Gurung, Eastern

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A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Daduwa, Gurung, Tamu Kyi
Population

227,000 (2007), decreasing. 326,000 all Gurung languages in Nepal (2011 census). 23,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 544,000. L2 users: 18,918 L2 speakers of all Gurung languages. Mainly occupational castes who live in and serve the Gurung communities (1991 census).

Location

Gandaki Zone, Lamjung, Tanahu, and west Gorkha districts. Possibly Manang district.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Gurung.

Dialects

Gorkha Gurung, Lamjung Gurung, Tamu Kyi. Eastern and Western Gurung [gvr] do not have adequate intelligibility to handle complex and abstract discourse. Daduwa town in Lamjung District seems central linguistically.

Typology

SOV; postpositions; noun head final; genitives, adjectives, relative clause precede noun heads; numerals after noun heads; rising intonation in bipolar questions; no noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix on negative verbs; up to 2 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; case of noun phrase shown by preposition; no subject or object referencing in verbs; split ergative system according to tense; causatives; benefactives; aspect; no passives or voice; 24 consonant and 5 vowel phonemes; CV, CCV, CCCV; tonal: voice quality or register is part of tone system.

Language Use

Children and young people use Gurung less frequently than those who are older. Passed down only a little from generation to generation (UNESCO). Mixed use: Home, friends, religion, work, education. Some use among all ages. School graduates use some English [eng]. Also use Lhomi [lhm], Nepali [npi].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 30%. Literacy rate in L2: 30%. Radio programs. Bible portions: 1994.
Writing

Devanagari script [Deva]. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Buddhist, Hindu.