Alternate Names
“Gupallao” (pej.), Saipan Carolinian, Southern Carolinian

2,420 in Northern Mariana Islands (2000 census). No monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,610.


Saipan and Agrihan islands. Also in United States.

Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1978, Constitution, Article 22(3)), co-official with English [eng] and Chamorro [cha].


Lexical similarity: 95% with Carolinian and Satawalese [stw], 88% with Woleaian [woe] and Puluwatese [puw], 81% with Mortlockese [mrl], 78% with Chuukese [chk], and 74% with Ulithian [uli].

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. All on Saipan also use Chamorro [cha] or English [eng].

Language Development
L1 taught, but English is language of instruction. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Newspapers. Videos. Dictionary.
Latin script.
Other Comments

1 of 3 official languages in Northern mariana Islands (with English [eng] and Chamorro [cha]). Ethnic autonym: Refalúwasch, people of our islands. Christian.