Guaraní, Paraguayan

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A language of Paraguay

Alternate Names
Avañe’e, Guaraní
Population

4,650,000 in Paraguay (1995), decreasing. No monolinguals (2002 census). Total users in all countries: 4,850,000.

Location

Widespread.

Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, No. 4251, Language Law, Article 3).

Dialects

Jopará (Yopará). One Chiripá speaker [nhd] indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him. Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish [spa] loanwords, used by 90% of the population in Asunción area. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chiriguano [gui], 75% with Mbyá [gun]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn].

Typology

SVO; postpositions; noun head initial; dual and trial numbers; no articles; verb affixes mark person, number, object; 19 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes; non-tonal; stress on final vowel or diphthong; nasal harmony; inclusive/exclusive pronouns.

Language Use

52% of rural Paraguayans bilingual in Guaraní. Home, friends, religion; mixed use: Work, education. All ages. Many also use Spanish [spa].

Language Development
Used extensively in bilingual education. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Poetry. Newspapers. New media. Radio programs. Films. TV. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1997.
Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian.