Birhor

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Bihor, Birhar, Birhore, Birhul, Mankidi, Mankidia, Mankiria
Population

2,000 (Van Driem 2007). Nomadic habits make assessment difficult. Some estimates as low as 1,000 (Parkin 1991).

Location

Jharkhand, southern Hazaribag, southern Palamau, Singhbhum, and Ranchi districts; Chhattisgarh, Raigarh District; Odisha, Sundargarh, Kalahandi, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, and Sambalpur districts; West Bengal, Puruliya District; Maharashtra.

Language Maps
Language Status

6a (Vigorous).

Dialects

Lexical similarity: 55%–72% with Santhali [sat], Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], and Munda [unx].

Language Use

Vigorous. No indication of language shift. Most domains. Positive attitudes. Also use Sadri [sck], Santhali [sat], Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], Munda [unx], Hindi [hin], or Oriya [ory].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: Below 1%. Literacy rate in L2: 10% Hindi.
Writing
Devanagari script.
Other Comments

A Scheduled Tribe. Traditionally nomadic. Hindu, traditional religion.