456,000 in Angola (1991). Population total all countries: 1,009,780.
Widespread: Northeast Lunda district; east Bie, west Moxico, and central Cuando Cubango, Kunene, Malanje, Lunda Sul, Lunda Norte. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Chokwe), Namibia (Chokwe), Zambia (Chokwe).
3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity.
Minungo, Ukhongo, Ulanda.
Home, church, commerce. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use many neighboring languages.
Christian, traditional religion.