L2 users: Several hundred thousand L2 speakers in South Africa (Reinecke et al. 1975).
3 (Wider communication).
Zambia dialect is called Cikabanga; in Zimbabwe, it is called, Chilapalapa. Influenced by Shona [sna] in Zimbabwe. About 70% of the vocabulary in Zimbabwe comes from Zulu [zul], 24% from English [eng], 6% from Afrikaans [afr]. Influenced by Bemba [bem] in Zambia. Lexical similarity: 70% with Zulu [zul], 24% with English [eng], 6% with Afrikaans [afr].
Used widely in towns and gold, diamond, coal, and copper mining areas. Second language only.
Originated in 19th century. “Fanagalo” and most or all other names are pejorative.