40,000 in Kyrgyzstan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 41,900. Ethnic population: 100,000.
Gansu mainly in Prschewalsk and Osh; Shaanxi in Kazakhstan, and Fergana, Uzbekistan. Also in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Ganzu (Gansu), Shaanxi (Shensi), Yage. Shaanxi and Ganzu varieties have difficult mutual inherent intelligibility. Debate over whether Dungan has 3 tones (a merging of 2 standard Mandarin tones) or 4 tones (with only a partial merging of the 2 standard Mandarin tones). Different from Mandarin [cmn] in phonology and lexicon.
Those under 50–55 speak Russian [rus] as L1.
Came from China over 100 years ago. Muslim (Sunni).