Had tens of thousands of primary users; hundreds of thousands of L2 users.
Gauteng Province, Johannesburg area, Pretoria, Bloemfontein and other cities.
8b (Nearly extinct).
Originated in gold mines in Transvaal from 1886. Creolized by 1930. Used until the 1970s or 1980s.
‘Tsotsitaal’, speech of a young gang member, criminal, or thug.