400 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2001 J. Edmondson).
Yunnan Province, Dehong prefecture, Luxi county, Santaishan township; Yingjiang and Lianghe counties. Maybe also Myanmar.
Similar to Zaiwa [atb]. Considered by some a Zaiwa dialect.
SOV; only voiceless affricates and stops; no consonant clusters; palatalized and nonpalatalized series of labials and velars; nasal and stop codas; tense-lax and nasal unnasalized vowels; Chinese, Jingpo, Dai, and Burmese loans; tonal, 4 tones, tone sandhi
Home. Used by half the children. Neutral attitudes. All are multilingual, using other languages within the cluster natively, some Chinese, and a local Tai language (Bradley 2007).
Officially classified within Jingpo nationality. Live among the Jingpo majority and wear Jingpo clothing. They regard themselves as different from Zaiwa and Jingpo and have different traditions. Traditional religion.