Bali

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A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names
Balinese
Population

3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands.

Location

Bali Province, widespread throughout entire island, including Penida; to east, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Kota Mataram and Lombok Barat regency, west central Lombok island.

Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes).

Typology

SVO; noun head initial; definite affix; causatives; 17 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable; 3 sociolinguistic registers.

Language Development
Grammar. Bible: 1990.
Writing

Balinese script [Bali]. Javanese script [Java], no longer in use. Latin script [Latn], used since early 20th century.

Other Comments

Nusa Penida Island variety associated with Highland Bali dialect. It is a scattering of villages with minimal influence from the former Majapahit Empire. Hindu.

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