A language of China

Alternate Names
Ewenk, Ewenke, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Owenke, Solon, Solong, Sulong, Suolun

11,000 in China (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 17,130. Ethnic population: 30,500 (2000 census).


Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hulunbuir banners; Ewenki, Moriadawa, Oronchon, Chen Bargu, Arong, Ergune East, and Huisuomu; Heilongjiang Province, Nale prefecture; a few in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Also in Mongolia, Russian Federation, United States.

Language Status

7 (Shifting).


Aoluguya (Olguya), Chenba’erhu (Old Bargu), Haila’er, Huihe (Hoy), Morigele (Mergel). Standard dialect is Huihe. Dialectal differences within Evenki are small and the case for regarding Evenki and Orochen as separate languages is weak (Salminen 2007).

Language Use

Other speakers in the area also use Evenki. All domains. Very few children except among the Khamnigan. Positive attitudes. Bilinguals use Mongolian [mvf], Daur [dta], Chinese [cmn], or Oroqen [orh] as L2. Written Mongolian and Chinese used as literary languages. Herdsmen use Mongolian as L2; farmers use Chinese.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 96%, literacy in any language (2000 census, Ewenki nationality). Radio programs. TV. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1995.
Cyrillic script.
Other Comments

Officially classified within Ewenki nationality. Ethnic autonym: Solon in China, but also now use the official name Ewenke. Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

Also spoken in:

Expand All Collapse All