40,000 in Kyrgyzstan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 41,900. Ethnic population: 100,000.
Gansu mainly in Prschewalsk and Osh; Shaanxi in Kazakhstan, and Fergana, Uzbekistan.
Ganzu (Gansu), Shaanxi (Shensi), Yage. Shaanxi and Ganzu varieties have difficult mutual inherent intelligibility. Debate over whether Dungan has 3 tones (a merging of 2 standard Mandarin tones) or 4 tones (with only a partial merging of the 2 standard Mandarin tones). Different from Mandarin [cmn] in phonology and lexicon.
Those under 50–55 speak Russian [rus] as L1.
Cyrillic script [Cyrl].
Came from China over 100 years ago. Muslim (Sunni).