15). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndebele
[nde] Matabeleland North and Matabeleland South provinces; Bulawayo area; Midlands and Mashonaland West provinces: Gokwe South, Kwekwe, Gueru, Shurugwi, Mberengwa, and Kadoma districts. 1,550,000 in Zimbabwe (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 1,563,970. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Isinde’bele, Ndebele of Zimbabwe, Northern Ndebele, Sindebele, Tabele, Tebele. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Zulu [zul]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.44). Comments: Different from Ndebele [nbl] of Transvaal, South Africa.

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Nsenga
[nse] Mashonaland Central province: Mozambique border; Rushinga, Mount Darwin, and Muzarabani districts. 16,100 in Zimbabwe (1969 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Cinsenga, Senga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41). Comments: Different from Senga dialect of Tumbuka [tum] of Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania.

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Pidgin Bantu
[fng] Mashonaland Central province; widespread in Shona speaking areas, mining camps, and urban centers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: “Fanagalo” (pej.), “Fanakalo” (pej.), “Fanekolo” (pej.), “Isikula” (pej.), Isilololo, Isipiki, Lololo, Piki. Dialects: Chilapalapa. Classification: Pidgin, Zulu based. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Shona
[sna] Widespread. Mashonaland Central province. 10,700,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). 4,500,000 Karanga (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,700,000 Korekore (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 3,200,000 Zezuru (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,300,000 Shona. L2 users: 1,800,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Total users in all countries: 12,563,100 (as L1: 10,763,100; as L2: 1,800,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Chishona, “Swina” (pej.), Zezuru. Dialects: Karanga (Chikaranga), Zezuru (Bazezuru, Bazuzura, Chizezuru, Harava, Hera, Mazizuru, Shawasha, Vazezuru, Wazezuru), Korekore (Goba, Gova, Northern Shona, Shangwe), Hwesa. Subdialects: Karanga: Duma, Jena, Mhari (Mari), Ngova, Nyubi, Govera; Korekore: Budya, Gova, Tande, Tavara, Nyongwe, Pfunde, Shan Gwe; Zezuru: Shawasha, Gova, Mbire, Tsunga, Kachikwakwa, Harava, Nohwe, Njanja, Nobvu, Kwazwimba (Zimba); Shona: Toko, Hwesa. Rozvi (Rozwi, Ruzwi, Chirozwi) speak Karanga dialect. Ndau [ndc] and Manyika [mxc] are partially intelligible of Shona. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonga
[toi] Matabeleland North province: south shore of Lake Kariba and inland; Mashonaland West province: Kariba district; Midlands province. 137,000 in Zimbabwe (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chitonga, Zambezi. Dialects: Chitonga, Leya, Toka, We. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64). Comments: Different from Tonga [tog] of Malawi, Tonga [toh] of Mozambique, or Tsonga (Tonga) [tso] of Mozambique.

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Tsoa
[hio] Matabeleland South province: Bulilimamangwe district; Matabeleland North province: Tsholotsho and Hwange districts; Botswana border. 3,540 in Zimbabwe (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chware, Haitshuwau, Hiechware, Hietshware, Koisan, Sarwa, Sesarwa, Tshuwau. Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Kalahari Khoe, Northeast. Comments: Non-indigenous. Nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tsonga
[tso] Manicaland province; near Mozambique border. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gwamba, Shangani, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Xitsonga. Dialects: Bila (Vila), Changana (Changa, Hanganu, Hlanganu, Langanu, Shangaan, Shangana, Shilanganu, Xichangana), Jonga (Djonga, Dzonga), Ngwalungu (Shingwalungu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.53). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tswa
[tsc] Manicaland province: southern area; Masvingo province; Matabeleland South province: Beitbridge; Midlands province: Mberengwa. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Shitshwa, Tshwa, Xitshwa. Dialects: Hlengwe (Makakwe-Khambana), Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.51).

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Tswana
[tsn] Matabeleland South province: Beitbridge and Gwanda districts, between Limpopo and Umzingwani rivers. 29,400 in Zimbabwe (1969 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Beetjuans, Chuana, Chwana, Coana, Cuana, Sechuana, Tshwana. Dialects: Ngwatu (Mangwato), Tlhaping. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31). Comments: Spoken by the Bakaka.

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Venda
[ven] Matabeleland South province; Masvingo province: Mwenezi district; Midlands province: Mberengawa district; South Africa border area. 84,000 in Zimbabwe (1989). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cevenda, Chivenda, Tshivenda. Dialects: Phani, Tavhatsindi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Venda (S.21). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zimbabwe Sign Language
[zib] Mashonaland Central province: Muzarabani district, Centenary area. 280,000 (2008 WFD). 280,000 deaf members of the Zimbabwe National Association of the Deaf (2008 WFD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zimsign. Dialects: Zimbabwe School Sign, Masvingo School Sign, Zimbabwe Community Sign. Signing varies significantly in different schools. Masvingo sign language is different from that used in other schools. School languages differ from those used by adults outside. Inherent intelligibility unclear. Dictionary publication intended to bring standardization. Possible influence from several European sign languages. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 15 interpreters, trained by Zimbabwe National Association of the Deaf (2008 WFD).

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