Carolinian

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Alternate Names
“Gupallao” (pej.), Refalúwasch, Saipan Carolinian, Southern Carolinian
Population

2,420 in Northern Mariana Islands (2000 census). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 2,610.

Location

Widespread.

Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1978, Constitution, Article 22(3)), co-official with English [eng] and Chamorro [cha].

Dialects

None known. Lexical similarity: 95% with Carolinian and Satawalese [stw], 88% with Woleaian [woe] and Puluwatese [puw], 81% with Mortlockese [mrl], 78% with Chuukese [chk], and 74% with Ulithian [uli].

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. All also use English [eng]. All also use Chamorro [cha], on Saipan; many speakers over age 50 speak it with a high level of proficiency.

Language Development
L1 taught, but English is language of instruction. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Newspapers. Videos. Dictionary.
Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

1 of 3 official languages in Northern Mariana Islands (with English [eng] and Chamorro [cha]). Christian.