Chinese, Mandarin

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A language of China

Alternate Names
Beifang Fangyan, Guanhua, Guoyu, Hanyu, Huayu, Mandarin, Northern Chinese, Putonghua, Standard Chinese, Zhongguohua, Zhongwen
Population

889,000,000 in China (2013), increasing. 70% of Chinese language users speak a Mandarin dialect as L1. L2 users: 178,000,000 in China. Total users in all countries: 1,090,951,810 (as L1: 897,071,810; as L2: 193,880,000).

Location

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: northwest; Guizhou province; Hubei province: except southeast corner; Hunan province: northwest; Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Widespread north of Changjiang river, from Qiujiang (Jiangxi) to Zhenjiang (Jiangsu).

Language Status

1 (National). De facto national language.

Dialects

Huabei Guanhua (Northern Mandarin), Xibei Guanhua (Northwestern Mandarin), Xinan Guanhua (Southwestern Mandarin), Jinghuai Guanhua (Eastern Mandarin, Jiangxia Guanhua, Lower Yangze Mandarin). Speakers of Kokang variety in Myanmar are reportedly most similar to the dialect spoken in Yunnan Province, China. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho].

Typology

SVO; prepositions; noun head final; 6 full (concrete meaning) word classes; no articles; passives; 24 consonants, 8 vowels, 6 diphthongs; tonal (4 phonemic tones).

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. All ages. Also use English [eng], French [fra], Japanese [jpn], Korean [kor], Russian [rus], Vietnamese [vie].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 91% (2000 census, Han nationality). Official language taught in all schools in mainland China and Taiwan. Taught in secondary schools. Fully developed. Bible: 1874–1983.
Writing

Bopomofo script [Bopo], used since 1913, revised in 1920 and 1932, mainly used in Taiwan. Braille script [Brai]. Han script, Simplified variant [Hans], used since 1956, official in Mainland China (1956) and Singapore (1969), also used elsewhere. Han script, Traditional variant [Hant], used since mid-19th century, official in Taiwan, also used elsewhere. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

There are Mandarin speakers in all 56 official nationalities of China, but the majority in China are classified under Han, Manchu and Hui nationalities. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Confucianist, Daoist, Jewish, Muslim.

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