15,500 in Suriname. 14,400 Aukan, 33 Aluku, 1,160 Paramaccan (1980 census). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 33,500.
Brokopondo district: Sarakreek commune; Commewijne district: Bakkie, Meerzog, and Tamanredjo communes; Marowijne district: Moengo, Patamacca, and Wanhatti communes; Para district: Carolina commune; Sipaliwini district: Tapanahony commune; Aluku dialect: French Guiana border; Paramaccan dialect: Northeast.
Aluku (Aloekoe, Boni), Paramaccan (Pamaka). Ndyuka, Aluku and Paramaccan are highly mutually intelligible dialects; Kwinti [kww] is slightly less intelligible with them.
SVO; prepositions, noun head final, content q-word initial, up to 2 suffixes, clause constituents indicated by word order, passives and voice, tonal, 25 consonant (some rare) and 14 vowel (5 long monophthongs, 5 short monophthongs, 4 diphthongs) phonemes.
The society was formed by escaped slaves. Subsistence and economy is Amerindian; social culture and religion are West African. Aluku has more French influence than Paramaccan does. Spelling of Ndyuka without the initial nasal is considered derogatory. Aukan is English, Aukaans is Dutch. In early 1900s an Aukaner named Afaka developed a syllabic writing system, but few learned to read it, and it was not officially endorsed. 12 clans. In the 1980s and 1990s many went to Paramaribo. Traditional religion, Christian.