456,000 in Angola (1991). Total users in all countries: 977,700.
Widespread: Northeast Lunda district; east Bié, west Moxico, and central Cuando Cubango, Cunene, Malanje, Lunda Sul, Lunda Norte.
3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity.
Minungo, Ulanda, Ukhongo.
Home, church, commerce. All ages. Positive attitudes. Many also use Portuguese [por].
Latin script [Latn].
Christian, traditional religion.