A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Dumi Bo’o, Dumi Bro, Hopupo Bro, Lsi Rai, Ro’do Bo’, Sotmali

2,500 (2009 Isilim magazine), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000.


Sagarmatha Zone, north Khotang district, Makpa, Jalapa, Baksila, Sapteshwor, and Kharmi VDCs.

Language Maps
Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality (2002, NFDIN Act, No. 20, Section 2C), Rai nationality.


Kharbari, Lamdija, Makpa. Most similar to Khaling [klr] and Koi [kkt]. Makpa dialect is markedly divergent.


SVO; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, unknown number of suffixes; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; nontonal; 25 consonant and 14 vowel phonemes

Language Use

Pressure to shift to Nepali [npi] in education and communication with outsiders is strong. Few parents teach Dumi to their children or encourage their children to use their language. Home, religion. Mixed use: Friends, work. Young adults and older. Some use among children and adolescents. Most are bilingual in neighboring local languages, then in Nepali [npi].

Language Development
Poetry. Magazines. Dictionary. Grammar.
Devanagari script.
Other Comments

Efforts have been made by some to preserve the language by creating written materials. Traditional religion, Hindu, Christian.