Fulfulde, Maasina


A language of Mali

Alternate Names
Macina, Peul

1,000,000 in Mali (2007 S. Crickmore). Population total all countries: 1,008,500.


Widespread in central Mali; Koulikoro Region, Sikasso except southwest regions, Segou except southeast; Mopti Region north of Mopti city; Toumbouctou Region, Youvarou, Niafunke, Dire, and Gourma-Rharous circles. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana.

Language Status

4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1).


Eastern Macina, Western Macina. Some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships.

Language Use

All domains. Positive attitudes. Also use Bamanankan [bam].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 5% (2007 S. Crickmore). Literacy rate in L2: 5% in Bambara [bam] (2007 S. Crickmore). Taught in primary schools. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 2005.
Arabic script, Maghribi and Naskh styles. Latin script.
Other Comments

Maasina in Mali is a major Fula geopolitical state. Ethnonym: Fulbe in Fulfulde [ffm]; Fulani in English. Glossonym: Peul or Toucouleur in French. Muslim, Christian.

Also spoken in:

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