Garhwali

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Girwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali
Population

2,920,000 (2000 survey).

Location

Uttarakhand; Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Rudraprayag districts; Himachal Pradesh.

Language Maps
Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Badhani, Bangani, Bhattiani, Chandpuri, Dessaulya, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Jaunpuri, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Nagpuriya, Parvati, Rathi, Ravai, Salani (Pauri), Srinagari, Tehri (Gangapariya). Jaunsari [jns] is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they cannot understand it. Parvati dialect also reportedly not mutually intelligible; Srinagari is literary standard; Pauri generally regarded as the sweetest; Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity: 53%–84% among dialects; 54%–69% with Hindi [hin], 55%–66% with Kumaoni [kfy]. The divergent dialect varieties of Bangani, Parvati, and Ravai are no more similar to Western Pahari varieties than to Garhwali.

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

Vigorous. Home, village. All ages. Positive attitudes. Almost everyone uses some Hindi [hin] with more fluency among the men, educated and youth; Hindi used in the market. Used as L2 by Gujari [gju], Jad [jda], Rongpo [rnp].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 72% for Uttarakhand (2001 census). Older women lack literacy. Poetry. Magazines. Radio programs. NT: 1827–1994.
Writing

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Jaunpuri and Ravai dialects are culturally similar to Jaunsari and distinct from Garhwali. Castes are Brahmin, Rajput, Harijan. Hindu, traditional religion.