Chippewa

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A language of United States

Alternate Names
Ojibway, Ojibwe, Southwestern Ojibwa
Population

5,000. Ethnic population: 104,000 (1990 census).

Location

Upper Michigan west to Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota.

Language Status

7 (Shifting).

Dialects

Central Minnesota Chippewa, Minnesota Border Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa, Upper Michigan-Wisconsin Chippewa. Turtle Mountain in North Dakota shares features with Central Minnesota. Red Lake includes Northwest Angle on shore of Lake of the Woods. Nett Lake on the Minnesota border is closely related to Lac la Croix (Rainy River Ojibwa of Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb]) in Ontario. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji].

Language Use

Concerted efforts via language teaching in public schools and other efforts to reverse decline. Mainly older adults.

Language Development
Taught in primary schools. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1833–1854.
Writing

Latin script [Latn]. Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics script [Cans], no longer in use.